5722-SS1 IBM Operating System/400 (OS/400)

IBM U.S. Sales Manual
Revised:  February 12, 2003.

IBM U.S. Product Life Cycle Dates


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With the latest release of Operating System/400 (OS/400) V5R2, the iSeries delivers self-managing, mainframe-class technology -- simplicity to an otherwise complex world.


OS/400 V5R2 features many enterprise class data-center management capabilities and makes managing IT environments simple, whether you run a Model 890 or a Model 270.

Your benefits include the flexibility to use powerful functions such as dynamic logical partitioning, iSeries Navigator with extensive graphical systems management tools, integrated DB2 UDB for iSeries database, and the ability to manage and allocate resources to a variety of workloads based on business priorities.

High Availability

V5R2 extends many of the virtualization technologies available on the iSeries to further assist clustering and business continuity solutions, including the ability to extend switched disk cluster services to support database objects.

In addition to advancing our storage management and availability solutions, DB2 UDB for iSeries now has greatly enhanced support for open standards with much greater compatibility between DB2 UDB for iSeries on OS/400 and our other IBM DB2 UDB platforms.

Further Management Flexibility

OS/400 V5R2 delivers on IBM's commitment to provide self-managing solutions through the industry's first implementation of Enterprise Identity Mapping (EIM), a Project eLiza initiative. Project eLiza is IBM's approach to creating a self-managing, autonomic computing environment.

The iSeries is well poised to provide a reliable, integrated, and highly available Web serving environment. The investment in OS/400 continues. With the deployment of technologies such as Apache, XML, Java, and Linux, the proprietary locks on serving Web applications are broken.

The following description of OS/400 includes functions announced in previous versions of OS/400.

OS/400 gives you one of the most flexible application environments in the industry with support for Linux, Lotus Domino, Java, Microsoft Windows, UNIX, and iSeries applications, combining high availability with superior workload management and logical partitions.

With OS/400, a business can simply and rapidly deploy e-business applications with seamless integration of existing applications and data. With extensions to its robust security and networking options, OS/400 enables business-to-business connectivity through the supply chain and to customers.

The face of OS/400 is forever changed with extensive graphical interface enhancements providing visualization, wizards, and integration for simplicity of advanced operations from PCs and pervasive or mobile devices. Operating your iSeries server has never been this simple.

OS/400 and iSeries deliver robust reliability and scalability for the fast growing, open-source Linux environment. Now the next generation of Web-enabled Linux applications can be quickly deployed and managed in a single, partitioned server alongside current business applications.

With dynamic and granular logical partitions, OS/400 makes it easier than ever to manage multiple applications in a single server. Also, iSeries can now provide a storage area network for directly attached Windows 2000 Servers.

A new high-availability options include faster, less expensive system- to-system clustering options and the ability to switch applications, data, and resources between two iSeries servers.

In addition, OS/400 includes a broad range of enhancements for e-business and application enablement, security, TCP/IP, database, Java, directory services, OS/400 PASE, Internet printing, and many more.
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The IBM Operating System/400 licensed program provides system support for all models of IBM iSeries and AS/400 RISC systems. The single Operating System spanning all models of hardware represents a significant protection of customer investment in skills and applications. OS/400 benefits are:

         Supports the highest number of commercial host and client/server business applications (including 64-bit) available in the industry.

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Single Integrated Operating System for All Models:

All functions of the OS/400 follow a consistent design philosophy; this consistency is one of the cornerstones of iSeries and AS/400 ease- of-use. The ease-of-use translates into higher productivity for its users and easier systems management. The Operating System/400 licensed program includes everything described in this document. Some important characteristics are:

         Object-Oriented Architecture

All system and user resources are stored on the system as "objects," having a consistent architecture. Every object includes a description containing such information as the name of the creator and current owner, date created, object size (in bytes), date of last save, date of last reference, volume identifier of the media on which the save occurred, and text describing the object.

A library is a directory to objects (for example, programs and files), allowing a convenient grouping of the objects for either application or control purposes. Options exist to display, delete, or change objects in a library or to move or copy an object from one library to another. This function makes systems management of authorization to objects easier. The normal method of processing is to use a list of libraries to control how the system accesses objects. A library can also be secured to prevent unauthorized users from accessing any objects.

Object placement on different disk units is controlled by the system. The auxiliary storage disk units contribute to an overall pool of storage called single-level storage. It is not necessary to be concerned with the size of individual objects or where they are placed; the libraries are used to locate any object. The architecture provides additional disk allocations automatically as an object (for example, a physical or logical file) grows in size. You need to monitor only the overall use of auxiliary storage. This contributes significantly to the ease of operating the iSeries or AS/400 system. Auxiliary storage capacity can be added as needed without changing current application programs.

Messages are displayed for various system and user operations. Message handling functions allow feedback for successful operations or to identify error conditions. Messages can be defined and sent between users, between users and applications, or between applications. Message replies can be sent; a "break" option allows immediate interruption of the end user's activities.

The system supports multiple levels of job accounting and captures job-related information through the assignment of account codes to users. The accounting information on defined units of work is recorded in a journal receiver and may be accessed and processed by user-written programs.

The operating system supports use of:

o        Tape and diskette devices for data interchange and save/restore functions. A high level language (HLL) program or the copy command can read or write directly to a specific device.

Interactive applications are supported by a screen definition language that provides greater flexibility in designing the "look and feel" of interactive interfaces. In addition, many attributes of the screen can be controlled outside application programs to simplify the development effort and improve programmer productivity (for tasks like validation of keyed input and punctuation of numeric output). Cursor-sensitive help information may be designed into user applications, including use of hypertext and index search function that allows easy access to descriptions of system functions.

The operating system supports local and global data area objects that allow storage of up to 2,000 bytes of information. Global data areas can be accessed and updated by various programs within a single job or across jobs. A local data area can also be used to pass information between programs operating within a job or to programs the job has submitted to batch. Data areas are also directly supported by some HLLs.

The operating system supports a call interface to send and receive information from a data queue object. This is designed to handle job-to- job communication with a high volume of requests.

The work management function eases the job of systems management by giving the operator control of the activities of a job and of its performance characteristics. Work management supports concurrent execution of batch jobs, interactive jobs, and non-conversational transactions on the system. Each job is protected from other jobs on the system; however, job-to-job communication is allowed.

Different levels of interfaces to work management allow users to operate with the system defaults or tailor specific functions. Automatic tailoring of the execution environment to the CPU model, size of main storage, and configured devices can be done using an option. This automatically-established execution environment should provide good performance for many installations, although better performance may be achieved in some installations by explicitly changing some of the execution environment attributes.

In addition, there is an option to allow the system to dynamically adjust the execution priority of jobs that are forced to wait for an opportunity to use the CPU. This is designed to prevent high priority jobs from monopolizing the CPU at the expense of all other jobs in the system.

Save is the capability of making a backup copy of objects or members on tape, diskette, or online save file. Restore is the capability to copy saved objects back to the original or a different system. Objects saved on V4R5 systems can be restored on V3R2, V4R2, V4R3, and V4R4 systems. The OS/400 save/restore functions are designed to ease the job of systems management.

Saves can be done by library, object, changed object, or for all auxiliary storage, without regard to library or object contents. The system is available when saving documents and folders during normal operations; however, documents being updated during the save process are not saved.

"Save while active" enables objects to be saved while they are being used by applications. The system ensures the entire object saved to the save media is consistent with the status of the object when the save operation was initiated. However, it is the user's responsibility to establish an application synchronization point either by temporarily quiescing the application for the time required to initiate the save operation or using journal/commit for all processes which impact any objects related to the save operation.

Copying to a save file allows an unattended, off-shift save with a subsequent copy to media when the system operator is available.

Key to convenient system management is the capability to power on the system manually or automatically, at a specific time of day, and from a remote location. Power down of the system can be done by a command executed interactively or under program control.

Up to 16 different functions can be active as a result of a single sign-on to a work station. To switch from one function to another requires pressing an "interrupt" key and then selecting a new function from a menu. This can significantly increase the productivity of users who perform a variety of tasks of short duration (for example, interrupting an order entry application to switch to an unrelated inquiry application to answer a telephone request). It is also possible to sign on to the same workstation a second time and have two different sessions active, with up to 16 active functions in the second session.

A user can manually collect system performance data for a single time period or automatically collect data on a weekly schedule using a set of commands/menus. This systems management function provides data to assist the user in workload scheduling, system tuning, performance reporting, performance-problem analysis, and capacity planning. The user can also work with this data using the Performance Tools for iSeries licensed program.

In addition, Performance Management/400 (PM/400), can be used to help plan for and manage the growth and performance of the system. It gathers performance measurement information and produces trend reports to help the customer decide when a hardware upgrade is warranted. Additional analysis of PM/400 data is provided by IBM for a fee.

For example, the data provided by PM/400 can provide the information necessary to tune the system, schedule jobs, manage the overnight workload, and by using the trending data the customer can determine when a resource constraint will occur. The customer can then manage the system so as to provide consistent service levels to their end users.

The copy facility copies data from one file to another. The files may be input from the database, tape, or diskette and be output to the database, tape, diskette or printer. Various options control format and record selection.

Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of queries for selection to execute or delete and to display a list of files available to query.

Some query capability is provided directly by OS/400. It includes processing database files, default output formatting, and windowing left and right for results that exceed the width of the screen. Extensive query capability is available with Query for iSeries (5722-QU1) licensed program and DB2 Query Manager and SQL Development Kit for iSeries (5722-ST1) licensed program.

Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of DFU programs to select for execution, and to display a list of files available to DFU. Some data entry capability is provided directly in OS/400. Functions include processing non-join database files, default selection of fields and record formats, and default audit log listing.

Investment Protection:

OS/400 continues to utilize emerging technologies such as open distributed computing, object-oriented programming, client/server support, multimedia support, and sophisticated application development tools. iSeries Advanced Application Architecture provides the support necessary for observable programs developed on prior versions to be automatically translated the first time they are used on the current version/release. This helps to protect the customer's investment, and their applications can continue to evolve on the iSeries. Selected objects created on the current release can be used on prior releases.

The state-of-the-art code optimization provided by ILE C is important in taking advantage of the performance offered by the 64-bit PowerPC processor. ILE offers many advantages over previous program models, such as binding, modularity, common run-time services, and state-of-the-art code optimization.

This product is Year 2000 Ready. When used in accordance with its associated documentation, it is capable of correctly processing, providing, and/or receiving date data within and between the 20th and 21st centuries provided all other products (for example, software, hardware, and firmware) used with the product properly exchange accurate date data with it.

Adaptive e-transaction Services

With V5R2, we are specifically optimizing the operating system to adapt seamlessly to and process different transaction types, both traditional and e-business -- simple, predictable transactions or multidimensional transactions spawn multiple tasks.

This self-optimizing capability of OS/400 to manage transactions of all types gives you potential performance gains for your Web serving or day-to-day business applications. Furthermore, the iSeries is optimized for highly scalable WebSphere and Java transaction performance with no programming changes required.

Enterprise Identity Mapping (EIM)

For V5R2, self-management capability is enhanced with EIM. EIM gives you and your business partners a technology that maps a user identity on one system to the user's identity on another system. The operating system and applications can equate jsmith on iSeries to janesmith on zSeries.

Identity mapping information is available to customers and ISVs through APIs available on all IBM eServer platforms.

Java/XML Enhancements

New versions of the core Java runtime environment and WebSphere Application Server are now available, as well as J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise Edition) compliance.

J2EE represents an emerging suite of standard requirements placed on Java application servers like WebSphere. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) supports the emerging Java Debug, Performance Profiling, and Wire protocols that enable third-party tools to work with the iSeries JVM, along with iSeries specific instrumentation for memory leak detection and enhanced debug. With this release, the suite of XML enablers can stay in step with the latest XML standards. The support for XML schemas is a key XML enabler extensions provided in this release.

In V5R2, the iSeries supports the industry-standard JavaMail program interface used by applications to access or send e-mail using POP, IMAP, or SMTP protocols.

IBM Toolbox for Java

A new version of the IBM Toolbox for Java is available with V5R2.

Enhancements include:

Network Computing:

The network computing capabilities of the iSeries or AS/400 system allow electronic business to be carried out over the Internet and intranets. The following functions of the OS/400 operating system, in concert with the security and reliability of the iSeries and AS/400 system help make it a market leader in network computing.

Continuous Availability

V5R2 delivers on the promise and potential of switched disk clustering and IASP technology introduced in V5R1. V5R2 extends the IASP support to applications that use the traditional library-based file system and database files.

IASPs enable the segmentation of physical and logical storage into isolated and independent subsets within OS/400 single-level storage. IASPs can be brought online and offline independently on a single system and switched between multiple systems in an iSeries cluster.

The iSeries clustering and IASP capabilities are similar to the High-Availability Cluster Multiprocessing (HACMP) functions on the IBM eServer pSeries.

IASPs provide a data center solution for switching storage that can reduce downtime for operating system and hardware maintenance and unplanned outages, and can also be used for database segmentation and workload switching.

To define switchable independent ASPs, you must have high-availability (HA) switchable resources (OS/400 Option 41) installed on your system.

Enhancements to Cluster Resource Services and APIs help expand the number of Cluster Proven applications, particularly Web serving and legacy/batch applications, and make clustering easier for customers.

Disk Migrate While Active with OS/400 V5R2 further enhances availability by supporting concurrent migration of most of the disk subsystem data during normal operations. This capability is available through the Start ASP Balancing (STRASPBAL) command with options to mark and move data off disk subsystems.

Journal performance can be substantially improved in some environments by installing and enabling the new HA Journal Performance (OS/400 option 42) feature. Two options enhance journal performance:

1.      Journal Caching can help to substantially reduce the number of synchronous disk write operations performed in batch applications and reduces overall elapsed batch execution time.

  1. Journal Standby allows you to achieve fast failover in a high availability environment and enable journal support on your target iSeries machine well in advance of the failover event without incurring the normal performance impact associated with journaling. This should be especially attractive in shops that need 24x7 operation, have lots of journaled tables, and need more rapid failover/role-swap times.


One of the most important developments in business computing in recent years is the arrival of Linux. iSeries V5R2 enhances Linux support with:

In addition, Linux distributions for iSeries include native I/O support for fibre channel and multiport serial device drivers.

iSeries Linux now supports IBM Java 1.3.1.

Logical Partitions (LPAR)

LPAR allows for the simultaneous running of multiple independent systems -- each with processor, memory, and disk resources -- within an iSeries. This capability was first introduced in V4R4, updated in V4R5, and is enhanced with V5R1 and V5R2.

LPAR enhancements for selected iSeries Models 8xx and 270 and AS/400 Models 7xx, 6xx, and Sx0 include:

         Dynamic movement of processor, memory, and interactive performance between partitions running OS/400 V5R1

LPAR enhancements for selected iSeries Models 8xx and 270 include:

         Support for Linux running in a secondary partition.

Linux Logical Partitioning

Logical Partitioning supports additional Linux partitions on iSeries servers with one to four processors. With an OS/400 V5R2 primary partition, the maximum number of Linux partitions per processor is increased. The number of OS/400 partitions per processor remains at four. The maximum number of partitions on iSeries servers with four or more processors remains at 32.

With this enhancement, iSeries servers can support the consolidation of additional workloads and leverage the dynamic processor movement and virtual managed storage support to further reduce management costs.

| | Maximum | Maximum | Maximum |
| iSeries | Total | OS/400 | Linux |
| Processors | Partitions | Partitions | Partitions |
| 1 | 10 | 4 | 9 |
| 2 | 20 | 8 | 19 |
| 4 | 32 | 16 | 31 |
| >=8 | 32 | 32 | 31 |

The increased number of partitions per processor is available on the following servers:

         Model 270 with the following processors:

o        2431

o        2432

o        2434

o        2452

o        2454

These LPAR functional enhancements require an OS/400 V5R1 primary partition.

Multiple OS/400 versions (V4R4, V4R5, and V5R1) are supported within a partitioned environment depending on the iSeries or AS/400 model and processor feature.

Logical partitions let you run multiple independent OS/400 instances or partitions (each with its own processors, memory, and disks) in an n-way symmetric multiprocessing AS/400e 6xx, Sxx, or 7xx model. You can now address multiple system requirements in a single machine to achieve server consolidation, business unit consolidation, mixed production/test environments, and integrated clusters.

Each partition's system values can be set independently. Partitions have different system names and may have a different primary/secondary national language, or be operated using different time zones. This flexibility is ideal for banks and other multinational companies that want to centralize operations in a single location yet retain the national characteristics of each system. Logical partitions are also ideal for companies that want to run mixed interactive and server workloads in a single AS/400. Logical partitions allow the interactive performance of an AS/400 to be flexibly allocated between partitions.

All V4R4 systems have a primary partition with all resources initially allocated to it. Creating and managing secondary partitions is performed from the primary partition. Processors, memory, and interactive performance between partitions can be moved with only an IPL of the affected partitions. IOP resources can be moved without IPL.

Logical partitions operate independently. Communication between partitions is achieved with standard LAN/WAN facilities. You can install OptiConnect software for high-performance communications between partitions with out the need for additional OptiConnect hardware.

OS/400 is licensed once for the entire system by its normal processor group, regardless of the number of partitions. License management across partitions is not supported. OS/400 V4R4, or later, must be installed on each partition. Previous releases are not supported on a logical partition.

Logical Partitioning

OS/400's superior dynamic logical partitioning is enhanced with extensive graphical workload management tools enabling multipartition management with customizable views for enhanced operator productivity. In addition, system administrators can export and save partition configuration data to simplify the management and reconfiguration of partitioned servers.

Logical partitioning supports the IBM iSeries 890. Customers can install OS/400 V5R2 in the primary partition or any secondary partitions. Existing customers with OS/400 V5R1 can add OS/400 V5R2 in secondary partitions to complete their release upgrade tests.

Support for Lotus Domino for iSeries:

Domino for AS/400 is Domino 5.0 release combining the AS/400 system's strengths of integration, ease-of-use, and scalability with the world's leading groupware offering. Domino for iSeries is a full-function Domino server following the Domino architecture. The iSeries system implementation provides significant function and integration with the OS/400 operating system. The Domino software runs as an application on the iSeries system using PowerPC technology and:

Direct access to the DB2 UDB for iSeries database is provided without the need for ODBC drivers. The Notes C and C++ interfaces are provided, enabling AS/400 versions of stand-alone applications, server add-ins, database hook drivers, extension manager hook libraries, and external database drivers. A database driver to access DB2 UDB for iSeries data is shipped with the Domino server. Notes clients with proper authorization can import DB2 UDB for iSeries data directly into Notes documents. Domino for iSeries provides Notes clients with direct access to DB2 UDB for iSeries using an inherent ODBC driver.

Two-way, real-time directory synchronization between the iSeries or AS/400 System Distribution Directory and the Domino Name and Address Book is also provided. Any change to user information in either location is automatically reflected in the other location, minimizing administration costs.

Lotus' Simple Mail Transport Protocol Mail Transport Agent (SMTP MTA) runs on the AS/400 system and is integrated with the AnyMail framework enabling Domino for AS/400 to interact with other mail systems on the AS/400 system.

The scalability of Domino for AS/400 provides an excellent opportunity to consolidate Notes/Domino servers onto a single AS/400 system. Domino for AS/400 supports the advanced services facilities of Domino; up to 30 partitioned servers can be supported on a single system. These partition servers allow multiple instances of the Domino server to be running on a single system, which enables the workload to be split up for various applications. Server reliability improves because of the overall high reliability of the AS/400 system, its mirroring capabilities, and RAID-5 implementation.

Domino for AS/400 is packaged, priced and supported by Lotus and must be purchased through an Authorized Lotus Reseller.

Further information can be found on the Internet at the following Web site:


Support for Lotus Enterprise Integrator for AS/400:

Enterprise Integrator for AS/400 is an optional Lotus program that allows data transfer automation between heterogeneous data sources including: Notes, DB2, Oracle, Sybase, and many 32-bit, ODBC-compliant databases. Enterprise Integrator for AS/400 includes all applicable functions supported in the current NotesPump 2.5 release which is also available on numerous other platforms.

Enterprise Integrator provides pre-established activities that allow a variety of data transfer requests. For example:

These transfer activities can be scheduled, event-driven, or executed ad hoc and are administered using the Enterprise Integrator Administration Notes database. An additional activity provided by Enterprise Integrator for AS/400 allows synchronization of data security mapping between DB2 UDB for AS/400 and Notes databases.

In addition to using Enterprise Integrator's predetermined activities, customized data transfer requests can be written to provide additional data transfer control or manipulation. This is done using the Enterprise Integrator program extensions to LotusScript and the new Enterprise Integrator C APIs. Data source views and fields can be selected using the Enterprise Integrator Administrator database. Web clients can be enabled to submit Enterprise Integrator program activities from any browser.

Enterprise Integrator for AS/400 is packaged, priced and supported by Lotus and must be purchased through an Authorized Lotus Reseller.

Further information can be found on the Internet at the following Web sites:




Java for iSeries

Java is the preferred language for network computing and can be used for stand-alone applications or client/server applications running over the Internet. Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is built into the iSeries Java software and can be used to communicate with the Toolbox for Java support running on any platform.

IBM has integrated a Java-compatible Java Virtual Machine (JVM) under the iSeries Machine Interface (MI) to optimize Java software performance on an iSeries system. In addition, the Developer Kit for Java and Toolbox for Java are included with every OS/400 shipped. They are also preloaded on new iSeries systems but must be separately installed when upgrading to the current OS/400 operating system on existing RISC systems.

Java is a complete computing environment, setting new standards for program portability and programmer productivity. It includes three primary functions and capabilities:

1.      An Object-Oriented Programming Language, developed at Sun Microsystems

  1. A Java Virtual Machine (run-time environment) that can be integrated in Web browsers (such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer), and operating systems (such as OS/400)
  2. A standardized set of Class Libraries (packages), that support:

Java provides an object-oriented programming environment that is dramatically simpler than C++. Other aspects of the iSeries Java implementation provide improved scalability compared to other Java platforms owing to JVM enhancements and synergy with iSeries's object- based architecture.

Java's primary benefit is its ability to develop portable client/server applications using the Internet and intranets, whose "objects" can run on many different platforms in the same network. Java programs are compiled into platform-independent object code, known as byte-codes, which is executed by the runtime support (JVM) on each platform. The iSeries JVM supports three modes of execution:

  1. Interpreted. The byte-codes are sequentially read and executed by the JVM.
  2. Just in Time compilation (JIT). The byte-codes are compiled into machine instructions at runtime, utilizing many optimizations.
  3. Direct Execution (DE). The byte-codes are compiled prior to execution utilizing complex optimizations.

A Java SSL package on iSeries leverages the integrated SSL function built into the iSeries. You can easily build more secure client/server applications using Java. All data exchanged between the client and the server can be encrypted using the SSL protocol.

The Developer Kit for Java facilitates the creation of Java applets, servlets, and full-scale applications. It includes a collection of development tools, help files, and documentation for Java programmers. As Sun Microsystems, Inc. rolls out new Java technologies and provides updates, the Developer Kit will also be updated. iSeries system support of Java will be made available over several releases, and applications written using the Developer Kit are portable.

In V5R1, options for Java 1.1.8 and Java2 Standard Editions (J2SE) 1.2.2 and 1.3.0 are shipped with the Developer Kit for Java, providing concurrent support for all three major versions of Java (1.1, 1.2, 1.3).

This updated version of the Developer Kit for Java includes performance improvements yielding up to 50% improvements over V4R5, including:

Several limits to growth have been enhanced, most notably, the maximum object size has increased from 16 MB to 4 GB (4GB - 8KB).

Operations Navigator enhancements include support for displaying the properties of Java classes and jar files, the ability to compile Java files, interactive support for Input and Output, as well as automating RAWT connections when launching Java programs from Operations Navigator.

For additional JDK support information, including service requirements, refer to the online publication "IBM Developer Kit for Java" available from the iSeries Book Server at URL:

http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/pubs/html/ iseries/infocenter

The IBM Toolbox for Java enables a Java servlet, applet, Java Server Page (JSP), or application to easily access iSeries data. It is a collection of classes that represent iSeries data, providing familiar iSeries client/server program interfaces for Java programs. The Toolbox also provides a set of GUI classes. These classes use the access classes to retrieve data, then present the data to the user.

The Toolbox supports the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) specification. When using the Toolbox functions to access an iSeries system running OS/400 V4R4, or later, an SSL connection can be used providing data encryption and server authentication.

IBM Toolbox for Java provides access to the following iSeries system resources:

The IBM Toolbox for Java includes:

         A user interface framework to provide a productive development environment for building graphical panels. The framework automatically handles the exchange of data. The developer only needs to create one or more data beans and bind them to the panel components using tags defined by the Panel Definition Markup Language (PDML).

The Toolbox runs on Java compatible JVMs running 1.1.8, 1.2.2, or 1.3. Toolbox source is available via the JTOpen project. For more information, access the Toolbox web page at:


Functional enhancements in V5R1 include:

         A new set of classes in the resource package providing a generic framework and consistent programming interface for working with various iSeries objects.

Performance enhancements in V5R1 include:

         The performance of converting text between Unicode and EBCDIC is improved.

HTTP Server for iSeries:

HTTP Server for iSeries provides World Wide Web (WWW) server capability integrated with OS/400 security, enabling exploitation of the Internet for marketing and merchandising. The HTTP Server allows iSeries systems attached to a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet or an intranet, to provide objects at the request of any local or remote Web browser. HyperText Markup Language (HTML) documents, index (directory) files, plain text, video, Java, graphics, and audio objects can be served from iSeries file systems. Multiple HTTP Servers are supported to balance content and workload. A Web browser can be used to administer and configure these servers. With V5R1, two versions of the HTTP server for iSeries are included with the HTTP Server for iSeries product:

         IBM HTTP Server for iSeries, which has shipped with OS/400 since V4R3 and is based on the IBM HTTP (originally Domino Go) server technology.

Detailed product documentation for the HTTP Server for iSeries can be found at

http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/ iseries/software/http/

The IBM HTTP Server for iSeries provides:

         Tracking of WWW activity through the server to identify the audiences accessing the customer server

(1) Approved for export by the U.S. Government.

HTTP Server (powered by Apache) for iSeries

Apache, a freeware HTTP server, is open-source software that implements the industry-standard HTTP/1.1 protocol with a focus on being highly configurable and easily extendible. It is built for several server platforms and distributed under the Apache Software License by the Apache Software Foundation.

The IBM HTTP Server (powered by Apache) for iSeries provides:

         Graphical interface -- a full-function, task-oriented, web-based user interface for administration and configuration of servers, including task-based wizards for configuration ease of use.

(1) Approved for export by the U.S. Government.

IBM WebSphere Application Server for iSeries:

Version 1.1 of the Java-based environment for development and deployment of dynamic, e-business Web sites is available as a feature of OS/400. WebSphere Application Server builds dynamic Web applications when using WebSphere Studio Pack, a set of popular development tools.

It also includes these functions:

Network Security:

Security Enhancements

For V5R2, many security enhancements are implemented. These include the following, and are discussed in more detail in the Supplemental Information section:

Support for New Hardware Cryptographic Accelerators

Encryption is a key e-business security mechanism. The Cryptographic Accelerator is targeted to high transaction rate, secure Web applications using SSL, or Transport Layer Security (TLS). When installed, it is automatically used by the system to off-load compute-intensive public-key processing to improve cryptographic performance for transactions using SSL/TLS.

Security Enhancements


In V5R1, we enabled applications on OS/400 to act as a Kerberos client by processing a Kerberos ticket granted by a Kerberos server somewhere in the network. In V5R2, iSeries continues to improve its interoperability with Kerberos environments. Server applications within OS/400 are enhanced to allow OS/400 itself to act as a Kerberos client greatly improving interoperability with Microsoft and other Kerberos-based authentication systems.

Digital Signatures

Digital signatures on OS/400 objects helps enhance the integrity of software and data. Business Partners, customers, and IBM can sign information to provide improved integrity in their products. Digital signatures help to identify data tampering, virus introduction, or any other modification to an object. The signature also helps to identify the originator of the data or software. The infrastructure and APIs for signing some objects, including programs, were provided in V5R1 and OS/400 itself was signed. In V5R2, in addition to support for command objects, support was added to allow non-objects to be signed. This non- object support can be used to write applications that sign items like digital receipts and B2B transactions.

Java Security

Java Generic Security Services (JGSS) is a Java standard (JSR 000072). In V5R2, the APIs are added to the iSeries Developer Kit for Java. The JGSS APIs enable Java applications to access either Java-based or native OS/400 Kerberos (client) security services. JGSS compliments the existing OS/400 GSS support by providing support for Java applications. Integration of JGSS with the existing OS/400 native GSS APIs means better performance, serviceability, and administration.

Java Generic Security Services (JGSS)

Using JGSS, you can write Java applications that make use of Kerberos.

JGSS consists of:

A security framework with a set of APIs allows Java applications to use security services such as authenticating a principal identity, delegating rights to a peer, and applying message confidentiality and integrity. This allows source level portability of applications to different environments.

Security mechanisms, or providers, are used by the framework to provide concrete implementations. An example of a security mechanism is Kerberos V5.

JGSS on OS/400 is shipped with a Java Kerberos provider and an OS/400 provider. The OS/400 provider allows Java applications to utilize the OS/400 Network Authentication Service (NAS) functionality and uses the same NAS configuration files and tools. NAS provides Kerberos functionality to C/C++ programs. NAS also interoperates with Enterprise Identity Mapping (EIM) to provide single sign-on capabilities.

This function is available today via PTFs SI04497 and SI04498.

Firewall Friendly VPN

Network Address Translation, or NAT is a technology used in many networks and firewalls. Until now, NAT did not allow end-to-end security using the IPSec protocol. UDP encapsulated IPSec is a new standards- based protocol that solves this problem. With UDP encapsulation, end-to- end IPSec security is possible to systems anywhere in your network further reducing the risk associated with doing business on the Internet.

IP Networking Security Enhancements

In addition to "Firewall Friendly VPN," several other key enhancements support IP network security. These include:

         Configuring IP packet rules can be a very difficult task, requiring detailed knowledge of how TCP/IP and associated protocols work. In V5R2, wizards added to the packet filtering support in iSeries Navigator allow the most common filtering configurations to be easily configured by even novice-level network administrators.

Transport Layer Security (TLS)/Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) support for server authentication is added to the native FTP Client allowing secure sessions with compatible servers (including the native FTP server with TLS/SSL support added in V5R1). This support allows you to specify whether FTP session data, including the login ID and password used for authentication, is encrypted.

Support for X.509 certificates can be used by the Web Server, Secure Sockets Layer, IPSec, Client Access Express, and other applications. The user interface is easier to use.

Global Server Certificate support is added to the certificate services available on the iSeries and AS/400. The Web Server and other applications use certificates for network and Web-based security.

The following services support SSL:

With SSL support, these services can establish secure communications sessions with their corresponding clients. Data exchanged between the clients and servers are encrypted and therefore not subject to eavesdropping.


Net.Data is a server-side scripting language that extends Web servers by enabling the dynamic generation of web pages using data from a variety of data sources. The data sources can include relational and non- relational database management systems such as DB2, (DRDA)-enabled databases, and flat file data. Net.Data applications can be rapidly built using a scripting language that is simple yet powerful. Net.Data allows reuse of existing business logic by supporting calls to applications written in a variety of programming languages, including Java, C, C++, RPG, COBOL, CL, REXX and others.

Webserver Search Engine:

The iSeries Webserver Search Engine allows you to perform full text searches on html and text files stored in an iSeries file system from any Webbrowser.

The iSeries Webserver Search Engine features include:

         Indexes documents for fast searching - the iSeries Webserver Search Engine indexes html or text files into a format that allows a large number of documents to be searched quickly. Multiple indexes can be created and documents from multiple directories can be placed in a single index.

Any and all of this information can be displayed however the user wishes.

The iSeries Webserver Search Engine can be used in conjunction with or instead of the NetQuestion search engine.

Triggered Cache Manager

Triggered Cache Manager (TCM) provides a mechanism to cache dynamically-generated Web pages. TCM allows a Web designer to build dynamic pages and "push" them to an external cache. TCM controls update of the cached pages, and will only update the cache when the underlying data changes, thereby improving the performance of a Web site. Triggered cache manager is packaged as an option of IBM HTTP Server for iSeries.


NetQuestion is a full-text search engine that builds a global Internet or centralized intranet search service. It can handle the large amounts of information that are typically stored on Web sites. Documents to be indexed by NetQuestion need to be provided in either plain text or text with HTML markup. CGI scripts and HTML forms are provided for search and administration. Administration can also be done, via command line functions.

For all single-byte character languages, NetQuestion features:

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) on the iSeries:

OS/400 provides an LDAP-accessible directory server and corresponding APIs that communicate with other LDAP directory servers. APIs are provided for both OS/400 and Windows applications written in Java, C, and C++. LDAP-enabled applications, such as Internet mail clients, can access, update, and manage the iSeries directory.

You can develop OS/400 applications to use LDAP for managing distributed information across the Internet and intranets using LDAP directories for both IBM and non-IBM platforms. iSeries user information, such as e-mail addresses, is accessible to mail clients and other LDAP applications. The iSeries directory server supports LDAP version 2, which is limited to the IA5 character set (which is comprised of the Latin alphabet and a few additional characters).

Virtual Private Networks:

iSeries virtual private networking support is based on industry standards that include:

The iSeries virtual private network (VPN) solution applies to these environments:

         Intranets - secure connections within an intranet


In Version 5 Release 1, option 33 is renamed to OS/400 Portable Application Solutions Environment (OS/400 PASE). Prior to Version 5 Release 1 Option 33 was named AS/400 PASE.

OS/400 PASE supports the AIX 5L 5.1 application environment, which includes support for 32 and 64-bit applications. Additionally, OS/400 PASE (OS/400 option 33) is now packaged as a no-charge feature of OS/400, enabling use of OS/400 PASE by operating system functions or other IBM software such as Tivoli Storage Manager.

V5R2 OS/400 PASE includes Linux library support based on AIX 5L. Many Linux-developed applications can be ported to the POWER PC architecture through a recompile. Most Linux applications that can be ported to AIX 5L can be easily ported to OS/400 PASE providing a more integrated and scalable solution.

V5R2 includes support to build OS/400 PASE programs without compiling on a separate AIX system. OS/400 PASE (OS/400 option 33) now includes a number of application development utilities such as make, ld (linker), and as (assembler). Header files for OS/400 PASE C and C++ programs are now included in System Openness Includes (OS/400 option 13). OS/400 application developers can compile C and C++ applications using compilers provided separately by IBM. Also, the iSeries System Debugger supports debugging for OS/400 PASE applications. OS/400 PASE can also run many open source tools compiled for AIX PowerPC (including the gcc compiler).

The OS/400 PASE application environment includes PTY/TTY device driver support, which makes it easier to port applications that require terminal support.

V5R2 supports OS/400 PASE programs to launch the iSeries integrated JVM, as well as support for the integrated JVM to run native methods implemented as procedures in an OS/400 PASE executable. This support makes it easier to port AIX applications that use a combination of Java and C/C++ code to OS/400 PASE.

OS/400 PASE is an integrated component of OS/400 that provides in Version 5 Release 1 a subset of AIX 4.3.3 functionality to support running UNIX* applications. OS/400 PASE is supported on all iSeries models, as well as any AS/400e server models 6xx or Sxx, or later.

OS/400 PASE exploits the hardware's capability to switch between OS/400 and AIX runtime modes within an OS/400 job. This allows applications deployed using OS/400 PASE to run directly on the hardware and take advantage of OS/400 services such as file systems, security and DB2 Universal Database. OS/400 PASE applications can also be integrated with Java(**), Lotus Domino and OS/400 Integrated Language Environment (ILE) applications.

OS/400 PASE is not an operating system and does not provide support for developing UNIX applications. Any changes or additions required to port UNIX applications to OS/400 PASE are compiled and linked on a workstation running a level of AIX that is supported by OS/400 PASE.

Applications deployed using OS/400 PASE run in a normal OS/400 job and are managed using standard OS/400 operations. Serviceability, backup and restore, and other administrative tasks are performed using standard OS/400 operations and system management facilities.

Significant enhancements to OS/400 PASE in Version 5 Release 1 include:

         Support of the AIX 4.3 64-bit application model

More information on OS/400 PASE can be found at:

http://www.redbooks.ibm.com (search on PASE)


IBM iSeries Information Center

Client/Server Support:

iSeries system resources are provided for client/server solutions via:

AS/400 Support for Windows Network Neighborhood (AS/400 NetServer):

The AS/400 Support for Windows Network Neighborhood allows personal computers running Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, and Windows 2000 Terminal Server Edition software to seamlessly access data and printers managed by the iSeries or AS/400 system.

This support does not require any additional software to be loaded on the personal computer. It takes advantage of the native file sharing protocol delivered with Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, and Windows 2000 Terminal Server Edition. It does not require any software on the iSeries or AS/400 system other than the OS/400 operating system. The only prerequisites for this support are that the AS/400 system and the personal computer be configured with TCP/IP, and that the file sharing protocol on the personal computer be configured to use TCP/IP.

Any data available through the iSeries Integrated File System (including database, stream files, and CD-ROM) and any Output Queues on the iSeries or AS/400 system can be shared with the network by the iSeries or AS/400 system administrator. All administration of this function is through the iSeries Operations Navigator program.

The AS/400 Support for Windows Network Neighborhood program complies with the "Common Internet File System" (CIFS) standard currently proposed by Microsoft.

AS/400 NetServer

AS/400 NetServer can operate as the Logon Server for Windows clients. The iSeries can be used to authenticate logging onto Windows, provide the home directory, and logon scripts to the Windows user. Additionally, Windows user profiles including Desktop, Start Menu, Favorites, and policies can be stored and retrieved from an iSeries server. A Windows NT or Windows 2000 server is no longer needed in the network to provide these functions.

iSeries has enhanced the allowable characters in a password and the length of a password to be more compatible with Windows. This helps customers who like to have their Windows and iSeries passwords match. AS/400 NetServer also provides support for the NTLMV2 password hash that the Windows PCs can be configured to use to provide better password protection on the network.

User IDs longer than 10 characters are truncated to 10 characters when checking for an iSeries user ID. A userid such as Administrator on Windows would be the same as ADMINISTRA on the iSeries. This should help compatibility between Windows and iSeries user IDs.

An AS/400 NetServer Setup Wizard is part of Operations Navigator that guides you through setting up your AS/400 NetServer based on the types of Client Access clients being used. This Setup Wizard also helps the user configure logon support.

AS/400 NetServer supports access to files larger than 2 GB in the Integrated File System.

Client Access Express for Windows

Client Access Express for Windows provides TCP/IP connectivity to users running Microsoft Windows 95, 98, Me, NT 4.0, and 2000. Client Access Express provides an all-inclusive client solution for accessing and using resources from your Windows desktop or from a Windows server. It includes 5250 emulation, access to DB2(R) Universal Database (TM) (UDB) for iSeries through its Data Transfer, and utilizes IBM iSeries Support for Windows Network Neighborhood (AS/400 NetServer) for working with the OS/400 Integrated File System and printers. It also has a variety of middleware, such as ODBC, for using and developing client applications to access OS/400 resources; and Operations Navigator, the OS/400 GUI, for administering iSeries and AS/400e servers.

Client Access Express also includes PC5250 display and printer emulation and Data Transfer; however, those components can only be used if the Client Access Family product (5722-XW1) is installed on the iSeries server. The other functions of Client Access Express are included with OS/400.

Client Access Express for Windows

This Windows client is designed to take advantage of the latest technologies in the iSeries servers and Microsoft operating systems. Client Access Express (referred to as "Express client") uses the built-in functions of the Windows desktop to enable users to quickly and easily connect to iSeries servers, and also utilizes powerful iSeries functions, such as AS/400 NetServer, to provide PC users network print and file serving capabilities. Some highlights of the Express client content are:

         Runs on PCs having Microsoft Windows 2000, NT 4.0 (Workstation or Server), Me, 98, 95, and NT 4.0 Terminal Server Edition (TSE) operating systems installed. Refer to the following web page for further information on Windows 2000 and Windows Me support:

http://www.ibm.com/eserver/iseries/ clientaccess/win2000.htm

         Supports TCP/IP connectivity

Many customers need PC alternatives that are easy to administer centrally (such as something that can be downloaded into a browser or JVM at each use, but can be maintained on the server). Client Access Express has central administration built into its design. When customers installed the previous Client Access clients, they probably did this by getting the Client Access PC CD-ROM (or creating diskettes) and going to each PC and installing the client code. Since the Express client is exploiting the capabilities of the AS/400 NetServer, any PC running TCP/IP can directly connect to the folder in the iSeries file system where the Express client is installed and start the installation/migration from there. Furthermore, by combining the use of Client Access options (such as silent install, tailored install, CWBBACK, CWBREST), iSeries server administrators can set up the Express client, selecting only those functions they want their users to have; and then users simply make a TCP/IP connection to the server, start a command, and get the Express client installed on their PCs. And once Express is installed on a PC, it will periodically check the server to see if newer code (service packs or new releases) is in the Express folder; and if there is, it will automatically update the end user's PC. The Express client service pack PTFs can be applied to the Client Access Express install image. Then when users install Client Access Express from the server to the PC using AS/400 NetServer, the Client Access Express product with the service pack included can be installed in one step. So although Client Access still ships a PC CD-ROM that contains the Express client software, the need for this PC CD-ROM for install is minimized.


The Express client supports TCP/IP connectivity and uses the standard TCP/IP program shipped with the Microsoft operating systems (other Winsock-compatible stacks can also be used). The Express client provides:

         Simple communications setup. Simply select the Express client application you want to run, and then enter the iSeries server name you want to connect to and your user ID and password. The Express client then initiates a TCP/IP session, and the application is connected to the server.

Additionally, the following environments, which do not actually need Client Access installed on the user desktop, are also supported:

         Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server Edition (TSE) and Windows 2000 Terminal Services: this environment enables the Windows NT or Windows 2000 server to be used as a gateway between end users and the server. This capability is particularly advantageous to Network Station (TM) users who would like to use Client Access functions such as PC5250 and ODBC. For detailed information on environments and functions supported, refer to Information APAR II11373 on the Client Access Web site.

http://www.ibm.com/eserver/iseries/ clientaccess/3tier/


The iSeries server is designed to protect its resources and data by requiring users to provide a valid user ID and password. The Express client uses TCP/IP Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Version 3.0 to encrypt information sent between the iSeries server and the desktop. It also uses iSeries Server Authentication to assure connection to the intended server. SSL encrypts all information sent between the iSeries server and the desktop. The Express client offers the flexibility to choose what is encrypted. For example, you may want to encrypt data transmitted via Data Transfer but find it unnecessary to encrypt data sent to your PC printer via PC5250 printer emulation.

Use of SSL requires that one of the Client Encryption products, 5722-CE2 or 5722-CE3, be installed on the iSeries server, and then installed to the connected Client Access Express PCs.

Client Access Express supports the OS/400 V5R1 password rules, allowing case sensitive user profile passwords up to 128 characters in length with a larger character set.

Network File and Print Serving

AS/400 NetServer is being used to satisfy file and print serving needs for end users. AS/400 NetServer unites Integrated File System (IFS) and iSeries printers into the Microsoft Network Neighborhood. User benefits include increased stability at startup and shutdown of the PC and better control of user visibility to resources. The only directories or printers that can be seen by end users are those set up as "shared" by an administrator or resource owner. NetServer allows the administrator or owner of a resource to control its visibility to end users. Creating a "share" enables viewing of that resource. If no share exists, users will not see the directories or printers.

Desktop users can fully satisfy their file and print serving needs through the AS/400 NetServer function. Therefore, all the file and print serving functions that exist in the other Client Access clients are not included with the Express client. To use the AS/400 NetServer, only the Client for Microsoft Networks (shipped with Microsoft operating systems) needs to be installed on the PC.

AS/400 NetServer file and printer "shares" are easy to create, locate, and manage by using the Operations Navigator printer list and file systems list. The current file shares can be listed separately to make it easy to quickly explore the contents of a file share or map a drive to it. File shares now support EBCDIC to ASCII conversion.

The AFP Workbench Viewer is also provided so iSeries spooled files (AFP and SCS) or PC files (such as GIF, TIFF, and JPEG formats) can be viewed directly by a PC user. The AFP Viewer provides many end-user productivity aids, such as ability to zoom in or search for specific portions of a stored document.

Central Administration of PC Users

Client Access Express was designed with administration in mind. iSeries administrators want to make PC installation easier, control which functions users may install, control which functions users may run, and be able to preconfigure Client Access connections so unskilled users do not need to do configuration. Client Access Express meets these needs by delivering:

Microsoft System Policy Support. Each time a PC is started, system policies are downloaded from a server to the PC and enforced through Microsoft System Policies. Client Access provides policy templates for use with the Microsoft System Policy Editor. Administrators can create, edit, and change policy information and could, for example:

Each time a PC is started, the system policies are downloaded from the server to the PC. Policy restrictions can be enforced on a per user or per PC basis. This function can be used with any supported OS/400 release.

Operations Navigator Application Administration Operations Navigator provides an Application Administration function that can be used rather than Microsoft System Policies for administering the network. Whereas Microsoft System Policy restrictions are downloaded to the desktop and managed through the Microsoft Windows registry, Application Administration restrictions are maintained in the OS/400 user profile, and this customization then "roams" with the user. Administrators can identify...

and can control use of other applications registered to Operations Navigator, such as:

Each time a PC user connects to an iSeries server, Application Administration checks the OS/400 user profile to determine which Client Access functions can be used.

iSeries Server Administration and Operations - Operations Navigator and Management Central

iSeries Navigator

With V5R2, we increase our graphical management capability through iSeries Navigator, formerly called Operations Navigator.

Customer comments have again resulted in improvements to the management of multiple iSeries servers in a network using iSeries Navigator.

Features to improve ease of use and capability, include:

Systems management function delivered in V5R1 via easy-to-use Operations Navigator GUI include:

         Work management (Active jobs, subsystems, job queues, memory pools)

Other ease-of-use initiatives for V5R1 include the addition of numerous GUI extensions to existing Operations Navigator functions, the creation of numerous configuration and administration wizards (many of which are in the new GUI areas listed above), and a new iSeries Information Center -- online documentation available on the Web or CD.

Management Central-Pervasive

Management Central-Pervasive (MC-Pervasive) allows iSeries network administrators to keep an eye on their iSeries or AS/400 servers while they are away from their workstation or office. Using an internet capable cellular phone, PDA with a wireless modem, or a Web browser, administrators can monitor and manage their iSeries systems.

V5R1 enhancements for MC-Pervasive include:

         Additional support for system performance monitoring

These additional V5R1 enhancements are available via an English-only PTF. Customers interested in using Pervasive need to refer to the following IBM Web site to obtain the PTF numbers to load the code and MRI for Pervasive:

http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/ iseries/sftsol/pervasive.htm

Operations Navigator is the graphical interface for administering and operating iSeries servers. Its highly productive and easy-to-use interface also simplifies the abilities of end users to work with iSeries resources. With each release of OS/400 you also see a release of Operations Navigator as it continues to expand its capabilities to meet the needs of iSeries administrators and operators. For example:

         Management Central allows easy management of multiple iSeries and AS/400e servers by sending single requests through one server acting as a central server. Management Central can be used to:

o        Collect performance data on iSeries servers in the network. This function can be scheduled to occur when most convenient for the customer, either as a one-time operation or regularly on set dates and times.

o        Distribute and install OS/400 software fixes (PTFs) throughout the network

o        Gather iSeries hardware and software inventory across the network and access it from the central server.

o        Execute commands on one or multiple systems with a single request.

o        Select objects in an OS/400 file system and create packages that can then be distributed to systems throughout the network, again with one request to a single system or groups of systems.

o        Manage distributed users and groups

Operations Console

Operations Console is Windows-based communications software that provides a single connectivity solution for all platform management applications including legacy 5250 console support, a remote control panel GUI, and Operations Navigator/Management Central. Connectivity choices include null-modem, cable-connected async communications, dial-up async communications, and Ethernet/Token-Ring Local Area Networking with V5R1. Additional features include:

         A simplified setup and configuration process that checks PC software requisites and troubleshoots connectivity problems

PC5250 supports the LAN connectivity option of Operations Console and supports a version of SSL implemented by Operations Console that supports device authentication, but without the use of certificates.

Operations Console on V5R2

The Model 825 has an integrated Ethernet port.

In V5R2, Operations Console can utilize this through LAN connectivity. If you choose this connectivity type, connect your Operations Console PC to the integrated Ethernet port -- no confusion on where to plug in the console.

The remote control panel function is re-introduced in V5R2. The parallel port cable was withdrawn from marketing in mid-2002, but due to popular demand, a new and improved cable and software brings back this function. The software will be available via PTFs and a new V5R2 iSeries Access for Windows service pack.

The new Remote Control Panel parallel port cable is supported only with the V5R2 version of iSeries Access for Windows running on the Operations Console PC. Both V5R1 and V5R2 versions of OS/400 are supported. If you are using V5R1 of OS/400, you may not have the V5R2 version of iSeries Access for Windows.

These functions are available in V5R2 and only require the hardware to work. For additional information refer to:


Application Enablement

To assist programmers in the development of client/server applications, Client Access is positioned as the application enablement middleware for PC-to-iSeries programming. A variety of key enablers is provided for accessing iSeries resources, such as:

         ODBC Driver -- an industry-standard database access interface for Windows users which provides SQL access to iSeries database information. The ODBC Driver supports the Microsoft ODBC 3.5 Specification.

National Languages

Client Access supports multilingual environments, which means individual users can use different languages (provided those languages, are installed on the iSeries server). Additionally a configuration option is provided which allows users to override the default keyboard and translation defaults that do not meet their needs.

DBCS-specific Support

         Client Access can support both PC and PS/55 workstations concurrently on a single iSeries server when the primary language is DBCS.

o        The People's Republic of China National Standard graphic character set (GB) is supported. Users of Client Access Family may select either code page dependent upon the code page supported on the client PC.

For more details, refer to the Client Access Web site at



         The Client Access Express Toolkit is provided "as is".

Packaging and Ordering

For information on what is delivered with Client Access Family orders and the OS/400, refer to the following web page:

http://www.ibm.com/eserver/iseries/ clientaccess/packaging.htm

For information on how to acquire the latest versions of the clients or the Client Access Family, refer to the following web page:

http://www.ibm.com/eserver/iseries/ clientaccess/caorder.htm

The V5R1 Client Access Express Setup Guide (SC41-5507) is available on the PC-CD ROM which contains the Express client software. The PC-CD ROM is entitled "iSeries Setup and Operations".

Windows Server Integration Enhancements(V5R1)

iSeries is enhanced with additional Windows server integration facilities. These enhancements enable iSeries to support larger and more complex Windows applications and offer additional tools to help reduce the cost of managing Windows server environments.

Attachment of N-Way xSeries Servers

iSeries supports the attachment of n-way xSeries servers via the High Speed Link. With the Integrated xSeries Adapter, selected xSeries servers running Windows 2000 Server can be utilized to extend Windows application scalability, while retaining the storage consolidation and systems management advantages of the Integrated xSeries Server.

Enhanced Hardware Support

Enhancements for the Integrated xSeries Server includes support for up to 32 servers on selected iSeries models, support for the 1 Gb Ethernet LAN adapter, and support for the iSeries DVD device.

Operations Navigator Support for Windows Disk and User Management: Additional facilities have been added to Operations Navigator for managing Integrated xSeries Servers and xSeries servers directly attached to iSeries via the Integrated xSeries Adapter. In addition to server management, Operations Navigator supports disk and user management for these Windows servers. Enhancements include the capability to create, delete, copy, link, unlink, and show status for Windows server disks. Administrators can also manage OS/400 user profiles that are enrolled into a Windows server environment.

Increased Storage Capacity and Availability

iSeries storage area network support for Windows servers has also been enhanced. For Windows 2000 Servers, the number of storage spaces that can be defined has increased from a maximum of 16 to 32. With a storage space supporting up to 64 GB of disk, each Windows server can access approximately 2 TB of disk space. Up to 16 of these storage spaces can be added without requiring a shut down of Windows 2000 Server.

Improved Availability via Independent Auxiliary Storage Pools (IASPs)

With the introduction of IASPs, additional availability options are available for the integrated Windows environments. Since the Windows operating system and data can be installed in an IASP, the storage spaces associated with Integrated xSeries Servers or direct attached xSeries servers can be switched to another iSeries server with a duplicate hardware environment.

For more information, refer to Hardware Announcements dated April 23, 2001.

Enhanced Novell NetWare Support:

OS/400 Enhanced Integration for Novell NetWare provides integration services for AS/400 users and operators via OS/400 and a NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) that runs on NetWare 4.11, 4.2, 5.0 & 5.1 servers. This product supersedes the functions previously provided by LANRES/400.

It supports NetWare 3.12, 4.11, 4.2, 5.0 and 5.1 servers. A license is required for each NetWare server. IPX or TCP/IP support in OS/400 is used to connect the AS/400 using a token-ring adapter, an Ethernet adapter, IPCS, X.25, or frame relay adapters.

OS/400 Enhanced Integration for Novell NetWare provides user profile and password integration from the AS/400 to NetWare. AS/400 user or group profiles can be propagated to multiple NetWare Directory Services (NDS) trees and/or NetWare servers. When AS/400 users change their passwords, the change is propagated to NetWare.

OS/400 Enhanced Integration for Novell NetWare provides integrated file system support, allowing AS/400 users and applications to access files and directories in multiple NDS trees or NetWare servers throughout the network. For example, an AS/400 Client Access user can access files on a NetWare server throughout the AS/400 network. Another use of the file system would be to access files on NetWare servers to be served by HTTP Server for AS/400.

OS/400 Enhanced Integration for Novell NetWare provides AS/400 to NetWare printing support. AS/400 users' printed output is sent from an AS/400 output queue to a printer queue managed by the NetWare server. OS/400 host print transform services are used to translate the output to print on common PC printers.

Full integration with NetWare security ensures that each AS/400 user of these services is fully authenticated in NetWare Directory Services or the NetWare 3.12 binder.

OS/400 Enhanced Integration for Novell NetWare provides a set of server configuration and management tasks from AS/400 interfaces. Although this product is not intended to enable full management and operations of a NetWare server, AS/400 operators can manage user connections and disk resources. Facilities are provided for creating, extending, and mounting/dismounting volumes on NetWare servers.

Integration for Windows Server:

iSeries Windows Integration

iSeries Integrated xSeries Server and Integrated xSeries Adapter offerings support Virtual Ethernet LAN, Microsoft Cluster Services, and Automatic Cartridge Loader support.

With this release, new xSeries models are now supported using the Integrated xSeries Adapter. For the latest information on supported models, see:

http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/ iseries/windowsintegration/

The iSeries Virtual Ethernet LAN introduced in V5R1 to enable high- speed communications between OS/400 and Linux partitions within the iSeries server is extended to support Integrated xSeries Servers and xSeries servers attached with Integrated xSeries Adapters. With this support, Windows servers can communicate with each other and with OS/400 and Linux partitions over the fast, more secure, and reliable Virtual Ethernet LANs.

iSeries Windows integration supports the Microsoft Cluster Services. With the clustering support provided in Windows 2000 Advanced Server, two Integrated xSeries Server or two xSeries servers attached with Integrated xSeries Adapters can form a cluster and utilize the sixteen new shared storage spaces available with V5R2. In the cluster environment, if there is an outage on one of the Windows servers, the storage spaces can be switched to the second Windows server and the applications can be automatically restarted to reduce the length of the system outage.

Customers who have systems with large amounts of data often have Auto Cartridge Loader (ACL) tape devices (3570, 3580, and 3590) with the ability to automatically load another tape cartridge. Support is now added in the Windows integration support to handle commands for ACLs. Multiple tape cartridges can be accessed during backup/restore operations initiated from the Windows

The software previously included in OS/400 option 29, Integration with Windows NT Server, is shipped automatically with OS/400, and is titled: Integration for Windows Server. When a system upgrade occurs, this program will be installed automatically in AS/400s that currently have OS/400 option 29 installed. Option 29 will be deleted when the system upgrade occurs.

AS/400 Integration for Windows Server contains a base program with two options to allow an iSeries with multiple Integrated xSeries Servers installed to have a combination of servers with either Windows NT Version 4.0 or Microsoft Windows 2000.

         Option 1 contains the support for Integrated xSeries Servers to run:

o        Microsoft Windows NT Server Version 4.0

o        Microsoft Windows NT Server Terminal Server Edition Version 4.0.

Integrated Save/Restore of Windows Files from AS/400

The save and restore capabilities of Windows servers are enhanced to enable individual file backup and recovery through the AS/400. The support is enabled through the AS/400 NetClient file system (QNTC) of the Integrated File System. The function enables customers to incorporate incremental saving of files and the Windows registry associated with an Integrated Netfinity Server into their existing AS/400 backup procedures. In addition, the registry and files saved through this method can be individually restored if needed. Saving of Windows server files in this manner can be used with full AS/400 system save procedures for disaster recovery.

Operations Navigator Support for Windows Server Management

Operations Navigator, the GUI for managing the AS/400, is enhanced to manage Windows servers installed on Integrated xSeries Servers. The capability has been added to start, stop, and display the status and properties of the server, which is installed with either Windows NT Version 4.0 or Windows 2000.

Increased Drive Size

AS/400 storage available to the Integrated Netfinity Server is increased from 8 GB per drive to 64 GB per drive. The system drive remains at a maximum of 8 GB. The increase in storage size enables almost 1 TB of storage available per Windows server.

System Drive Installation

The Windows server installation has been enhanced to enable the system disk to reside on the C drive. The change was made to conform more closely with other PC server implementations of Windows servers.

Shared LAN Adapter Support Not Available

For the AS/400e servers 8xx, 270, SB2, and SB3, LAN adapters can no longer be shared between AS/400 and Windows servers on the Integrated Netfinity Servers on AS/400. AS/400 and the Integrated Netfinity Server each require their own LAN adapters if LAN connectivity is required for both environments.

Integrated Netfinity Server Hardware

The new Integrated Netfinity Server for AS/400 includes an Intel 700 MHz Pentium III processor and support for up to 4 GB of memory. The faster processor and increased memory capacity provide increased performance and capacity for Windows applications. This version of the Integrated Netfinity Server is supported on the AS/400e 8xx, 270, SB2, and SB3 servers.

AS/400 Integration with Windows NT Server (Version 4.0):

AS/400 Integration with Windows NT Server enables Microsoft Windows NT Server Version 4.0 to be installed on the AS/400 Integrated PC Server (IPCS). In a single combination server, customers can run their mission critical business applications on the AS/400, while also running Windows NT Server for file, print, personal productivity and other applications.

The three main advantages of running Windows NT Server on the AS/400 IPCS are:

1.      Flexibility for AS/400 applications and NT services in a combination server

  1. Improved hardware control and availability with reduced maintenance costs
  2. Simplified user administration and server operations

An AS/400 Integrated PC Server with a Pentium Pro processor and a minimum of 64 MB of memory is required to install Windows NT Server. A PC screen, keyboard and mouse must be attached to the AS/400 IPCS to provide a console for the Windows NT Server.

The AS/400 operator can start and stop the Windows NT Server, improving server management in remote branch office and dealership installations. The AS/400 operator can also manage NT disk resources, allocating disk space from the AS/400's disk pool. The AS/400 operator can also better manage server operations by filtering and sending messages from Windows NT Server to the AS/400 operator's message queue. Maintenance costs are reduced compared to a PC-based server, since Integrated PC Server maintenance charges are included in the AS/400 system maintenance offering.

AS/400 Integration with Windows NT Server allows customers to share hardware resources between the AS/400 and Windows NT Server. The AS/400 CD-ROM drive and tape drives can be allocated to Windows NT for installing an application or for data backup, from both Windows NT Backup and Seagate Backup Exec.

AS/400 Integration with Windows NT Server provides simplified user administration of a combined network environment. Network operators can create both AS/400 and NT user profiles in a single step; users can change their password on the AS/400 and have it automatically updated on the Windows NT Server.

AS/400 Integration with Windows NT Server provides an internal connection between the AS/400 and Windows NT Server. This internal TCP/IP link provides a reliable and secure connection for applications and database integration utilities between the two systems, protecting the application from local area network hub failures.

Windows NT Server (Version 4.0) is packaged, priced and supported by Microsoft and must be purchased through a Microsoft dealer.

Further information can be found on the Internet at the following Web site:


For information on Microsoft Windows NT Server, Terminal Server Edition, and Citrix MetaFrame, see the same Web site.

AS/400 Client Access Connectivity via X.25 PAD:

This is an attractive solution for customers using X.25 Packet Assembler / Disassembler (PAD) switching with large numbers of individual remote geographically dispersed PCs, who need to connect to the AS/400 system for terminal emulation or file transfer/mail type of functions. Many customers choose X.25 as their WAN connectivity solution of choice due to tariffing costs and the stability of the X.25 network technology and standards. With X.25 the system administrator can manage concurrent remote PCs via a single X.25 line versus many ASCII controllers/lines/modems. This reduces customer cabling complexity and external modem management while providing the additional error recovery built into an X.25 network.

X.25 PAD, together with AS/400 Client Access, offers the data reliability of SNA, the connectivity, flexibility, and availability of X.25 networking, along with all of the functional capabilities of AS/400 Client Access Family.

Network Coexistence with AS/400 Client Access

The NetWare client requesters provided by the Novell Corporation and AS/400 Client Access clients can be used concurrently.

Client/Server Product Positioning:

OS/400 Enhanced Integration for Novell NetWare: supersedes LANRES/400 for integration services between the AS/400 and NetWare servers. LANRES/400 provided five main functions: Host-LAN printing, LAN-Host printing, disk serving, server administration, and data distribution. The following chart shows how these functions are replaced by Enhanced Integration support.


Function LANRES/400 | OS/400 Enhanced Integration
 | for Novell NetWare
Host-to-LAN Print Yes | Yes
Data Distribution Yes | Yes (Note 1)
Integrated File System No | Yes
Volume Management No | Yes
User Synchronization No | Yes
NetWare Administration 3.12 | 3.12, 4.11, 4.2, 5.0, 5.1
Runs on Novell NetWare 3.12 | 3.12, 4.11, 4.2, 5.0, 5.1
Protocols SNA, TCP/IP| IPX


  1. Includes ASCII to EBCDIC data conversion

iSeries Access for Wireless

Increase your business productivity without spending more time in the office or at the desk. Wireless access to administration functions and business solutions can help. This product supports administration of OS/400 and application development for intended wireless devices such as personal digital assistants (PDA) and Internet-enabled phones. New, consistent branding and consolidation of development tools exist for creating wireless solutions.

iSeries Access for Wireless includes:

         An OS/400 administrator interface, previously called Management Central-Pervasive, is enhanced and consolidated as part of iSeries Navigator.

Through simplified yet highly secure access to information and function, iSeries Access for Wireless provides what you need to make your workforce truly mobile.

Integrated DB2 Universal Database for iSeries

DB2 Universal Database (UDB) for iSeries is fully integrated into the OS/400 operating system software. It is not a separate product. DB2 UDB for iSeries offers state of the art database functions and open-systems, standards based technology, while providing the maturity, stability, and ease of use that has become the trademark of the iSeries system.

DB2 UDB for iSeries can be used for both transaction processing and complex decision support applications. Advanced parallel processing and advanced query optimization techniques support queries of large decision support databases for applications such as business-to-business, Business Intelligence, CRM, and other e-business applications.

An integrated iSeries database offers many advantages. As an integrated part of OS/400, DB2 UDB for iSeries is installed with the system providing automatic bring up and recovery functions when the system is IPLed. Integration also allows the database commands and user interfaces to have a look and feel that is consistent with the rest of the system. For example, database objects are automatically included as part of the system-wide cross reference facilities and the basic system administration commands and graphical user interfaces for save, restore, security, and object management can be used to administer the database. This allows the database to exploit new system functions and hardware for improved availability, recovery, security, concurrency, and performance as they are introduced.

The database also takes advantage of the unique capabilities of the iSeries system such as single-level storage and the object-based design. This means administrators don't need to review table space allocations and extents, rebind applications for database changes, update statistics, or balance indexes. Such tasks are automatically performed by the databases.

Conformance to industry database standards, advanced functions, and distributed data capabilities with supporting performance allows DB2 UDB for iSeries to operate equally well with centralized database applications, or as the database server in complex heterogeneous client/server networks. DB2 UDB for iSeries' unique combination of function and reliability make the AS/400 the ideal database server for many customers' needs.

DB2 UDB for iSeries Enhancements (V5R1)

         Improved distributed database support. DRDA running over TCP/IP allows transactions, which span databases, to be committed or rolled back by using two-phase commit protocols. Another key DRDA enhancement is the ability to return multiple result sets from iSeries servers to clients for improved performance.

o        The maximum number of rows that should be returned by a query can be specified.

Description of DB2 Universal Database for iSeries:

Independent Databases

Support for independent DB2 UDB for iSeries databases via Independent Auxiliary Storage Pools, or IASP, gives you additional availability and server consolidation options. Multiple DB2 UDB for iSeries databases within a single instance of the operating system allows for application flexibility and server consolidation by providing separate named database spaces. For instance, a company could have each of its regions share the same applications on a single instance of OS/400, each with their own copy of the DB2 UDB for iSeries schemas (libraries). Each region sees only the database objects for that region. Different users on the same system can connect to the appropriate database for their region. Independent Switchable databases enable access to your data during scheduled and unscheduled downtime without requiring redundant data collection.

DB2 UDB for iSeries Standards Support

V5R2 furthers DB2 UDB for iSeries' position in support of many industry standards and DB2 UDB for iSeries family compatibility. Benefits include:

In addition to the traditional database interface and language support, DB2 UDB for iSeries provides a robust SQL-based database required by today's Enterprise Application Systems while leveraging the strengths of the IBM eServer iSeries.

Additional enhancements in V5R2 make it easier for you to transition from traditional database interfaces to the SQL world. A unique advantage for iSeries customers is that you can choose from a mixed environment of traditional and SQL facilities based on requirements, skills, or existing applications.

Query optimization technology within DB2 UDB for iSeries is improved in V5R2 to deliver improved performance in certain query/SQL environments.

Industry Standard and DB2 UDB for iSeries Family SQL Enhancements in V5R2

Integrated File System

Enhanced data management and performance for the Integrated File System is rolled out with a new directory implementation that provides significantly enhanced directory performance, scalability, robustness, and recoverability. That, combined with the journaling and improved caching techniques, provides the system with a faster, safer, more reliable file system.

Note that the Integrated File System directory enhancements are available in V5R1 and will ship when ready. Watch for APAR II13161 at:


         Relational Model

DB2 UDB for iSeries is a relational database by design but may be viewed by users in terms of either a relational model or a file model, depending on choice of interface. Those choosing the relational model see tables and views while those using the file model see physical and logical files. The data resides in tables or physical files but may be seen in different sequences, with omissions or additions in logical views. Productivity of doing program maintenance is increased because programs that use a logical view of the data need not change when the physical data is updated.

The same copy of data may be shared by applications using file and database interfaces. This data sharing, along with the data mapping features of views and logical files, reduces the need for redundant copies of data.

Supplies the industry standard database access language for consistent data access across heterogeneous platforms, conforming to the IBM, ANSI X3.135.1999, ISO 9075-1999, FIPS 127-2, JIS, and the Open Group SQL standards. Support is provided for embedded static, dynamic, and extended dynamic SQL. ANSI-and ISO-defined SQL procedures are also supported.

DB2 UDB for iSeries can store and manipulate data fields up to 2 GB. The maximum size for all LOB columns in a row is 3.5 GB. With its LOB support, you can look to DB2 UDB for iSeries as a platform for building applications that hold new data such as very large text, image, and audio.

The DATALINK data type extends the types of data that can be stored in database files. The actual data stored in the column is only a pointer to the object such as an image file, a voice recording, or a text file. The method used for resolving to the object is to store a uniform resource locator (URL). This means that a row in a table can be used to contain information about the object in traditional data types, and the object itself can be referenced using the DATALINK data type.

Datalinks also allow the referenced object to be "linked" to the database to prevent modification or deletion of the object while it is linked to the database file. This relationship is maintained by having the database interact with the file system that contains the object.

User-defined types are derived from existing predefined types such as integer and character. You can create your own types for strong typing and creating functions for different types. You can call a function for each row of a result set and return a value based on the user-defined type.

You can define your own functions to use within SQL itself. This saves you time in reusing common building blocks that you develop. User-defined functions can be created in C, C++, Java, RPG, COBOL, PLI, CL and SQL.

Provides SQL database integrity support intrinsic to the database, eliminating the need to code integrity constraints into each application program. This support ensures database consistency by preventing conflicting data from being entered into the database.

Journal entries (i.e., records of database changes) can be searched and viewed interactively, and may be retrieved by a user program for further processing or analysis. This can lead to improved security and/or database integrity and is also an important component for open access to the database.

Access to individual table columns can be controlled for each user.

Individual rows (i.e., records) are locked from simultaneous, conflicting access as appropriate to the type of processing being done. Using commitment control, the user can define a group of records all of whose locks are held until the user application declares a multiple change transaction complete.

Data is automatically distributed over all available disk units within a set defined by the user. This can improve the performance of applications that make heavy use of a single database file or table.

Provides the ability to distribute the application workloads between clients and servers. The ability to split an application program by executing the processing logic on the server and the presentation logic on the client can provide increased performance over traditional requester access. These improvements can be dramatic for applications requiring intermediate processing of data, which can be performed at the server locally, instead of remotely at the client. Stored procedures can be written in C, C++, CL, COBOL, FORTRAN, JAVA, PLI, REXX, and RPG. Stored procedures can also return result sets either as cursors that are left open or arrays. Result sets can be fetched similar to reading rows from a table.

Provides for automatic program/procedure execution, based on user specified rules, before and/or after database modifications. SQL triggers can be specified at the column, row, and statement level. Triggers can also be created in HLL languages such as C, RPG, COBOL, and C++.

DB2 UDB for iSeries supports a wide range of joins. This includes RIGHT, RIGHT OUTER, RIGHT EXCEPTION, LEFT, LEFT OUTER, LEFT EXCEPTION, and CROSS JOINs. This allows users to develop and use more efficient reports.

The Alter Table function enhances database administration while improving SQL standards conformance. This function allows the user to add a column, drop a column, or change a column's attributes for an existing database table.

End-user productivity can be greatly enhanced with this standard conforming function for database changes and administration. Both SQL and traditional systems interfaces are provided.

Support of the DB2 Call Level Interface (CLI) allows users to easily access DB2 UDB for iSeries SQL functions directly from high-level languages (HLL) without performing an SQL precompile. DB2 CLI also provides full Level 1 Microsoft ODBC support plus many Level 2 functions. ODBC and DB2 CLI are based on the X/Open and SQL Access Group Call Level Interface specifications.

DB2 CLI is supported on several other database platforms, which makes SQL application portability to and from the DB2 UDB for iSeries platform even easier. DB2 CLI supports an option for database serving for multiple users (server mode). With server mode:

DB2 UDB for iSeries includes support for transparent remote access to data areas and data queues. Applications that use data areas or data queues for interprocess communications can be distributed across multiple iSeries systems, providing new options as users move into distributed iSeries networks and multi-tiered application models. Additional data queue support is included in MQSeries for iSeries, a separately-licensed program, 5733-A38.

Allows applications to access multiple heterogeneous databases simultaneously in complex client/server and peer to peer environments using APPC sync point protocols and TCP/IP with DRDA.

Allows applications to query information concerning all database objects on a system using a single system catalog, instead of requiring separate catalog accesses for each SQL collection.

Provides read stability, cursor stability, uncommitted read, repeatable read, and no commit isolation levels with row-level locking to support large numbers of users in complex application scenarios.

Allows customers to interact with DB2 UDB for iSeries and store data in their preferred language, character set, and sort sequence. The ability to store double-byte graphic characters and compare data in different character sets is also provided. Coded Character Set Identifications (CCSID), including UCS-2 (ISO 10646 Unicode), can be specified at the file or column level.

         Defining Database Objects

Database objects can be created with the Operations Navigator graphical interfaces, with SQL, or with DDS. The DB2 Query Manager and SQL Development Kit for iSeries (5722-ST1) provides precompilers, interactive query and report writing tools for iSeries. SQL operations issued from the various interfaces supported by the database (ODBC, CLI, JDOC, OLE DB, SQLJ) can also be used to create database objects.

In addition to SQL, DB2 UDB for iSeries supports a system interface consisting of a full set of system commands and other non-SQL facilities that let users access and modify database data.

Access paths may be defined for files to allow access in either keyed or arrival sequence order. Access paths are maintained when a change to the data occurs, allowing multiple users to be immediately aware of changes in the database and to access the current information in their required sequence.

DDS can define a field reference file, a form of data dictionary, that describes the attributes of all data fields for use by multiple applications. It contains all attributes and descriptive information about the data. The field reference file ensures consistency in field names and defined attributes, resulting in significant benefits to application design, maintenance, standardization, and programmer productivity.

The database supports record additions, updates, deletions, initialization, and reorganization. A full range of processing options is available for HLL programs such as sequential or random access (by key or relative record number), and retrieval of next and previous record. Many database functions can be described dynamically and performed externally to the HLL program, thus maximizing programmer productivity.

OS/400 supports distributed relational database using SQL. This support allows read and write access from an iSeries system to another iSeries system or to any other database supporting the Open Group DRDA architecture including DB2 UDB for OS/390 and z/OS, DB2 UDB for Windows, and DB2 UDB for AIX. DB2 Relational Connect, a feature of DB2 UDB for Windows and UNIX servers, allows access to additional database such as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and others. An iSeries system can connect to a system running DB2 Relational Connect to access data in the databases accessible by DB2 Relational Connect.

Distributed file access between an iSeries system, CICS, PCs, System/36, and System/38 is also available using Distributed Data Management, included in OS/400. This support allows access to remote files by applications using file and database interfaces.

The SQL Client Integration API allows providers of gateways and client/server solutions to integrate their products with DB2 UDB for iSeries.

Data in multiple national languages may reside in the same table and be accessed across the distributed database platforms.

High Performance Database Server:

The high performance iSeries system is an ideal platform for a database server. In addition, DB2 UDB for iSeries offers superior performance for both centralized and distributed client/server database access, making the AS/400 the database server of choice for many computing needs. The following DB2 UDB for iSeries functions are available to enhance application performance:

         Advanced SQL optimizer

Converts SQL requests into optimally efficient database access methods using proven mathematical rules as well as query specific cost estimates. Optimal performance is maintained over time by the automatic rebind feature, which redetermines access methods based upon changes to the database objects and statistics. The optimizer also detects changes in the number of processors on each query. So when processors are moved to an LPAR or when Vertical Capacity Upgrade on Demand adds additional processors, the query plan is automatically reoptimized if necessary.

This type of index can be created through SQL and may improve query performance -- especially for long-running queries against large files using many selection criteria. An EVI has several advantages over a traditional index with the same keys:

Examines and reports the access method used by individual SQL queries. The output can be examined to determine whether the access method generated for the query could be improved by query and/or database changes.

Four record locking options are available to fine tune application performance:

o        Read Stability (*ALL) locks all rows read during transaction and maintains locks until the transaction ends.

Provides applications with the ability to store and retrieve arrays of data directly, instead of one row at a time.

Improves client/server performance by returning rows to the client in blocks rather than individually. Subsequent record access of the current block can then be performed locally at the client without accessing the server. This ability is provided for all isolation levels.

Queries returning or requiring DB2 UDB for iSeries to process large amounts of data require significant I/O activity. Due to the iSeries' single-level store architecture, this data is often spread across many physical devices. The parallel data access feature allows multiple internal DB2 UDB for iSeries tasks to be activated for each physical device, allowing DB2 UDB for iSeries to transfer data from disk to memory faster than with a single task I/O architecture.

Long-running queries can have negative performance effects for other users of a database. The governor facility allows a time limit to be set for a query, so as to avoid a single query from consuming unusually large amounts of resources, negatively affecting the performance of other users. Before the query is started, its run time is estimated, and if the estimate exceeds the specified time limit, the query is not started. This is advantageous over similar functions on other databases that let the query run for a portion of time and then stop it since no unnecessary processing of the query occurs.

DB2 UDB for iSeries supports very large database environments. Some scalability limits are a single tube can be up to 1 TB and 4.2 billion rows. Distributed tables can be up to 32 TB.

DB2 SMP and DB2 Multisystem support enable both horizontal and vertical growth.

Ease of Use and Management:

The iSeries' reputation for usability and maintainability is unsurpassed in the industry. This is due in part to the tight integration of OS/400 and DB2 UDB for iSeries. Users do not have to learn separate operating system and database functions, nor are they burdened with maintaining the complex interfaces between multiple layers of software. In addition to seamless integration, a rich set of utilities continue to be provided for easy management of DB2 UDB for iSeries databases. Some of these utilities include:

         Operations Navigator

Operations Navigator Database is a graphical interface that you can use to perform many of your common administrative database options. From Operations Navigator you can create, change, delete, move and copy database objects. You can enter data into tables, view table contents, run SQL scripts, graphically display the relationships of your database objects, regenerate SQL from existing database objects, graphically display your query optimization with Visual Explain, monitor database performance, and perform other database management tasks.

Allows database maintenance to be performed while users are accessing and changing the database, providing around-the-clock operation.

Allows restoration of a single file when necessary; it is not necessary to restore the entire database to recover a single table.

Allows database changes made after the last backup to be reapplied after a restore, or recent changes to be backed out if the database needs to be returned to a specific state. This can be done for a specific user, time, or job.

Maintains a record of database changes such as the user, program, and job making the change.

Analyzes processor and disk workloads for improved performance. The integrated nature of the database allows the entire system to be tuned - not only the database.


Support for portability and interoperability is delivered by incorporating popular database standards and transmission protocols. DB2 UDB for iSeries provides support for:

         ANSI X3.135.1999, ISO 9075-1992, FIPS 127-2, JIS, and The Open Group Structured Query Language (SQL)

Supported transmission protocols for the iSeries include:

This support allows customers to exploit the maturity and stability of the iSeries database server with a wide range of client and network applications.

Industry-Leading Application Support:

Over 20,000 commercially available iSeries application solutions take advantage of the power, flexibility, and ease of use of the DB2 UDB for iSeries database manager. These applications are written for a wide range of industries and users: from the small business with base accounting needs to the large corporation with complex computing environments. Over 3,000 client/server applications are available, including SAP R/3.

In addition, DB2 UDB for iSeries' support of popular database standards combined with the iSeries system support of popular transmission protocols makes the wide range of client and network applications.

Related Products:

DB2 UDB for iSeries is integrated directly into the OS/400 operating system. It includes all the support necessary for new and existing database applications to run on the iSeries system. Refer to


System/38 versions of these utilities are available in System/38 Utilities for AS/400 (5722-DB1).

Application development facilities are provided in the optional DB2 Query Manager and SQL Development Kit for AS/400 . This product includes Query Manager, an interactive panels and query builder for user-developed report generation, and Interactive SQL, a prompted interface for running and testing SQL queries. For the application developer, the SQL Development Kit provides SQL precompilers and tools to assist in developing custom SQL applications in languages such as C, C++, RPG, COBOL, REXX, and PL/1. Once created, the applications and queries can be run on any AS/400 system.

Data File Utility (DFU), a part of IBM WebSphere Development Studio for iSeries (5722-WDS) can be used to create and maintain database applications.

IBM Query for iSeries (5722-QU1) provides reporting on databases.

OS/400 - DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing: expands on the parallel capabilities of DB2 UDB for iSeries. This separately priced feature of OS/400 improves the performance of the database for the iSeries system. This improved performance is critical, especially in a data warehouse or decision support environment. The performance gains provided by this feature help to allow for better and more effective business decisions to be made in a timely manner.

OS/400 - DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing further enables DB2 UDB for iSeries with symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) on any of the iSeries N-way systems. SMP capabilities have existed since the introduction of the AS/400 N-way architecture. This form of SMP allowed multiple database operations to take place simultaneously on multiple processors. Each database operation would run on a single processor, thus optimizing DB2 UDB for iSeries for online transaction processing. With the availability of OS/400 - DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing, DB2 UDB for iSeries also becomes optimized for decision support processing. DB2 UDB for iSeries is one of the few databases that can take full advantage of an SMP architecture for online transaction processing environments and decision support environments.

With the introduction of DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing for OS/400, a single database operation can run on multiple processors at the same time or, in other words, in parallel. These database operations are typically queries. However, parallel processing is also supported for import and export between DB2 UDB for iSeries and other databases.

Parallel index build capability is included in DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP). An index build can utilize multiple processors at the same time, or in other words, work on multiple parts of the index in parallel. This allows significant performance increases in cases where an index is created or rebuilt.

For queries, both SQL and native database interfaces are supported.

To achieve this parallelism involving multiple processors, an individual query is split into many smaller subtasks. Each subtask can run independently on a separate processor. Once the subtasks are complete, the results of each subtask are then combined to form the complete query result. Because of the advanced, single-level store architecture of OS/400, these subtasks can efficiently process information on the behalf of a user query request.

Those queries, which include table scans, index scans, joins, or group-by operations, will realize the greatest performance benefit from SMP database parallelism.

This process of splitting queries to run in parallel allows for significant performance increases. These performance increases become more pronounced with the addition of more processors. For example, if a query is running in 20 seconds on an iSeries with a single dedicated processor, adding a second dedicated processor along with the DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing feature may allow this query to run in approximately 10 seconds. Adding two additional processors may allow this query to run in approximately five seconds.

The previous example illustrates something that is very important with database parallelism -- how scalable is the technology. Scalability will govern how much benefit is gained from adding additional processors. Perfect scalability allows for four processors to run a query in one- fourth the amount of time that a single processor could, as shown in the previous example. The advanced architecture of the iSeries system and of OS/400 have enabled DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing to show industry leading scalability across all iSeries N-way systems.

DB2 Symmetric Multiprocessing can be configured differently for each user of the system. This allows a system administrator to have the greatest control over how parallelism is used on a system and thus greater control over how system resources are used. Part of this enablement process allows the selection of just how much parallelism is used, or in other words, how many subtasks are used for each query. Using fewer subtasks than processors available will allow a greater amount of the total system resources to be used by other users. Using more subtasks than processors available, allows an individual user to use more of the total system resources. This flexibility is needed to allow administrators to balance the needs of all system users with the available resources.

OS/400 - DB2 Multisystem:

OS/400 - DB2 Multisystem can be ordered as a separately priced feature of OS/400.

The iSeries system and OS/400 - DB2 Multisystem provide a scalable solution for data warehousing that spans from the smallest datamart to the largest enterprise data warehouse. DB2 Multisystem allows multiple iSeries systems to be connected to allow the processing power and storage capacity of all of the systems to be used. From a database perspective, these interconnected iSeries systems will appear as a single, large system.

Integrated File System (IFS):

The Integrated File System (IFS) allows libraries/objects, folders/documents, or LAN Server/400 file system data to be accessed in a consistent manner. A separate subsystem can be allocated specifically for file serving, and a set of commands are provided to make it easy to move one's PC data from the folders directory (i.e., shared folders) to the "root" file system directory. The major benefits for using the new file system directory are increased performance over shared folders and providing system users easier access to PC information.

IFS integrates the existing AS/400 library/objects, folders/documents, and shared folders into a single hierarchical name space and file system with simple command interfaces for file management and improved levels of performance. OS/400 file systems include:

User applications can store and manipulate stream file sizes up to 256 GB in the root ('/'), QOpenSys, and user-defined file systems.

The Integrated File System supports a set of industry standard APIs to the byte stream file system and the hierarchical directory. The APIs provide a common directory for existing objects and extended attributes supporting PC file systems. Examples of byte stream file system objects on the system are: documents and byte stream files. Examples of hierarchical directory objects on the system are: libraries/contexts, folders and directories. IFS is compatible with and can coexist with previous releases.

QFileSrv.400 Client File System Support:

Using IFS commands and APIs, users can perform such tasks as determining what is in a directory that resides on a target system, or use the APIs to copy files from one system to another.

In addition, PC users using AS/400 Client Access Optimized for OS/2 or AS/400 Client Access Family can access the QFileSrv.400 file system allowing access to data on multiple AS/400 systems with just one communications connection.

The QFileSrv.400 file system operates between AS/400 systems that are connected by standard communications facilities using the APPC or TCP/IP protocols.

Qopt File System Support:

Using IFS commands and APIs, the QOPT file system provides access to stream data that is stored on optical media.

In addition, QOPT:


OS/400 includes a file system, QNTC, that connects the AS/400 to a Windows NT domain as a client.

Note:The QNTC file system lets you share data with servers that can communicate using the Windows NT LM 0.12 dialect.

Integrated File System (IFS) and selected Industry Standards:

IFS and selected standards provide portability and interoperability functions that support the integration of the entire customer enterprise in a heterogeneous networked environment. The challenge of implementation is accomplished through the traditional AS/400 strengths such as ease of use, security and system integrity. The customer's investments in existing systems, networks, applications, data and people are preserved.

The AS/400 system provides support for source code portability of many OS/2, DOS, NT and UNIX based applications over a wide variety of systems by providing a set of standard interfaces between applications and operating system functions. With V3R1, the AS/400 system supports over 70% of the POSIX 1003.1 APIs. Together with BSD Sockets, TCP/IP and UNIX Spec 1170 support, we have nearly doubled UNIX C portability to the AS/400. With V3R1, the AS/400 system complies with selected elements of:

To enhance application program distribution and data interchange on the AS/400 system, unlabeled 1/4" and 8mm tape media have been added. The tape media is compatible with POSIX, XPG, and UNIX support.

Transaction Processing:

Most systems today support a variety of transaction processing requirements ranging from interactive to batch. But not all systems provide this support in the same manner.

Support for all transaction processing environments such as native OS/400 interactive, System/38, System/36, Batch and Client/Server are all integrated into OS/400. There is no separate software to purchase and the interface to these transaction processing environments is the same interface used for all other parts of the operating system, so consistency is maintained.

The transaction processing functions of OS/400 provide for flexible implementation of your workloads. Through the use of priorities a certain group can be ensured first processing in the system, or by simply adjusting resource allocation a given batch job can be allowed to run to completion without interruption from an interactive job.

OS/400 offers comprehensive transaction processing capabilities coupled with the ability to run applications migrated from other systems and it provides this with no additional software or integration required.

Using CICS for AS/400, a separately-licensed program (5769-DFH), customers can port System/390 CICS applications to AS/400 without excessive cost of code conversion.

Batch Processing:

Jobs that do not require user interaction can be processed as batch jobs. A batch job is typically a low priority job which may require a special system environment in which to run in order to reduce contention for system resources.

Most batch jobs are submitted to the system through job queues. The job queue may or may not be active at the time of submission. If inactive, the jobs await its activation. Jobs can be placed on job queues from:

Submitted jobs can be specified to run:

Batch job processing can be controlled from any work station, and each job queue can be controlled separately, including:

For example, during heavy interactive use, batch jobs can be submitted to an inactive job queue to be run later when adequate system resources are available.

Multiple batch jobs can be run simultaneously on a single system, with the number depending upon the availability of the resources each requires and the impact on other jobs running on the system at the same time, for example, interactive jobs. In general, as more CPU, memory, and DASD resources are available, more batch jobs can be run simultaneously.

XML Enablers

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is one of the key technologies fueling growth of e-business and mobile e-business solutions. XML is becoming the standard way to represent data in a portable, reusable format for use in a number of solutions ranging from B2B solutions that link together trading partners to pervasive computing applications, which connect mobile devices such as cell phones to core business solutions.

IBM and iSeries are committed to supporting XML. This support is demonstrated by the suite of XML application enablers delivered with OS/400 in V5R1, providing a core of XML services for applications to build on. The XML application enablers provided in V5R1 include:

         XML parsers for use with Java and C++ applications. XML parsers are a common building block that XML-based solutions use to work with data in XML format.

Enterprise Identity Mapping (EIM)

For V5R2, self-management capability is enhanced with EIM. EIM gives you and your business partners a technology that maps a user identity on one system to the user's identity on another system. The operating system and applications can equate jsmith on iSeries to janesmith on zSeries.

Identity mapping information is available to customers and ISVs through APIs available on all IBM eServer platforms.

Java/XML Enhancements

New versions of the core Java runtime environment and WebSphere Application Server are now available, as well as J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise Edition) compliance.

J2EE represents an emerging suite of standard requirements placed on Java application servers like WebSphere. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) supports the emerging Java Debug, Performance Profiling, and Wire protocols that enable third-party tools to work with the iSeries JVM, along with iSeries specific instrumentation for memory leak detection and enhanced debug. With this release, the suite of XML enablers can stay in step with the latest XML standards. The support for XML schemas is a key XML enabler extensions provided in this release.

In V5R2, the iSeries supports the industry-standard JavaMail program interface used by applications to access or send e-mail using POP, IMAP, or SMTP protocols.

IBM Toolbox for Java

A new version of the IBM Toolbox for Java is available with V5R2.

Enhancements include:

OS/400 Cluster Resource Services

Clustering, initially introduced in V4R4, expands the underpinning to improve overall availability of your critical resources beyond what you can achieve in a single system environment. Additional significant functions are expanded with V5R1 that allow even more flexibility and improved availability. New capabilities include:

         Independent Auxiliary Storage Pools (IASPs) - allow you to take data offline and bring data online independent of the System ASP and other User ASPs.

HA Switchable Resources, OS/400 Option 41

HA Switchable Resources, a new chargeable option of OS/400, gives you the capability to achieve a highly available environment using switchable resources. The resources are physically switched between systems so that only one copy of the resource is required. Included as part of Option 41 are:

         Switchable Independent ASPs - allows you to move the data to a backup system to keep the data constantly available. The data is contained in a collection of switchable disk units such as an I/O tower.

To define switchable independent ASPs or to use the IBM Cluster Management Utility, you must have OS/400 Option 41, HA Switchable Resources installed on your system. You also must have a valid license key for Option 41.

For information on HA Switchable Resource hardware features, refer to Hardware Announcements dated April 23, 2001.

Independent Databases

Support for independent DB2 UDB for iSeries databases via Independent Auxiliary Storage Pools, or IASP, gives you additional availability and server consolidation options. Multiple DB2 UDB for iSeries databases within a single instance of the operating system allows for application flexibility and server consolidation by providing separate named database spaces. For instance, a company could have each of its regions share the same applications on a single instance of OS/400, each with their own copy of the DB2 UDB for iSeries schemas (libraries). Each region sees only the database objects for that region. Different users on the same system can connect to the appropriate database for their region. Independent Switchable databases enable access to your data during scheduled and unscheduled downtime without requiring redundant data collection.

DB2 UDB for iSeries Standards Support

V5R2 furthers DB2 UDB for iSeries' position in support of many industry standards and DB2 UDB for iSeries family compatibility. Benefits include:

In addition to the traditional database interface and language support, DB2 UDB for iSeries provides a robust SQL-based database required by today's Enterprise Application Systems while leveraging the strengths of the IBM eServer iSeries.

Additional enhancements in V5R2 make it easier for you to transition from traditional database interfaces to the SQL world. A unique advantage for iSeries customers is that you can choose from a mixed environment of traditional and SQL facilities based on requirements, skills, or existing applications.

Query optimization technology within DB2 UDB for iSeries is improved in V5R2 to deliver improved performance in certain query/SQL environments.

Industry Standard and DB2 UDB for iSeries Family SQL Enhancements in V5R2

Integrated File System

Enhanced data management and performance for the Integrated File System is rolled out with a new directory implementation that provides significantly enhanced directory performance, scalability, robustness, and recoverability. That, combined with the journaling and improved caching techniques, provides the system with a faster, safer, more reliable file system.

Note that the Integrated File System directory enhancements are available in V5R1 and will ship when ready. Watch for APAR II13161 at:


Ease of Installation, Use, and Maintenance:


EZ-Setup code is delivered as part of Client Access Express. The code runs on a PC under Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, or Windows 2000 and requires the Operations Console cable be connected to the host iSeries.

EZ-Setup has three components:

EZ-Setup Wizard reduces both the number of decisions you need to make during setup and the amount of installation information you need to enter. The interface is all graphical.

Guided Setup is a collection of HTML pages for the same tasks as those in the EZ-Setup Wizard. You read the information using a browser and enter AS/400 commands to perform tasks.

The Next Step is a set of HTML pages that you read and then perform the task. Topics include Exploring Operations Navigator, Setup Printing, Create User Profiles, Install Additional Software, Define System Cleanup Options, Create a System Backup and more. Use Next Step after the EZ-Setup Wizard or Guided Setup is complete.

Operating system installation and modification are table-driven to allow easy and quick tailoring of basic system operations. This results in less effort required for initial installation and system maintenance which provides better system uptime. The installation of OS/400 software involves copying the system objects from the distribution media onto the system auxiliary storage and then changing variables in external tables (System Values) to tailor operations in the following areas:

The user can request that locally-attached devices be automatically configured. Local displays and printers can be added, changed or removed without affecting users signed on to displays connected to other controller ports.

Operations Navigator is an integrated graphical interface developed to assist users performing iSeries tasks and working with iSeries system resources. Operations Navigator provides Windows 95/NT and Windows 2000 desktop integration and interfaces for doing the following AS/400 administrative tasks:

Management Central -- enables administrators or system operators to manage AS/400 systems in their network from a central AS/400 server. This includes the following functions:

A subset of the Advanced Function Presentation Workbench product called the AFP Viewer is included with the printer output capability. The AFP viewer provides powerful viewing capabilities. The viewer allows users to view the contents of AS/400 printer output from the Printer Output list.

With a graphical interface, you can schedule regular inventory collections of hardware, software, and PTF information for a group or network of AS/400s.

Third Party Plug-In Support -- allows other applications to "plug-in" by adding new folders and objects to the Operations Navigator window or by extending existing objects with new menu items or properties.

Operations Navigator also provides function to make managing your AS/400 easier and more productive. These functions include:

Product Positioning for Management Central and Performance Management/400

Management Central Monitors are provided with the base operating system, and can be used to drive real time automation tasks. Customers can monitor and display short term trends in specific performance metrics and have the ability to set triggers, so that when a floor or a ceiling threshold is reached, a user defined action can be invoked: alarms to alert the operator of this occurrence, or an automated response can be executed. Management Central system Monitors were not designed to perform analysis of performance or capacity.

Performance Management/400 (PM/400) software assists customers by helping them plan for and manage system resources through ongoing analysis of key performance indicators on a regularly scheduled basis. PM/400 uses software and procedures to automate performance utilization and capacity usage reports. PM/400 helps the user maximize application and hardware performance (using performance trend reports), and better understand (using capacity usage reports) how the business trends relate to the timing of required hardware upgrades such as CPU, memory, or disk. PM/400 is designed for medium/long term performance analysis and trending, not real-time monitoring and automation.

The System Monitors and Performance Management/400 functions are designed to complement each other, with one providing real time monitoring and automation and the other focused on trending/analysis to insure performance.

The AS/400 supports a new directly-attached, full-function 5250 PC console that includes a graphical control panel application. The user interface of the control panel application resembles its hardware counterpart. The console emulator application (PC5250) serves as the console "device" of the AS/400, therefore it permits the entry of restricted-state commands as SAVSYS and RCLSTG. The graphical control panel application permits remote entry of most of the functions supported by the hardware control panel mounted on the front of AS/400 system units. Control panel functions such as power up/down, re-IPL, mode changes, etc. are supported.

The console and control panel applications can be used together or separately, but each requires its own direct cable attachment to an AS/400 system. Each cable must be purchased separately from IBM for the AS/400 model being used. Both cables are only available in a single length of 6 meters. The tables below list the cables available for each supported AS/400 model.


 Cables for the console application
| | | Part | | |
| AS/400 Models | I/O Features | Number | CIN | Description |
| 600/620/S10/S20/ | 2721/2745 | 97H7557 | 0367 | 36 pin PCI |
| 150/170/720 | | | | |
| 640/650/S30/S40/ | 9699 | 97H7556 | 0328 | 36 pin square |
| SB1/730/740 | | | | |
| 4xx/5xx (Note 1) | 2609/2612 | | | |

 Cables for the control panel application
| | Part | | |
| AS/400 Models | Number | CIN | Description |
| 600/620/S10/S20/ | 97H7591 | 0381 | Connects to 9-pin D-shell |
| 150/170/720 | | | labeled MI/J19 |
| 640/650/S30/S40/ | 97H7584 | 0380 | Connects to 9-pin D-shell on |
| SB1/730/740 | | | lower left side of HW panel|
| 4xx/5xx (Note 1) | | | |
Note 1: For 4xx/5xx systems upgraded to V4R3, or later release,
 the cables required for the console and control panel
 applications are available in RPQ 843964.

Remote capabilities:

The direct-attach Operations Console can also serve as a gateway for a remote, dial-in Operations Console. The remote Operations Console can also be configured to run the 5250 emulator application and/or the graphical control panel application. Both applications in general make it possible to perform the majority of system operations tasks, for example back-up and recovery, with the AS/400 systems and the managing staff in physically separate locations. The connection between the remote and direct-attach Operations Consoles uses Windows dial-up networking (PPP) with the direct-attach Operations Console utilizing Windows NT Remote Access Service (RAS) for access.

Software Requisites:

The applications are included on the AS/400 Client Access for Windows 95/NT CD-ROM shipped with OS/400 V4R3, or later release. The Operations Console applications are installed and used on PC's using the Windows NT Workstation 4.0 with Service Pack 3 (required for the direct-attach Operations Console when it serves as a remote console gateway) or Windows 95/98 operating systems. OS/400 V4R3 or later release, is always required for direct/remote 5250 console attachment, however the control panel application will function as a stand-alone application with any IMPI or RISC "black-box" system. The table below illustrates the supported OS/400 levels and the possible iSeries and AS/400 models supported for each application.


 Supported OS/400 versions and AS/400 models
| Operations Console application | OS/400 version | AS/400 Models |
| 5250 console device emulator | V4R4, or later | 6xx/Sxx/150/170/ |
| | | 4xx/5xx/7xx/8xx |
| Graphical control panel | V3R0.5, or later | 6xx/Sxx/150/170/ |
| | | 4xx/5xx/7xx/8xx |
| | | 2xx/3xx |
| | | (Note 1) |
Note 1: Valid OS/400 level/hardware model combinations are not listed
 for brevity, but any supported combination will work.

Operational Assistant (OA) presents a group of tasks, commonly done by an application end user or system operator, in easily understood non- technical terms. Users unfamiliar with the AS/400 system, its terminology, and sequence of steps to do a task are relieved of these complexities.

User productivity is improved by operational assistant making it easy to do tasks such as managing printer output, managing batch jobs, sending and answering messages. Systems management is facilitated by using OA to enroll and delete users on the system, to back up libraries, and automatically clean up job logs, history log files, and system journals. The system administrator is also assisted in setting up and scheduling simple backups, managing users signed on to the system, understanding the status of the system and managing the system's disk space.

The operational assistant function can be accessed in four ways:

o        Information Assistant

Information Assistant options provide one-stop shopping for a user's AS/400 information needs. A menu provides selectable options to inform the user about where to look for information, how to submit comments on information, and highlights about what is new in the current release of the AS/400 system. In addition, access to searching the help index, starting online education and starting the question and answer function is provided. Information Assistant options are accessed from the AS/400 Main Menu, the Operational Assistant Information and Problem Handling menu, or by typing GO INFO on the command entry line.

System-supplied menus to most system functions provide a task-oriented approach so that a user unfamiliar with control language can set up and use Operating System/400. The menus use an object-oriented approach by providing list of objects for the user to work with. A fast path gives quick access to system functions for the more experienced users.

The AS/400 help facility provides comprehensive explanations of display functions to help users be more productive. The index search facility can be used to request help for a task that involves multiple displays. Index search includes many synonyms so that users may ask for information in their own words or in the terms used by the system.

The help information provided is determined by the current location of the cursor on the display. It may be specific to a field or line on the screen, or to extended help on the use of the display as a whole.

System operational functions can be performed on an attended, partially attended, or a predominantly unattended basis. System operator functions can be interactively entered or executed under program control. Printer paper and media handling are manual functions. Various displays are provided to allow for control of jobs, spooling operations and communication lines.

New Trace Job Facility in V5R1

A new job trace facility introduces several changes needed in TRCJOB. The new job trace support should be used instead of TRCJOB. The new job trace facility includes four new CL commands (STRTRC, ENDTRC, PRTTRC, and DLTTRC) and includes the following enhancements:

o        Significantly improved performance, particularly when tracing ILE programs

Several system functions provide assistance in problem determination including dedicated and system service functions, messages, help information, and problem analysis commands.

A useful function in problem determination is copying a screen image from one work station for display on another work station. This is especially useful when used in conjunction with remote service support.

User-friendly, easy-to-use OS/400 tools provide customers with the ability to collect problem data at a central site. This OS/400 support for software problem isolation and data collection enables customers to recreate software problems, save the results, and then view the data from a central site. Initiation of the tools can be done locally or remotely.

Symptom strings are automatically created by the OS/400 licensed program at the time an error occurs, thus making management of problems in the system easier and recovery quicker. The automatic generation of symptom string data improves in the rate at which customers can find appropriate PTFs for problems. Problem resolution time is decreased when failure data is collected at the time of occurrence thus reducing the need for failure recreation.

PTFs (including licensed internal code changes) may be loaded and applied using a command. Deferred PTFs can be applied only at IPL time, but an option allows this to be done unattended. PTFs can be shipped to a central site, either on media or electronically, and may then be packaged and distributed to remote or DSLO license sites, either on media or electronically. With the exception of the loading of media, the handling of PTFs can be automated for remote sites.

With V4R3 AS/400 customers can download PTFs over the Internet. The client hardware needed is a PC with WIN95/NT, a TCP connection to the AS/400 over a LAN, and access to the Internet. The various configurations and set up information are documented on the Internet at the following Web site:


Except for the medium of transport (Internet), the functionality and entitlement rules are the same as for the ECS method of transport.

Software Management Services, a framework for software packaging, provides a consistent process for managing software on an AS/400 system. This consistent process covers IBM and non-IBM AS/400 software and PC-based software using AS/400 folders/documents support. When a vendor or customer uses the SystemView System Manager/400 licensed program to package an application, that application can be installed and maintained using the same procedures that are used for installing and maintaining IBM AS/400 licensed programs. These procedures include software media packaging and distribution, application installation, application registration within the AS/400 system, and application servicing. Convergence to a common process for packaging enables the OS/400 facilities to provide consistent management of these packaged applications. This reduces redundancy and inconsistencies for applications and current procedures.

Softcopy publications are shipped on machine-readable CD-ROM medium as a no-charge feature of OS/400. The books may be downloaded from the medium and are then available for search and/or display from either programmable or nonprogrammable workstations.

Downloading can be done from either the system CD drive or a programmable workstation with a CD drive attached. It is not necessary to download the books since all workstations can access the system CD drive to read them directly.

On a programmable workstation, either the Library Reader licensed program (included on the medium with the books) or the BookManager READ licensed program is used to search/read the books.

On a nonprogrammable workstation, the InfoSeeker function of OS/400 is used to search/read the books.

The design of the softcopy library allows you to:

With the BookManager BUILD products (available for OS/2, VM, and MVS platforms), users can create their own softcopy books.

All licensed programs ordered with a System Program Order (SPO) are shipped on a single CD, tailored for each order. The licensed programs are loaded by the install process directly from the CD.

While IBM software distribution is on CD only, customers may create their own media or continue to use tape for redistribution of products. Tape will still be used for backup and save/restore activities.

IBM will provide PTFs on CDs also.

Directory Services

OS/400 Directory Services in V5R1 supports IBM SecureWay Directory Version 3.2. Examples of IBM SecureWay products dependent on the directory for some of their distributed functions are:

Version 3.2 of the IBM SecureWay Directory provides the following industry-leading innovations:

         Support for Kerberos protocol (server and client) - supporting authentication utilizing Kerberos.

In addition to the IBM SecureWay Directory V3.2 updates, the following enhancements are made for Directory Services on OS/400:

         Security auditing was added to LDAP for administrators that want to audit LDAP operations to the server.

iSeries Directory Services Enhanced for V5R2

IBM Directory Server V4.1 provides an LDAP identity infrastructure as the foundation for deploying comprehensive identity management applications and advanced software architectures like Web services.

New for IBM Directory Server V4.1

         Dynamic Groups -- Groups defined using a search expression. When an attribute is added to a directory entry, the entry automatically becomes a member of the group.

iSeries Directory Services will deliver IBM Directory Server V4.1 function via PTFs for V5R2 in second quarter 2003. The iSeries Directory Services Web site will be updated when the PTFs are available second quarter 2003 at:


For more information, refer to IBM Directory Server V4.1 release notes (PDF, 86 KB) at:

ftp:// ftp.software.ibm.com/software/network/directory/library/v41/relnote.pdf

Internet Printing

Print and e-Print for iSeries

V5R1 provides a wide range of new capabilities that enable the iSeries to address the print and communications requirements of e-business and network applications. Those capabilities include:

These enhancements are available with OS/400, PSF/400, and a new iSeries product, Infoprint Server for iSeries.

Internet Printing Server for iSeries

The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) defines an industry-standard method of delivering print jobs using Internet technologies providing for Web-enabled print around the world. The IPP protocol was developed by the Printer Working Group, a consortium of all major companies involved in network printing. IPP is fast becoming the single standard interface for printing on the Internet, with broad vendor implementation and customer acceptance.

The IPP Server for iSeries, included in OS/400, provides an IPP Version 1.0 compatible print server for the iSeries. This means the iSeries will accept IPP print requests and then serve the print file to the designated printer via traditional means. Thus, even if a printer does not actually support IPP, the iSeries will accept IPP requests for that printer and then print to that printer with other protocols. The IPP Server for iSeries allows business travelers, telecommuters, and anyone working remotely to submit and manage print jobs on a distant iSeries.

IPP is built on top of HTTP, which in turn runs over TCP/IP. Customers can use the same print solution on local area networks, intranets, and the Internet. The same process used to send a print document to the department printer down the hall can be used to send the document to the corporate printer across the country.

The IPP Server for iSeries provides security features for user authentication and encryption of print jobs using Secure Sockets Layer 3 (SSL).

PSF/400 Enhancements

The iSeries printer file and Data Description Specifications (DDS) are enhanced to enable you to:

         Specify whether line data print applications that use a page definition should have their output converted to Advanced Function Printer Data Stream (AFPDS) before the data is placed on OS/400 spool

PSF/400 is also enhanced to provide:

         New printer timer on the PSF configuration object that allows you to specify how long to wait for a response from a TCP/IP attached printer and new options on automatic session recovery.

New support for LDAP Directories

New support has been added to allow information about iSeries printers and NetServer print shares to be published into LDAP directories. This allows the user to write applications that query the LDAP directory for iSeries printer information such as a printer's location or capabilities. It also allows the user to configure iSeries printers directly on their Windows 2000 desktop by using the Add Printer wizard available in Windows 2000 and specifying that the information necessary to configure the printer be obtained from the Windows 2000 Active Directory.

Unicode (UCS-2) Print Data Streams, Fonts, and Printers

This support gives OS/400 users the ability to print Unicode (UCS-2) data on existing printer hardware. Support for Unicode printing is limited to Unicode code points that represent font glyphs. Any Unicode semantics are lost. Two methods are provided to achieve Unicode printing for DDS printer files:

         Unicode data can be mapped to selected single-or double-byte EBCDIC encodings before placing the data onto spool.

Enhanced Chinese Language Support

OS/400 V5R1 provides enhanced Chinese language support. In addition to existing GB 2312 and GBK character support, OS/400 V5R1 is enabled to support 6,582 Unicode Extension-A and 1,948 non-Han characters (Mongolian, Uygur, Tibetan, and Yi). Customers who plan to use this enhanced language support must apply PTF SE01058. The planned availability date for this PTF is May 25, 2001.

Extreme Support Personalized (ESP)

The iSeries Extreme Support Personalized (ESP) initiative helps you easily manage your system, streamline your support, and reduce risk for your business. ESP is total solutions support, personalized for you in the form you need it. ESP involves support over the Internet, voice, and on-site support, along with support integrated into the product.

Function previously announced and available via a PTF is now part of OS/400 V5R1.

In V5R1, new ESP capabilities include Internet support and support integrated into OS/400.

More Flexibility for Universal Connection

IBM gives you more options for Electronic Customer Support (ECS) and Electronic Service Agent (TM) connectivity through Universal Connection. In addition to dial-up support over TCP/IP via ATT Global Network Services, with V5R1 the Universal Connection also supports Internet connections using a Virtual Private Network (VPN). This can be used for:

         Direct Internet connection through the integrated modem with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) of your own choosing or through higher speed connections (T1, T2, ethernet-attached cable or DSL modems).

IBM offers connections through VPN to provide secure connections over the Internet.

The Universal Connection enables a variety of ESP support tools that report inventories of software and hardware on your machine to IBM so you can get personalized electronic support based on your system data. This helps streamline your support process so you can spend more time running your business rather than maintaining your systems. You control the transmission of data to use (what and when it is sent) and we secure your customer data behind a firewall and use the data to appropriately provide you our world class, personalized support. Personalized data enabled by the Universal Connection includes:

         Electronic Service Agent (TM) Inventory: Collects machine inventory of hardware, installed software, performance data, and fix levels. This information enables us to:

o        Simplify hardware and software upgrades

o        Assist you in the placement of new I/O features

o        Identify fixes that apply to your system

o        Provide you proactive advice on how you can avoid performance problems through an analysis of your current system performance

The ability to configure VPN connections is enabled in Client Access Family Service Pack 1, available at:


To take advantage of these capabilities, use the EZ Setup wizard at system setup, or use the ESP wizard, located under Management Central in Operations Navigator.

For additional detail on these new ESP functions, refer to:

http://www.as400service.ibm.com/ supporthome.nsf/document/20965550

Software Inventory Utility (SIU)

SIU is a Web-based tool that simplifies some software upgrade orders. If the customer has Software Subscription and is registered through IBM Electronic Services, they can use SIU to directly order release upgrades based on the software subscription they have and the products they want upgraded.

SIU is updated to reflect new or changed iSeries and AS/400e software. The capability to use SIU for upgrades to V5R1 is planned to be available later this year. Refer to the availability schedule for product support updates and V5R1 support, and to learn more about SIU at:


To use SIU, go to:


Simplify/Improve PTF Notification/Delivery

V5R1 introduces several changes for PTF management:

         The ability to electronically download Group PTFs from IBM Service.

Change APAR and PTF Prefixes Starting with V5R1

The following APAR and PTF prefix changes are made for V5R1:

Extensive Run-time Application Function:

Operating System/400 is a functionally-rich platform for applications. Because it is enabled to run a wide range of applications, customers can easily grow their application base as their business needs grow. The extensive run-time function integrated into the OS/400 licensed program enables application programs created with the following languages, utilities, and support to run without the corresponding licensed programs:

For other separately-licensed programs, please refer to the Programming Requirements section for the specific program.

Productive Application Development Environment:

Operating System/400 includes many functions to assist in programming the system. These functions, along with the Application Development ToolSet for AS/400 (5769-PW1) licensed program, provide a productive application development environment. This environment supports a hierarchical approach to application development which can increase programmer productivity. The programming functions included in OS/400 are:

o        Interactive Debug

These facilities increase programmer productivity by providing assistance in creation and maintenance of programs written in RPG/400, COBOL/400, BASIC, PL/I, CL, and Pascal. Debugging of batch or interactive jobs can be done at any time; no special compilation is needed. Included are:

Productivity of users executing commands is increased by command prompting. Each system and user command can be prompted for help with parameters. Parameters can be filtered based on values previously entered or predetermined parameters. Online help explains parameters and values.

Programmer productivity is increased by relieving the burden of cross- referencing. The system has the capability to cross-reference files to related programs and fields to related files.

Using this menu, creation and maintenance of objects require minimal use of system commands.

IDDU assists in the creation of database files by creating IDDU data dictionaries, defining files, record formats, and fields. Programmer productivity is thus enhanced by using IDDU. It is an alternative to using Data Description Specifications (DDS). Easy-to-use functions within IDDU assist in the creation of files with existing field definitions.

Integrated Language Environment (ILE):

The Integrated Language Environment (ILE) is an architectural enhancement to the AS/400 system to meet the challenge of providing new function and greater application design flexibility. ILE exploits modern high-level language (HLL) technology while maintaining compatibility with existing applications.

The AS/400 system's ability to integrate multiple applications from multiple independent sources is improved. Each application is allowed to define its own boundaries. Multiple applications within the same job each have their own commitment control in effect for data base management. This is accomplished through improved isolation in data and commit scoping.

ILE provides a common framework for ILE-conforming languages in the areas of program activation, storage management, condition management, and program debugging. ILE also defines calling conventions for access to ILE bindable APIs and provides consistency and improved performance for interlanguage communication.

ILE-conforming languages are:

New elements introduced by ILE:

o        ILE Program Binder

The Integrated Language Environment introduces a new step in the application development process: binding. The purpose of binding and the Program Binder is to create program objects in such a way that efficient external calls may be performed.

ILE compilers create modules (object type *MODULE), and the Binder is used to bind several modules together to form a program object. Note that these ILE program objects are logically as well as physically different from unbound program objects.

Modules from any of the ILE compilers (C, CL, COBOL, and RPG) can be bound together permitting applications to be created entirely in ILE which provides a greater level of environment consistency and isolation from other applications.

With ILE, the concepts of a message and an exception are unified; both are sent at the same time. Although this exception model is applicable to both ILE and non-ILE programs, the concepts of monitoring for and handling an exception are significantly different between the two.

The ILE Source Debugger is used to debug all bound programs and service programs. It allows debugging to be done in terms of the source associated with a program. It cannot be used with non-ILE programs which must be debugged using the system debugger (for Old Program Model programs) or the EPM debugger (for Extended Program Model programs).

A debugger API is provided, allowing compilers and other pre- processors which contribute to module creation to create debug view information associated with a module object. The API allows source debuggers to be built for the AS/400 system.

The nonprogrammable workstation ILE Source Debugger is shipped with OS/400 and is therefore available to all AS/400 customers.

The ILE Dynamic Screen Manager (DSM) offers versatility and adaptability in generating screens during application execution with a set of bindable Application Program Interfaces (APIs). DSM enables ILE developers to create screens and windows dynamically, no longer requiring predefined static screens. This provides improved programmer productivity over using UDDS to perform low-level screen I/O operations and greater flexibility in controlling the screen appearance dynamically for the application. The DSM support falls into the following categories:

Seamless OPM/ILE Debug and Watch Support:

The OS/400 system debug support is enhanced to provide seamless debug across OPM (Old Program Model) and ILE (Integrated Language Environment) programs. OPM languages supported: COBOL, RPG, and CL. New support is also provided for OPM and ILE debug support to watch the contents of a variable and break when the variable changes.

The seamless debugger enhancements include:

Enabling Technologies:

OptiConnect for AS/400:

OptiConnect for AS/400, a separate feature of OS/400, provides high- speed transparent access to data through fiber optic bus connections and performance enhancements to AS/400 Distributed Data Management (DDM). The major advantages of OptiConnect for AS/400 are realized by customers who are rapidly approaching system capacity limits, and/or who want to implement distributed database application servers within a data center or short-distance campus environment.

With OptiConnect for AS/400 customers can offload the database application CPU cycles of up to 13 AS/400 systems. Customers wishing to implement distributed application servers can also benefit from using OptiConnect for AS/400.

When used with the ObjectConnect for AS/400 facility, OptiConnect for AS/400 provides a high-efficiency migration aid for the AS/400 Advanced Series.

The mechanism used by OptiConnect for AS/400 to access database files on connected systems is modeled after DDM. Just as DDM uses a DDM file and APPC communications to redirect file access operations, OptiConnect for AS/400 uses DDM files and a specialized transport service to redirect file access operations to a target system. Because OptiConnect for AS/400 operates only among systems sharing the same bus (connected with fiber optic cables), it can achieve transport efficiencies not possible with more general purpose, wide-area communications protocols.

ObjectConnect for AS/400:

ObjectConnect for AS/400, an integrated function of OS/400, simply and efficiently moves individual objects, entire libraries, or entire Integrated File System (IFS) directories from one AS/400 system to another over a standard communications connection or over a high-speed fiber optic bus. Systems can be connected via standard APPC (using APPN), TCP/IP communications lines (using AnyNet), or a fiber optic bus (using OptiConnect for AS/400). The economy of not requiring intermediate save file procedures and copies to distribution queues saves DASD and improves performance in a manner that is non-disruptive to system operations.

Ultimedia System Facilities:

Ultimedia System Facilities extends the customer application interface into the world of multimedia. Multimedia capabilities added to existing or new applications can present real work information more effectively and make complex concepts easier to understand. Subtle differences in color, complex movements, and sounds can be more accurately described in multimedia. Ultimedia Facilities can provide the interaction of data with visuals or sound to enhance decision making and accuracy.

Client PC support is provided through AS/400 Client Access. Both OS/2-and Windows-based PC platforms can capture, store, and present multimedia objects. These objects can be text, image/graphic, audio, digital video, and analog video.

The AS/400 system registers and manages multimedia objects that can be stored on the user's client PC, on the AS/400 system in shared folders or on the 3995 optical library that is either host or Local Area Network (LAN) attached. Analog objects, such as laser discs, can be used also but are managed by the user, with the AS/400 system providing scheduling for these devices.

Ultimedia System Facilities also provides functions through APIs available to both AS/400 and client PC applications. The OS/400 Ultimedia System Facilities APIs use standard interfaces that are callable from high level languages (COBOL, RPG, and C). A subset of the APIs is available through the standard CL command interface. The Client Ultimedia Facilities APIs are callable from programs written in the C language using Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs). The API requests are routed to either the AS/400 system or a client PC depending on which platform is best suited to perform that function.

OS/400 Ultimedia System Facilities APIs support:

AS/400 Client Access must be installed on the client PC to utilize these facilities.


o        OS/400 Single UNIX Specification Functions Enable Application Portability:

Through support of X/Open single UNIX specification (formerly Spec 1170) interfaces, AS/400 provides most of the commonly-used system interfaces used by commercial client/server applications today. The support includes functional enhancements that reduce the cost of porting applications to the AS/400 system.

These functions allow AS/400 C application developers to build applications using system interfaces and C runtime functions that are portable to other operating systems.

Functions included in OS/400 are:

Additional functions are available in the Common Programming API (CPA) Toolkit, a separate feature of OS/400:

The functions in CPA are based on industry standards from POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) and the single UNIX specification. These standards enable source code portability of applications over platforms such as OS/400, OS/2, AIX, MVS and other, non-IBM, operating systems.

DCE Base Services for OS/400, a separate licensed program offering (LPO, 5798-TBF), provides a comprehensive, integrated set of services to support client/server applications based on remote procedure call. DCE services include a network-wide security and naming facility for large scale distributed systems. DCE services enable a high degree of transparency across dissimilar platforms in terms of location in the network (services can be anywhere in the network), worldwide authentication (user identification and validation) and remote function invocation across system platforms.

DCE Base Services for OS/400 provides the key functions of OSF's Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Version 1.0.2. It provides function for building DCE RPC distributed applications including OSF DCE Time Services, Security Client functions, and Cell Directory Client functions. Client/server application enabling is simplified with automatic data conversion between unlike systems and location independence for client applications. TCP/IP communications protocol is supported.

With these capabilities applications can transparently support the distributed client/server environments across a variety of systems including: OS/400, OS/2, AIX, MVS, and other, non-IBM, operating systems.

Pthread APIs, previously shipped as a separate product (PRPQ 5799-XTH), are now included in OS/400. They allow Business Partners or AS/400 application developers to take advantage of new system support for kernel threads. Creating an AS/400 thread is faster than creating an AS/400 job and is a more efficient way to spin off portions of application or server processing into parallel tasks.

The Pthread APIs are based on open APIs described in the ANSI/IEEE Standard 1003.1, 1996 Edition (also known as ISO/IEC 9945-1: 1996) and the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2, 1997 standards.

Optical Support:

o        3995 Optical Library Dataserver Support

The 3995 Optical Library Dataserver is a direct-or LAN-attached device that can store up to 188GB of data on optical disks. Both Write Once Read Many (WORM) and Rewritable media are supported. It provides the high capacity, online storage required for image, data archive and retrieval, workflow, and microfiche replacement applications.

Hierarchical File System (HFS) APIs and the Integrated File System (IFS), integrated in OS/400, allow for easy integration of optical storage into existing or new AS/400 applications using the 3995.

In addition, objects may also be saved to and restored from the 3995 using system commands. HFS APIs support direct-and LAN-attached 3995s; IFS and the Save/Restore commands support only direct-attached 3995.

CD-ROM technology is based on creating a CD-ROM master, and then stamping quantities at very low cost. Support of the system-attached CD-ROM drive allows AS/400 users and software vendors to support new applications or existing 3995 applications to access information stored on CD-ROMs, such as catalogs, educational materials, directories, and historical data. Applications can be written to access data directly from CD-ROM using Hierarchical File System (HFS) APIs or the Integrated File System (IFS).

OS/400 Restore commands support reading from CD-ROM so any AS/400 object that can be restored can be distributed on this convenient and inexpensive media.

High System Availability:

The AS/400 system is one of the most reliable computers in the industry. However, to ease system management and minimize recovery, customers must follow a sound backup plan and choose some of the following functions as appropriate:

o        A backup power source is recommended to avoid or reduce system downtime in the event of utility power loss -- either a battery backup feature on those models where available, or a vendor-supplied uninterruptible power supply. The battery backup feature on the system unit supplies power for a few minutes; for continuous operation in the event of longer power outages, a vendor-supplied uninterruptible power supply should be used. A feature of the operating system allows notification to a user program of a loss of utility power.

AS/400 cluster architecture supports 128 nodes, using any combination of the existing OptiConnect WAN and LAN connectivity options to build the cluster.

         OptiConnect hardware, fully supported as an ordered system feature, is an attractive connectivity method for high-end and mid-range models.

All systems are managed from a single workstation containing the high availability business partner cluster management application.

OS/400 V4R4, or later must be installed on each node in the cluster.

System-Managed Access Path Protection (SMAPP) provides automatic system journaling of access paths to try to achieve a user-specified time for access path recovery in the event of abnormal system termination. Target recovery time may be specified either system-wide or by ASP.

With SMAPP enabled, the system estimates the time required to rebuild each access path and then automatically determines which access paths to protect to meet the user-specified recovery time. New access paths are automatically considered for protection.

SMAPP provides the most efficient means of journaling because it journals only what is necessary to protect access paths and it takes advantage of this information to reduce both CPU usage and the I/O associated with journaling. Customers who have employed little or no journaling support in the past will benefit from a dramatic reduction in the time it takes to recover their access paths.

Automating this chore and the associated responsibilities of creating and managing journals, allows the customer to concentrate on setting access path recovery policy and lets the operating system handle the burden of putting this policy into practice.

Once a user ASP is established, disk units may be added to it dynamically, without having to stop normal business processing, including mirroring or RAID-5 protection, if specified.

Object types not supported in user ASPs include:

Mirrored protection is an alternative for checksum protection on an ASP basis; IBM recommends only one of these methods be used on a given ASP. Mirrored protection does not remove the need for a proper backup strategy to protect against catastrophes or the possibility that both units of the mirror may fail. When one unit of the pair fails, the system is exposed to a failure until the repair action occurs and mirroring is resumed.

Mixing of 9337 RAID and non-RAID DASD within a mirrored ASP is supported. DASD data loss protection for mixes of DASD that use RAID-5 array techniques, called "device parity", with other non-device parity DASD units is accomplished by allowing RAID DASD units to be configured into mirrored ASPs. When this is done, each of the non-RAID DASD units will have a mirrored partner while DASD with RAID will be self-protected. With this solution, the system will be able to continue running for any single DASD device failure. This OS/400 support is for the RAID protected DASD as implemented on the IBM 9337 Disk Array Subsystem.

Systems Management:

OS/400 system management functions include Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) APIs and access to additional management information.

The new SNMP APIs for managing applications have the ability to manipulate management data via local or remote SNMP agents. Using AnyNet/400 support, information can be retrieved from systems on SNA or TCP/IP networks, thus making it easier to discover and manage potential problems anywhere within the network.

An SNMP agent responds to an SNMP manager's requests. Most SNMP agents are extendable, and APIs are provided that allow the dynamic addition of sub-agents to show additional information needed to make good management decisions.

OS/400 also supports a Host Resources Management Information Base (MIB) for hardware and software inventory of an AS/400 system. The APPN MIB includes APPN physical ports (APPC lines) and link stations (APPC controllers). These allow more AS/400 management information to be accessible to applications using SNMP.

Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) can use the SNMP APIs to write AS/400 management applications to collect inventory data, monitor and change resources in the network and a variety of other tasks. They can also write sub-agents that allow access to additional AS/400 management information from management applications running on other platforms.

Two APPC Applications Suite applications are included in OS/400: APING and APPC Remote Execution (AREXEC).

Electronic Customer Support:

Electronic Customer Support is an integrated approach to helping users service and support single or complex systems and networks. It is menu- driven, supported by online help text, and includes locally available functions and access to remote marketing support systems and IBM service support.

Simplicity and ease-of-use characteristics mean that configuring and supporting systems requires limited data processing knowledge or experience. Additionally, electronic customer support enables third party software and support organizations to support systems and networks from a central site, providing business solutions and partnerships that improve service and support to IBM AS/400 customers. The following are the systems management capabilities of electronic customer support:

Comprehensive Security for System Resources:

The many levels of security available with OS/400 ease the job of system security management. The level of security is set simply using a System Value, as follows:

o        Minimal security (level 10): No passwords are used, any user can perform any function.

The OS/400 operating system is distributed with the security level set to 40.

You should verify with solution providers that their applications will run at security level 40. If applications do not run at this level, a lower security level can be set. For considerations on moving to security level 40, refer to the Security section in the manual "Tips and Tools for Securing Your AS/400" (SC41-5300).

Access to system resources is controlled by giving each user a tailored menu from which to select functions. It is also possible to secure individual system resources and user resources using a combination of public authority (for any user) and private authority (for specific individuals). Facilities are provided to:

o        Grant authority to a group of users who all have the same authority to a group of objects.

The discrete object and data authorities are:

C2 Evaluation

AS/400 has received a C2 security rating from the United States Department of Defense for V4R1 of OS/400 (including its integrated DB2 database) and selected other licensed programs. Hardware requirements and additional information are in reference manual "IBM AS/400 Security - Enabling for C2" (SC41-3303). To achieve a C2 rating, a system must meet strict criteria in the following areas:

The C2 rating was awarded after a rigorous, multi-year period of evaluation. AS/400 is the first system to achieve a C2 rating for a system (hardware and operating system) with an integrated, full-function database. IBM is currently pursuing C2 ratings for additional hardware and software releases, including V4R4. No prediction can be made regarding the results or timing of the evaluation by the U.S. Government.

Interfaces to System Functions:

o        Control Language (CL)

The control language provides a consistent interface to all system functions. Thus, a programmer can tailor solutions using system functions without the end user or operator seeing what is being executed. The control language provides rich function and a consistent set of terminology and syntax. User-written commands can also be created. Most commands can be executed interactively, in a compiled CL program, or in a high-level language program. The ease of using CL and its rich function make it a productivity aid for programmers. CL programs allow the use of variables, error handling and access to the database. Programming functions include reading and writing to a display or database file, IF/THEN/ELSE logic, calling or being called from another program, and so on.

DDS can be used to describe attributes of display, printer, database, and Intersystem Communications Function (ICF) files. These file descriptions can then be used in high level language programs.

Most OS/400 display panels are coded in a tag-based language which enables description of the content of a panel without specifying the format of the panel; the UIM controls the format. This can enhance ease- of-use by enforcing consistency in panel appearance as well as matching the "look and feel" of most IBM-supplied AS/400 panels. The UIM tag language supports displays and printers, and the resulting panel groups can be used by all AS/400 high-level languages, including Control Language (CL), using CALL-level interfaces.

The UIM supports four common panel types: menus, information displays, list displays, and entry displays, and for these provides consistent placement and format for many panel elements, such as:

It also provides automatic and consistent use of:

Programs can be written in either a high-level language or control language. Programs written in one language can call and pass parameters to a program written in the same or a different language. All system and user programs are re-entrant, and each user executes the same "read only" object code of a program with the system maintaining separate, unique work areas for each job and each program within the job. In addition, only those portions of the object code actually in-use are required to be in main storage. These two factors can increase the number of programs concurrently operating in the available main storage.

The SAA query common programming interface (CPI) can be used to import and execute queries generated in other SAA environments. Query management may also be used to imbed query and report writer function into AS/400 applications or send them to other SAA environments for execution. Query management is a productivity aid for the application programmer.

REXX is an easy language to learn. It facilitates writing clear, structured, interpreted procedures. REXX can provide the data manipulation and procedural logic framework for OS/400 commands and conventional calls to other high-level language and CL programs.

The REXX interpreter implements the SAA level 1 definition of Procedures Language and the SAA level 2 definition except for native language support for stream I/O. Thus, it provides a more portable procedural alternative to OS/400 CL programming. It reduces programming investment for users who require applications that execute in several SAA environments. REXX also helps protect the programming investment for users who have already developed REXX procedures for other SAA environments. They simply replace embedded environment commands with OS/400 commands to port procedures to an AS/400 system. Procedures Language 400/REXX also supports DBCS for Asian language users.

OS/400 office host support provides a programming interface designed around the AS/400 control language to enable customer application development. The commands are provided for application programming interfaces (APIs) to the following AS/400 services.

Most of the APIs are provided with OS/400; however, some are shipped with IBM OfficeVision for AS/400 (5769-WP1) and IBM AS/400 Client Access (5769-XW1 or 5769-XY1).

Many of the commands shipped with the OS/400 licensed program can be used without the IBM OfficeVision for AS/400 licensed program or any other licensed program installed. Some commands, however, provide more function when the IBM OfficeVision for AS/400 licensed program is installed. Most of these commands offer both interactive and batch options which allow customers to write and tailor applications for these services.

Graphics functions are supported using the Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM), which may be accessed from a high-level language program or using the Business Graphics Utility for AS/400 licensed program (BGU, 5716-DS1). The following OS/400 interfaces to graphics functions are supported:

The sort utility supports sorting and merging of database files. Selection and sorting using the sort utility has performance advantages over the use of database access paths for certain applications. The sort utility can

There are literally hundreds of OS/400 APIs providing access either to functions and data not available through any other interface, or levels of performance not available through other interfaces. These CALL-level interfaces are intended for use by independent software vendors and IBM Business Partners whose applications require these functions and data. A complete list is in "System API Reference", SC41-5801.

AS/400 can input, display, print, and process the euro currency sign for both the host and PC client computing environments. This support includes, but is not limited to the addition of:

Updates to external display, print, and client function may need to be obtained from other vendors.

This phase of euro support is only for those countries that use the "Latin 1"-based alphabet. This includes those countries initially participating in the European Monetary Union and other selected countries.

For the latest available information and a roadmap to euro currency sign support on the AS/400, please see the following Web site:


Printed Output Support:

o        Print Support

This integrated operating system function supports printing of text, images, graphics, bar codes, electronic forms, multiple fonts, logos, signatures, and more, thus providing the basis for business solutions like business reports, preprinted forms, customer statements and invoices, and letters. Double Byte Character Set (DBCS) documents that enable printing of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, or Thai characters are also supported.

OS/400 supports IBM and non-IBM printers, which have a wide variety of price, function, speed, and use. Flexible connectivity options allow them to be attached:

OS/400 can generate SCS, IPDS, AFPDS and S/390 line data natively, based on a user specification. The SNA Character String, or SCS datastream, is a text only data stream often used for printing job logs, program listings and OfficeVision for AS/400 documents. The IPDS and AFPDS datastreams provide support for graphics, barcodes and advanced page formatting. In addition, AFPDS allows natively-generated data to be printed using all points addressability (APA), host-resident downloadable fonts, and support for overlays (e.g., electronic forms) and page segments which can be merged with user data for printing.

OS/400 also provides facilities to allow system and client applications to create a spool file containing a user-defined datastream for printers whose characteristics are unknown to the system. These USERASCII print files can be directed to local or remote printers.

Utilizing AFP and SCS print drivers for Windows and OS/2, client applications can generate print output destined for system and production printers. OS/400 can also act as a print server to System/370 or System/390. This includes support of AFPDS and 1403 data for printing on an AS/400 system.

Most printers are designed to work with a specific datastream, so OS/400 includes a function to automatically transform the program- generated datastream to that required by the printer to which it is sent. It is not necessary for the application to generate the correct datastream; the system will automatically transform it as necessary at print time.

Host Print Transform (HPT), a key component of the AS/400 print server strategy, provides the ability to transform host-generated EBCDIC datastreams to ASCII-based datastreams accepted by many popular laser and impact printers commonly found in client environments. The transformation is based on user-definable workstation customization objects which provide a high degree of flexibility and control over the output generated. Workstation customization objects are provided for over 125 popular IBM and non-IBM ASCII printers.

The following datastreams can be transformed into ASCII:

An API brings the capabilities of Host Print Transform to the AS/400 application developer. For example, an application program can utilize the HPT API to convert an AFPDS spoolfile to a TIFF image, and then present this image on a IBM 3489 InfoWindow II display.

OS/400 HPT has been enhanced to generate the ASCII datastream for DBCS printers from a DBCS SCS datastream. Supported ASCII datastreams are IBM's PAGES, IBM non-PAGES, and Epson's ESC/P, Canon LIPS3, and NEC 201PL. The IBM PAGES datastream can also be printed from the AFPDS datastream. The ASCII datastream can be directed to LAN printers utilizing TCP/IP Line Print Requester (LPR) support. ASCII DBCS datastreams spooled via the TCP/IP Line Print Daemon (LPD) can also be directed to LAN-and workstation-attached printers without conversion.

Workstation customization objects are provided for a number of popular DBCS printers from various vendors, such as IBM and Epson, and support various languages including Japanese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, and Korean. These objects can be modified to support unique language or datastream requirements.

Printing, a relatively slow process, can be done most efficiently when it is done independently from the application that created the output. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operations Online) provides this support with the following functions:

Local and remote output queues permit more than one active writer, allowing spooled output on one output queue to be printed on multiple printers. In addition, a limit can be placed on the size of spooled files printed during a specified time period. With these features, large print jobs can be deferred to print during non-peak hours.

Distributed print support provides connection to LAN-attached ASCII printers and support for Advanced Function printers. It also facilitates the distribution of printed output throughout AS/400 networks.

The AS/400 system provides a seamless path for customers to direct printed output through an AS/400 network and to other print servers. An output queue can be specified as "remote", and output spooled to a remote queue is automatically sent to the specified destination system for printing. SNA or TCP/IP protocols (LPR/LPD) can be used to transport the spool file and its attributes to the remote system.

These remote print functions are integrated with the display passthru function to allow the customer to specify an output queue on the local system for use during the session. Spooled output generated at the target (remote) system is automatically sent to the output queue on the source (local) system for printing.

Output routed to IBM mainframe computers, which function as print servers, can be sent directly to a specified printer. The job class and a Forms Control Buffer (FCB) can also be specified from the AS/400, greatly improving the AS/400 systems capability as a System/390 print client.

Most of today's printing is done on printers attached directly to the LAN, so that they can be shared between client, LAN and AS/400 applications. LAN attached printers can also support high-volume electronic printing. Output files can be sent to:

For many businesses today, the printed output from an application program is the primary way that business communicates regularly to its customers. Whether it's a well-organized, easily readable customer statement, or an insurance policy with customized information for each client, the printed document plays an important role in building and maintaining customer satisfaction.

IBM's Advanced Function Printing (AFP) is an architecture that integrates high-function page printers and print software to:

Print Services Facility for AS/400 is the AFP system software for AS/400 printers that use the Intelligent Printer Data Stream (IPDS) protocol. It has been an integrated component of the OS/400 operating system since V1R2. PSF/400 is functionally integrated into the operating system, but is enabled through a separately-billable feature of OS/400. PSF/400 allows AS/400 users and applications to take full advantage of IPDS printer capabilities, including:

Access to many AFP capabilities has been incorporated into the familiar AS/400 print interfaces -- Printer Files and Data Description Specifications (DDS) for Printer Files. Using Printer File parameters you can:

Capabilities that have recently been added to AS/400 Page Definition processing include the ability to specify fields of data to be generated as IPDS barcodes, and the ability to position print lines relative to one another on the printed page. This give applications that produce line data much greater flexibility in report formatting, and lets the application data drive the format.

Using DDS to format application output you can:

PSF/400 also provides data stream transforms and AFP print resource management to ensure that applications and their AFP resources print consistently on all of the printers managed by PSF/400. PSF/400 manages all printers whose device descriptions specify a device type of *IPDS and AFP(*YES). PSF/400 can transform and print the following data streams and formats on the AS/400 system:

PSF/400 includes an automatic interface to print data stream and image transforms in OS/400. PSF/400 detects the input data stream and transforms it for printing on any AFP printer.

PSF/400 supports the entire family of IBM IPDS printers and IPDS printers from other vendors. PSF/400 is required to provide full- function support for the following advanced printers:

* Require PSF/400 to attach to the AS/400 system.

The above list includes printers that can attach to AS/400 via Twinaxial, SNA or TCP/IP. For detailed information about printer attachments refer to the Sales Manual information for each printer.

AS/400 products that complement PSF/400 for developing AFP applications include:

         Advanced Function Printing Utilities/400, licensed program 5716-AF1. AFPU provides the ability to print AS/400 database files in various formats with a wide range of fonts and bar codes on printers driven by PSF/400, and to create AFP overlays.

For detailed information about AFP support in AS/400, refer to the following documents:

Print Services Facility/400 Update

with V4R5, customers ordering any of the four OS/400 priced features for Print Services Facility/400 (PSF/400) are shipped a CD-ROM (LK2T-9270) at no additional cost that provides consistent fonts for printing on 240 dpi or 300 dpi printers using raster fonts, or on any AFP printer that supports outline fonts. Included on the CD-ROM are Helvetica and Times New Roman typographic typefaces. The typefaces provide support for high quality printing with international language capabilities, including support for the euro currency sign. Double-byte fonts for printing Japanese, Korean, Simplified and Traditional Chinese are not on the CD-ROM.

Supported Protocols and Networks:

Following is the list of protocols and networks supported by the Operating System/400. This support provides a basis for integration of customer business systems, and thus, business solutions.

Details about the protocols and networks available with OS/400 follow:

o        Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

AS/400 communications support includes integrated services digital network (ISDN) basic rate interface (BRI) adapter, which can support two independent 64 kbps full duplex data channels and one 16 kbps signalling channel. The ISDN BRI adapter implements the ISDN data link control (IDLC) protocol. X.25 communications over the ISDN B-channel is also supported.

T1/E1/J1 and Fractional T1 Network connections are supported using the V.35 line adapter and six-line communication controller at speeds up to 640k bps for one line per controller; 512k bps each for two lines per controller and 384k bps each for three lines per controller. SDLC protocol is supported allowing APPN and SNA networks to be connected. V.35 input is required on DSU, MUX or CBX type DEC equipment interfacing to T1 Network facilities.

The AS/400 system directly connects to the IBM Token-Ring LAN (either 4 or 16 Mbps), to FDDI/SDDI LANs (Fiber Distributed Data Interface/Shielded - twisted - pair Distributed Data Interface), and to Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD LANs.

AS/400 LAN attachment features are configured and appear to the system as types of communication lines. OS/400 supports multiple concurrent SNA communication sessions with a variety of IBM products over both LAN types. TCP/IP sessions are also possible over both IBM Token-Ring and Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 LANs

The maximum number of local link stations supported per LAN attachment on each system is indicated below:



 9406 256
 9404 128
 9402 64

ATM is a communications technology that offers improved throughput, scalability in distance and speed, and a consistent protocol from the LAN to the global-area network. ATM provides a way to use the same hardware and LAN applications in local as well as wide area networking environments. Through multiplexing and switching of small, fixed length cells, ATM provides greater flexibility to accommodate current and future communications needs.

In V4R2, or later release, IBM is offering ATM LAN with the fastest connectivity available today, at up to 155 Mbps speeds.

BSC, Async, and SDLC support provides the user with the ability to communicate with other systems and devices that use the comparable protocol. Asynchronous communications to other systems and to Async/ASCII devices such as terminals, printers and plotters requires user-written application programs. Async support may be run on an X.25 packet-switched data network. An integrated PAD (packet assembler/disassembler) is provided that supports CCITT recommendations X.3, X.28, and X.29. Async communications supports full-duplex operation.

The AS/400 system provides an interface for attachment to an X.21 leased or circuit-switched network using either X.25 or SDLC communications.

The AS/400 system provides an attachment and support for full-duplex, X.25 packet-switched data networks, using either:

The OS/400, when used in conjunction with the AS/400 X.25 Communications Feature, is certified by the Department of Defense Data Network (DDN). The X.25 packet network is used by the TCP/IP protocols.

Network Management Facilities:

Several communications and systems management functions are available to manage the AS/400 system. Some are integrated into the Operating System/400 and some are separately-priced features. These functions help manage and control local systems and distributed systems that may operate within a network controlled by a host System/370 or by another AS/400 system.

Functions available for the AS/400 system are:

More detail about network management facilities for AS/400 follow:

o        Systems Management in TCP/IP Networks

The protocol for systems management used in TCP/IP networks is Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It is the industry standard for managing networks in the worldwide TCP/IP Internet environment. Support for SNMP protects the customer's investments in industry standard management applications and allows the AS/400 system to interoperate with other manufacturers' systems management products.

Elements provided with OS/400 include SNMP agent, SNMP framework, and TCP/IP protocol support. The TCP/IP communications protocol includes network management capabilities to support SNMP control.

The SNMP management function is split between two kinds of entities, named the "manager" and the "agent." The SNMP agent function runs on the AS/400 system and allows it to be managed by network management stations that have implemented the SNMP manager function.

The OS/400 SNMP agent provides configuration, performance, and problem management data concerning TCP/IP to an SNMP manager.

Management Information Bases supported include:

The SNMP framework provides support for SNMP applications on the iSeries system, including:

Alerts are messages that comply with System Network Architecture (SNA); they are sent from systems within a communications network to a central management site, called the problem management focal point. Alerts carry information about a problem and suggest corrective actions to the problem management focal point operator. Alerts can be used to monitor unattended systems and devices and control system resources.

Alerts may be sent to other AS/400 systems, System/36s, System/38s or System/370s. An AS/400 system can act as the generating and sending point for an alert, as a node that forwards alerts to the focal point, or as the problem management focal point that receives alerts.

When an AS/400 system is the problem management focal point for a network, the operator can display, delete, receive, forward, log, or hold alerts for forwarding. When operating within a network with a System/370 host system, alerts may be forwarded to the NetView(TM) licensed program on the System/370, which has focal point capabilities.

This integrated support aids the AS/400 operator in managing an attached token ring local area network. The support provides monitoring and active management for the token ring. Functions include:

Networks of multiple token ring LANs (bridged networks) may require more extensive network management support than these functions provide.

The OS/400 distributed host command facility allows the users of display stations of a System/370, using the host command facility (HCF) companion program under ACF/VTAM to:

The OS/400 LPDA and LPDA-2 functions provide data about network components to aid in network problem determination. These architectural network commands are issued to determine which of the various network components might be causing an error. The commands include requests for modem and line status and receive tests for IBM signal converter products (modems).

The LPDA-2 commands are an extension to the standard LPDA commands. They can be initiated concurrently with other activity on the line. The commands include transmit and receive test and line analysis. The results of the LPDA-2 tests may be presented to the user's display or printer. The data presentation is similar to those panels available on the System/370 NetView(TM) licensed product.

The OS/400 distributed systems node executive (DSNX) support allows the AS/400, System/36 and IBM PCs and PS/2s to be part of a SNA network in which distribution of data--including files, programs, IBM software, procedures--is centrally controlled by the System/370 focal point. The controlling System/370 product is NetView* Distribution Manager (NetView/DM). Interaction between NetView/DM and DSNX provides the control functions required for change management within a network of distributed systems. AS/400 DSNX support operates with either NetView/DM on MVS or DSX V3R2 on VSE.

The interaction of NetView/DM and DSNX provides functions such as:

The AS/400 DSNX can act as an end node (the target system for an action) or as an intermediate node (gateway) between NetView/DM and other AS/400 systems, System/36s or IBM PCs and PS/2s. When acting as an intermediate node, AS/400 can distribute to a list of other systems on the network.

Once AS/400 DSNX support is activated, no operator interaction is required on the AS/400. The NetView/DM host system controls all transfers of information between the distributed systems and the NetView/DM host.

AS/400 DSNX support allows for either synchronous or asynchronous connection to the NetView/DM host. When acting as a synchronous node (referred to as DIRECT NODE support), the AS/400 keeps the line active (session established) until all requests are complete on the AS/400.

Centralized problem management is also available using SystemView System Manager for AS/400, a separately-licensed program, (5769-SM1).

Communications Facilities:

Following are the supported communications facilities in OS/400. These facilities protect customer investment in equipment and applications by enabling communications between diverse resources.

Details about the communications facilities available with OS/400 follow:

o        TCP/IP Support

TCP/IP for expanding Internet/intranet solutions:

TCP/IP is fundamental to the new network computing paradigm and much of the new AS/400 e-business infrastructure runs exclusively on TCP/IP including Lotus Domino, Java, Web serving and IBM Network Stations. AS/400 has excellent TCP/IP support built into its operating system and recent AS/400 TCP/IP enhancements make AS/400 an even more powerful e-business server.

Enterprise-class TCP/IP for real business networks:

TCP/IP has become an extremely popular protocol and can be regarded as the de facto standard for computer networking. AS/400 comes with a complete and robust suite of TCP/IP protocols, servers and services. It is easy to implement full-featured intranets by simply cabling iSeries systems and workstations together and starting the desired services. In most cases, no additional software or hardware is required.

TCP/IP is an internationally standardized protocol. TCP/IP and its constituent protocols are standardized by the Internet Architecture Board. The standards specifications are provided in documents called RFCs (Request for Comments). There are hundreds of RFCs available today. The iSeries conforms to the appropriate RFCs for the protocols, servers and services listed below which are all included with iSeries at no additional cost:

Performance of the TCP/IP protocol stack on the iSeries continues to be improved. The result is significant improvements in capacity for TCP/IP users and stability of TCP/IP connections.

In addition, the AS/400 TCP/IP protocol stack contains two new performance-related TCP/IP Request for Comments (RFCs):

The implementation of these RFCs improves TCP/IP performance in many environments.

TCP/IP Protocols:

         TCP/IP base protocol support

         Transmission control protocol (TCP)

         User datagram protocol (UDP)

         Internet protocol (IP)

         IP Security Protocol (IPSec)

         Internet Key Exchange (IKE)

         Internet control message protocol (ICMP)

         Address resolution protocol (ARP)

In V5R1, iSeries gives you the ability to control and manage TCP/IP traffic in the network and take advantage of the leading-edge networking Quality of Service (QoS) functions contained in routers and switches. The iSeries QoS functions for managing TCP/IP traffic give you the ability to drop, mark, and shape TCP/IP traffic based on the QoS policy being applied. In addition, QoS admission control capability is added for controlling bandwidth management requests. The QoS functions supported are:

TCP/IP Servers and Services:

AS/400 also support a full range of physical interfaces:

TCP/IP Protocol Descriptions:

         TCP/IP base protocol support

AS/400 natively supports all the base TCP/IP communications protocols. TCP/IP applications are typically implemented to the SOCKETS API which support both TCP (connection-based) and UDP (connectionless) applications. As an alternative to the SOCKETS API, applications can be implemented to Remote Procedure Call (RPC) which is based on SUN version 2 of NFS. The base protocols of IP, ICMP and ARP are fully supported as are the security protocols IPSec and IKE. AS/400 TCP/IP conforms to all relevant RFCs. Its communications performance characteristics are equal to or better than SNA in most cases.

AnyNet/400 provides two API/protocol combinations:

         Sockets over SNA

         AnyNet/400 Sockets over SNA allows applications written to the sockets interface to communicate between AS/400 systems in an SNA environment. AnyNet/400 provides this with little or no change to application programs. AnyNet/400 Sockets over SNA is compatible with AnyNet/2 and AnyNet/MVS and thus provides connectivity to workstation and host environments.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) provides a means for managing an Internet environment. SNMP is used in each node of a TCP/IP network that is monitored or managed by an SNMP manager. An AS/400 SNMP agent provides support for the exchange of network management messages and information among hosts. OS/400 supports Management Information Base II (MIB-II).

NETwork STATus (NETSTAT) allows a system administrator to monitor and control the network status of an AS/400 system running TCP/IP or APPC over TCP/IP applications. AS/400 NETSTAT provides information about the status of TCP/IP network interfaces, routes, and connections on a local AS/400 system. Using NETSTAT, you can end TCP/IP connections, IP over SNA connections, and APPC over TCP/IP connections.

Several TCP/IP management enhancements in V5R1 give the network administrator more control when monitoring their TCP/IP network and troubleshooting networking problems. The enhancements include:

         A graphical version of network status (NetStat) that includes the ability to map a socket connection to a list of jobs for that connection.

Connection Verification, also called PING (Packet Internet Groper), allows you to verify your connection to a remote system. These connection verification commands use the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send data to an Internet address and wait for a response. On AS/400, you can use either the Verify TCP/IP Connection (VFYTCPCNN) command or the PING command.

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic IP routing protocol that communicates with adjacent routers, informing each other of their respective network connections. Dynamic routing protocols make network maintenance easier and improves network performance and reliability. AS/400 includes both RIP Version 1 and RIP Version 2. Version 2 of RIP adds security and efficiency features.

Proxy ARP is an IP networking technique that allows one machine, the proxy agent, to answer ARP request on behalf of another machine. It is useful for SLIP, PPP and twinax connections because it can make devices appear to be all logically on the same local LAN subnet thus avoiding the need to implement either dynamic routing protocols or static route definition.

Many times an enterprise has unique interoperability requirements for its private networks. The enterprise must provide its own applications to fulfill these unique requirements. AS/400 provides programming interfaces to accomplish this.

The Sockets APIallows distributed applications to exchange data locally and over networks. Both connection-oriented and connectionless communications are supported by the Sockets API. In addition to IP, you use the Sockets API to write applications that communicate over Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) protocols directly.

Also, available to distributed application developers is the Remote Program Call (RPC)interface. This approach views remote applications essentially as callable programs.

In addition, both JAVA and Lotus Domino provide various programming options for implementing distributed applications over TCP/IP networks.

iSeries VPN (Virtual Private Networking) support, is enhanced with additional security, greater reliability, improved performance, and is easier to use. Operations Navigator is redesigned to intuitively navigate VPN configurations, and you can use the VPN wizard to setup and implement your network security policy. Digital certificates add a scalable and secure mechanism for cryptographic operations, and in V5R1 you can use them in your VPN configurations to authenticate the identities of the VPN end points. An integral part of iSeries VPN is IP Packet Filtering, and in V5R1 this component allows filter activation and deactivation on a per-interface basis.

The TCP/IP SLIP provides TCP/IP connectivity over an asynchronous link, such as a simple modem pair over a telephone line protocol such as RS-232. Full-fledged asynchronous connectivity is supported rather than just terminal emulation. With SLIP, the more cost-effective, stand-alone dial-up servers can support a multiplicity of dial-up clients for single iSeries installations. Also, the iSeries system can dial attach to the Internet via the IBM Global Network (IGN) or other Internet access service provider.

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is an open protocol for wide area network TCP/IP connectivity that can support both dial and leased lines. It can be used to extend an enterprise intranet across multiple locations. It is also the defacto standard for connecting to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP). When used as a dial-up protocol, PPP is a more robust alternative to SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol).

PPP's IDSN support enables AS/400 to attach to ISDN switched networks. This provides higher bandwidth access to networks than is possible with current modems over analog telephone lines.

Using PPP, the iSeries provides an excellent integrated solution for remote LAN access and as a remote office gateway into an organization's intranet.

PPP includes Radius client support and DHCP prodigy client support.

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an enhanced link protocol that provides a multi-hop virtual circuit through the Internet. L2TP is also known as Virtual PPP since it creates a virtual circuit at a link layer and then utilizes Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) to complete the connection at the network layer. L2TP is typically used in conjunction with Virtual Private Networks (VPN) to provide a secure connection over the Internet.

With iSeries Socks Client support, iSeries TCP/IP client programs (e.g., TELNET and FTP client) are able to communicate with server programs that are running on systems outside the IBM Firewall. iSeries client programs can use the Socks proxy support on the IBM Firewall to transmit data packets to external servers. By funneling these requests through the firewall proxy, the customer's secure internal network continues to be protected from data packets coming from an unsecure network. Once configured, iSeries Socks Client support is transparent to TCP/IP client programs and works for all client programs written to a sockets interface.

UDP multicast support is enabled on iSeries. Applications written using this support will make better use of the bandwidth thus reducing network costs. This represents another improvement to the overall TCP/IP enablement package for iSeries which can be accessed through the industry standard sockets API.

TCP/IP Servers and Services Descriptions:

         GUI configuration support

TCP/IP networking on iSeries is easier than ever to administer and manage. iSeries TCP/IP configuration can be managed through all graphical user interfaces which are integrated with Operations Navigator. Included is a graphical wizard that provides simplified step-by-step guidance for configuring TCP/IP. In addition, a service to centrally administer all workstation configuration data for IP networks is included with OS/400. This service is based on an Internet standard called Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and dynamic DNS. In addition, managing e-business data flow over TCP/IP is provided via the Internet standard referred to as Quality of Service (QoS). iSeries intranets have never been easier.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) allows users to send or receive copies of files to or from systems across a TCP/IP network. FTP also provides functions for renaming, adding, and deleting files.

OS/400 TCP/IP supports the following FTP functions:

         Secure Sockets support for the FTP server

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to send or receive electronic mail. For consistency with other AS/400 mail functions, SMTP interoperates with Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Distribution Services (SNADS) through AnyMail/400. SNADS and AnyMail/400 are part of OS/400.

SMTP supports the following functions:

         Sending and receiving mail objects up to two gigabytes

Like TELNET and FTP, SMTP supports both client and server functions on AS/400. AS/400 can serve as a mail gateway to Interconnect SNADS, and TCP/IP SMTP electronic mail networks.

The Post Office Protocol (POP) Server is the iSeries implementation of the POP3 mail server. This server enables iSeries to act as a POP server for any client that supports the POP mail protocol, including major e-mail clients, such as Netscape and Eudora, running in Windows, AIX, and Macintosh. The POP server allows users to exchange mail, including Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) mail.

OS/400 Domain Name System (DNS) services are based on the widely used industry-standard DNS reference implementation known as BIND version 8.2. Topping the list of enhancements are the dynamic update capabilities, which transforms the DNS into a Dynamic DNS (DDNS). iSeries supports an integrated Dynamic IP solution that automatically manages TCP/IP addresses and their associated DNS host names on your network. The iSeries Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server allows DDNS to be configured to send dynamic DNS update transactions.

V5R1 provides a wide range of capabilities that enable the iSeries to address the print and communications requirements of e-business and network applications. These capabilities include:

These capabilities are available with OS/400, PSF/400, and Infoprint Server for iSeries (a separately orderable product).

OS/400 Directory Services supports IBM SecureWay Directory Version 3.2. Examples of IBM SecureWay products dependent on the directory for some of their distributed functions are:

Version 3.2 of the IBM SecureWay Directory provides the following industry-leading innovations:

         Support for Kerberos protocol (server and client) - supporting authentication utilizing Kerberos.

Directory Services on OS/400 updates include:

         Security auditing is added to LDAP for administrators who need to audit LDAP operations to the server.

The HTTP Server allows AS/400 systems attached to a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet or an intranet, to provide objects at the request of any local or remote Web browser. HyperText Markup Language (HTML) documents, index (directory) files, plain text, video, Java, graphics, and audio objects can be served from AS/400 file systems.

You can use IBM Net.Data for AS/400 (which comes with OS/400) to access DB2 UDB for AS/400 data using SQL and to create interactive Web applications by using "macros" to add logic, variables, program calls, and report writing to HTML.

The HTTP Server supports Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) security protocols for data encryption and server certificate authentication, which requires one of the following:

(1) Approved for export by the U.S.Government

(2) Available in the U.S. and Canada only

The Administration server is a special-purpose HTTP server that provides a browser-based interface for managing the IBM HTTP servers as well certain other products.

The Network File System (NFS) includes both server and client file serving support, as well as integrated file system file support. This file serving support enables broad multivendor file system interoperability.

DNS is the standard distributed naming service for intranets and the Internet. It is used by applications to map human-readable names into machine-readable IP addresses (e.g., the host portion of URLs into the corresponding 32 bit IP address). This improves ease-of-use in referencing resources on the network. For example, it converts www.as400.ibm.com to

OS/400 includes a full-function DNS server. It can be configured for primary, secondary and caching roles. DNS configuration data from other platforms can easily be migrated to the AS/400 DNS server. In addition, a migration utility that moves existing AS/400 host table information into the DNS configuration databases is provided.

Deploying DHCP to centrally control all TCP/IP workstation configuration tasks can dramatically reduce the cost of managing a TCP/IP network. DHCP is a standard protocol supported natively by most popular workstations including Windows 95/NT, UNIX and IBM Network Station. Using DHCP, all IP configuration data (IP addresses, subnet masks, default routers, etc.) are dynamically assigned when new workstations are added to the network. Furthermore, DHCP can automatically recover and recycle network resources when workstations are removed from the network. These capabilities eliminate the time-consuming and error-prone task of manual workstation configuration.

OS/400 includes a full-function DHCP server with an intuitive GUI administrative interface. OS/400 also comes with a DHCP relay agent (also called a BOOT-P relay agent) which can be deployed to route DHCP requests from multiple subnetworks to one or more central DHCP servers.

The AS/400 has a built-in print driver for direct IP printing to HP PCL/PJL compatible network printers. Automatic conversion of SNA Character String (SCS) and Advanced Function Printing (APF) print data into HP Printer Control Language (PCL) is done using the AS/400 Host Print Transforms. In addition to direct support of a variety of network printers from HP, IBM and other vendors, the PJL support also can monitor status from those printers.

Printing for TCP/IP networks can also be implemented using the Printer Passthru function available in Client Access (see the Telnet description for more details).

Line Printer Requester (LPR) and Line Printer Daemon (LPD) allow users to print a spooled file from any system in a TCP/IP network. LPR is the sending or client portion of the spooled file transfer. LPD is the receiving or server portion of the spooled file transfer. On AS/400, the Send TCP/IP Spooled File (SNDTCPSPLF) CL command allows you to print a spooled file on a remote system, and specify appropriate printing operations. You can send files to AS/400 systems and non-AS/400 systems.

The 5250/HTML Workstations Gateway (WSG) server is an application that automatically transforms AS/400 5250 applications to Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) allowing users to run AS/400 applications from any PC that has a WEB browser. You can incorporate image, audio, and video by modifying applications slightly.

The TELNET protocol allows a system (the TELNET client) to access and use the resources of a remote system (the TELNET server) as if the TELNET client's workstation were locally connected to the remote system. AS/400 TELNET provides both the TELNET client and the TELNET server functions.

The TELNET protocol provides a mechanism for the client and server to negotiate options that control the operating characteristics of a TELNET connection. Among other things, these negotiations involve determining the best terminal type supported by both the client and server. Depending on the terminal type negotiated, the AS/400 TELNET client operates in one of the following full-screen modes: 3270, 5250, VT100 or VT220. The AS/400 TELNET server operates in ASCII line mode or in one of the following full-screen modes: 3270, 5250 or VT100. The functions available in a TELNET session depend on the operating mode.

Security and automation features are included in the AS/400 TELNET 5250 server:

         Registered TELNET server exits for both session initialization and session termination. These exits require only that a customer-written user exit program be registered at the proper exit point. No changes are needed for the connecting TELNET client emulator, so existing clients can immediately benefit from this feature.

The REXEC server allows you to issue AS/400 commands from other systems across IP networks. REXEC is a standard TCP/IP protocol support by many other systems including UNIX. When you issue a command, that command along with authentication information (profile and password) are sent to the AS/400 REXEC server. The server authenticates the user, executes the command and returns the results. The AS/400 REXEC server includes exit points so additional security measures can be added if desired.

AS/400 also has an REXEC client capability so commands to other systems can be sent from an AS/400. The command RUNRMTCMD (Run Remote Command) is used to issue an REXEC client request.

The AS/400 BOOTstrap Protocol (BOOT-P) server enables the central management of TCP/IP workstations such as the IBM Network Station. It can centrally manage workstation configuration information such as IP addresses, mask, default router address, etc. The DHCP server provides similar function but with more capabilities so it is generally preferable to use DHCP rather than BOOT-P.

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used by thin clients such as the IBM Network Station to receive their initial program load. The AS/400 TFTP server includes an extension called broadcast TFTP that dramatically improves load time when many Network Stations are requesting loads simultaneously (e.g., after a power outage).

Selectively limits or journals network access to applications and services with additional protection for AS/400 systems that run sensitive applications or act as Web servers.

TCP/IP packet security also helps protect an entire subnetwork when the AS/400 acts as a casual router.

When the TCP/IP addressing schemes of networks conflict, or you need to hide all or part of the network topology, network address translation (NAT) capabilities provide a solution. In addition, TCP/IP masquerading allows all the computers on one network to access servers on another network by sharing a single TCP/IP address. Masquerading is particularly useful when connecting to another network, such as the Internet, using a dial-up link.

Connections are made only when there is a need to communicate. Dial-on-Demand is supported on all switched network types and is particularly well-suited to ISDN with its fast call setup time. It is also valuable for burst and infrequent traffic patterns -- especially if you have more remote locations than physical lines. With Dial-on-Demand, modem and telephone line resources are not committed until an application attempts to communicate with a remote site. Thus, a small number of physical resources can dynamically serve a large number of remote networks.

Virtual IP Addressing creates a virtual TCP/IP address that is not associated with a physical network interface. This virtual address on the AS/400 system can be reached from the network through all installed physical interfaces. This allows use of a single IP address with load balancing over multiple physical interfaces and can dramatically increase capacity for high-volume AS/400 e-business servers.

SHM and MPS are supported to take advantage of the fast call set-up and clearing characteristics of X.21 SHM/MPS.

Work stations from the 5250 family of displays and printers (as well as programmable work stations that emulate the 5250) are supported by 5250 remote controllers. Programs written for interactive applications need not be aware of the work station location (local or remote).

The 3x74 remote attach protects customer investment by allowing IBM 3270 remote control units or IBM Personal Computers executing PC 3270 Emulation Program, Version 3 (59X9969 or feature number 9969 of licensed program 5875-MMA) to attach to the AS/400 system using an SNA/SDLC and X.25 communications port (3174/3274), or IBM token-ring network (3174-3R or -53R). The 3x74 remote attach gives any 3x74-attached IBM 3270 display access to most 5250 applications with essentially 5291 or 5292-1 functions. Major 5250 function exclusions are the word processing function of IBM OfficeVision for AS/400, 5250 graphics, and 132-column display. The 3270 printers are provided 3287/5256 level of function as well as 3286/5575 (DBCS) level of function.

The IBM 5294 Remote Control Unit can be used to attach up to eight 5250-type displays and printers to an AS/400 System using a communications link. The function provided is equivalent to that available on the System/36 and System/38 with the exception that access by AS/400 Client Access to attached personal computers is not supported.

The IBM 5394 Remote Control Unit attaches up to 16 5250-type displays and printers to an AS/400 System using a communications link. The function provided to the remotely-attached work stations is identical to that provided to local work stations.

The IBM 5494 Remote Control Unit supports the attachment of remote workstations to the AS/400 system. It manages the operations of these workstations and the communications to the AS/400 system. There are two models of the 5494:

         Model 001 manages the operation of up to 28 twinaxial-attached workstations and allows the workstations to communicate with the AS/400 system through a type 2.1 connection.

Personal computers attached to a 5394 or 5494 Remote Control Unit are supported using AS/400 Client Access, a separately-licensed program (5769-XW1 or 5769-XY1).

The intersystem communications function provides the application interface for the AS/400 system communications support. The following communication types are supported through this interface:

The application program uses high-level language operations and communications functions to communicate with a remote system. Either externally described data or system-supplied formats (compatible with System/36 SSP-ICF operations) can be used.

Support functionally equivalent to that known on the System/36 as ICF INTRA support is also provided. This intrasystem communications function allows communications between applications running on the same AS/400 system as if they were using a communications line. This allows:

APPN provides a way to easily establish and maintain a network of AS/400 Systems, System/36s, and other IBM systems. The AS/400 user can install and maintain a complex network of interconnected systems without requiring highly skilled programmers. Configuration and maintenance of the network is done by the controlling nodes that make up the network. Systems that use CPI-C, APPC, DDM, display station pass-through, SNA distribution services (SNADS), SNA backbone, file transfer support, electronic customer support, and AS/400 Client Access can take advantage of APPN networks.

APPN support allows LAN-based AS/400 systems to establish a direct LAN session without being defined to one another. The configuration of 2.1 type PCs on a LAN is significantly reduced using APPN and auto configuration support. An APPN network may be established spanning LAN and remote communication facilities while providing a seamless appearance to nodes in the network.

APPN multi-network connectivity provides APPN session paths between adjacent APPN networks of dissimilar network identifications. Therefore, established APPN networks having unique network identifications can be connected, a large APPN network may be partitioned for operational control, and service providers may connect to client APPN networks. The SNA Network Registry is available to register customer network names. To prevent name conflicts between attached networks, the networking customer can obtain a unique, registered network identifier (NETID) from their IBM branch office representative.

Back-up APPN network node support provides dynamic switching of an AS/400 APPN end node to a back-up network node server upon link failure for sending network management alerts to the network management focal point.

High Performance Routing (HPR) includes three significant enhancements to APPN to improve network reliability and performance for customers with medium to large SNA networks.

AS/400 DLUR support provides existing SNA end users the benefits of subarea APPN migration without changing their existing SNA devices and applications on the AS/400 system. This is a cost savings allowing hundreds of device and application sessions to be converted with a single system upgrade. No application rewrites, no device upgrades, and no rewiring is required.

Additional AS/400 benefits include the ability to distribute intelligence (applications) to AS/400 DLUR nodes. Controllers and routers do not have the capability to handle application as well as an AS/400 server. PC servers do not have the capacity to handle the number of devices/applications you can distribute to an AS/400 system. In addition, the AS/400 system supports a broader mix of downstream connections, applications, and devices than other servers.

Upgrading subarea SNA to APPN provides significant advantages to current and potential users connected to subarea SNA networks including:

1.      APPN supports existing subarea SNA based applications and devices, the cost to move to APPN is much less than converting their networks to other protocols which require application rewrite and often replacement of existing hardware.

2.      Greatly reduces configuration requirements in complex networks with auto-configuration of dependent LUs and bound sessions in VTAM domain and cross-domain networks.

3.      Greatly increased network management (session tracking extends well beyond current subarea boundary connections)

4.      Combined with APPN HPR towers, you can see significant network performance improvements and link outage error recovery

APPC allows a program on one system to communicate with a program on a remote system so that users can run applications and have access to functions not available on the local system. AS/400 APPC is based on SNA LU-6.2 and PU Type 2.1 and is designed to provide a common session protocol for both document interchange and distributed data processing.

Customers using APPC/ICF, CPI-C, DSPT, DDM, SNA/DS, or any other application using APPC LU-6.2 have the option to enable session level compression which significantly reduces traffic on the slower speed communications lines such as SDLC and X.25.

APPC uses one of two compression algorithms, Run Length Encoding (RLE) or Lempel-Zev (LZ). RLE uses String Control Bytes (SCBs) to encode duplicate repetitive bytes of data. LZ assigns codes to represent unique character strings which are stored in tables.

For security reasons, user passwords are not transmitted in clear text. Protected passwords are built based on the real password and sent to a peer system when the peer system supports the password substitution function.

The SNA upline facility provides the AS/400 user with communications to:

This provides for program-to-program communication between AS/400 and System/370 programs and supports customers migrating from SNA upline facility on System/36.

BSCEL provides systems management on the AS/400 system by enabling one program to start another program on another system, also having BSCEL support. The other system can be IBM AS/400 System, IBM System/36, or IBM System/34.

BSCEL support also allows a program to communicate to other systems and devices using the binary synchronous communications (BSC) protocol. It is a program-to-program function.

The user interface for retail communications support is the intersystem communications function (ICF) file interface used by high- level languages. The ICF retail communications support provides business solutions through the capability to attach retail controllers (3651, 3684, 4680, and 4684) to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:

Communication with the remote change management server on a 4684 Retail Controller is enabled by the ICF retail communications support, which allows a maximum of 32 logical units active concurrently through a 4684 Retail Controller description.

ICF retail communications support includes a retail pass-through utility and retail point-of-sale data translation routines. When the AS/400 system is functioning as an in-store processor, the retail pass- through utility is an application that bridges the SNA LU-0 secondary session with the host system (e.g. System/370 running NDM, CICS, or ADCS using VTAM/NCP) and the LU-0 primary session with the retail point-of- sale controller. The retail pass-through utility uses the AS/400 SNA upline facility (SNUF) for the SNA LU-0 secondary session to communicate with the host (e.g., System/370).

The user interface for finance communications support is the intersystem communications function (ICF) file interface used by high- level languages. The ICF finance communications support provides business solutions with its capability to attach finance controllers (3601, 3694, 4701, and 4702) to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:

The ICF finance communications support enables the AS/400 user to explicitly configure a financial branch system services (FBSS) controller, thereby providing the following connectivity:

The ICF finance communications support provides the capability for the attachment and configurability of the IBM Personal Banking Machines (4730, 4731, 4732, and 4736 and the IBM Self-Service Transaction Station (4737) on the AS/400 system. The Personal Banking Machines can be attached to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:

Indirectly through a 4702 Controller.

The Self-Service Transaction Station (4737) is configured on the AS/400 system as a financial branch system services (FBSS) controller, thereby providing the following connectivity:

Directly using

SNA LU-0, LU-6.2 / SDLC

SNA LU-0, LU-6.2 / X.25

SNA LU-0, LU-6.2 / Token-Ring LAN

Indirectly through a 4702 Controller

The finance support provides an application programming interface and the capability to attach to AS/400 Systems:

Ease-of-use features are provided that allow communication with the IBM finance communication system online terminal support, IBM finance communication system advanced branch controller system (ABCS) or equivalent support, in the 470X controller. This finance support is based on System/38 Finance. The 470X Control Unit can be programmed to perform 3270 emulation. IBM 4704 devices can be used to emulate 3270 displays, or IBM 3278, 3279, and 3287 devices can be attached to the controller using device cluster adapter (DCA) ports.

The OS/400 SNADS support is an integrated queued asynchronous connection to a SNADS network and remote document libraries. It provides routing, sending, and receiving operations for users to exchange distributions containing documents, messages, data, or objects with other users in the SNADS network. SNADS uses a system distribution directory to direct distributions to users in a local system or to other systems in a SNADS network.

SNA Primary LU-2 (3270 type terminal) support improves the AS/400 participation in an SNA backbone network. It enables any LU-2 terminal user in the network to access either any AS/400 system or any S/390 (R) system in the network with the same user and network interface. AS/400 application programs written for 5250 displays may also be accessed by a LU-2 terminal through the network with this new SNA Primary LU-2 support.

This will protect the investment in the SNA backbone network, installed AS/400 systems, and installed S/390 systems. It also provides a central point of control for network management and distribution. The IBM Network Routing Facility licensed program is not needed with this support.

SNA Primary LU-2 support enhancements provide for attachment of more than one Network Control Program (NCP) Communication Controller. Each controller may be in the same or different subarea. Previously, some customers were restricted by a limitation of 253 sessions. Now theoretically up to 60,000 SNA LU-2/1 application primary sessions may be configured on an SDLC link between an AS/400 system and an NCP Communications Controller, and up to 6000 SNA LU-2/1 application primary sessions may be configured for each IBM TR/LAN attaching an AS/400 system and NCP Communications Controller.

In addition, the AS/400 shared line support is enhanced with this new SNA Primary LU-2 capability. LU-2/1 application primary sessions, APPN/APPC sessions, SNUFs sessions, 3270 Device Emulation sessions, and DSNX sessions may all share the same SDLC link between an AS/400 system and an NCP Communications Controller.

The AS/400 system's ability to connect 3270 work stations to an APPN network is greatly improved. AS/400 systems with APPC, CPI for communications and using APPN networking may now add OS/400 application primary sessions to the AS/400 system in the SNA subarea network environments. This increases use of the AS/400 system as a distributed system and/or a central site processor.

At least one VTAM host using VTAM V3R4 and its companion release of NCP V5R4 is required for OS/400 SNA Primary LU-2 support. Included with this is support for DBCS displays and printers.

Also, with SNA Primary LU-2 support, user and network interface routing is handled directly by NCP and the controllers in the network.

OS/400 SNA Primary Logical Unit (PLU) support in Version 2 Release 3 significantly improves the initial and ongoing configuration effort for large networks. It exploits the use of dynamic LU definition and independent LU extended bind capability in attached NCP controllers which significantly reduces NCP configuration of AS/400 systems. Furthermore, OS/400 allows auto-create and auto-delete of configuration control blocks needed by the AS/400 application program for its LU-2 terminal and LU-1 printer sessions. Auto-create/delete are selectable device configuration options of OS/400 configuration support allowing for flexible application and network design. LU-2 terminals of 24x80 screen size are supported.

Also, there are several LU-1 (3270 type printer) operational enhancements. LU-1 SCS printer sessions are supported by OS/400 for application initiation, a terminal's associated printer, an auto-LOGON printer, and a designated network printer thru terminal input to an application. Printing may be done directly by the application program or spooled using the AS/400 spool writer facility. In addition, LU-1 SCS session primary applications may have printer output directed to an AS/400 system printer.

The SNA/Management Services Transport support, enables the OS/400 licensed program to send and receive management services data with other systems in an SNA network that provide support for the SNA/Management Services architecture. This includes other systems using OS/400, NetView and OS/2 licensed programs. An Application Programming Interface (API) is also provided to enable AS/400 customers and business partners to use this support in their network and systems management applications.

The Remote Unit of Work function described in Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) is a function of the operating system that supports distributed relational access to data on remote systems. These remote systems must be connected by a communications network and must also support DRDA. The Remote Unit of Work also supports SAA Character Data Representation Architecture (CRDA) and is used with Distributed Data Management (DDM) architecture to provide distributed relational access to remote databases. DRDA compliant access is provided by other DB2 family members.

AS/400 DRDA support in V4R5 is enhanced to provide password encryption using a standardized encryption algorithm that provides more secure password transmission between AS/400 systems and other members of the DB2 family. The algorithm used is the Diffie-Hellman encryption algorithm. With it, the client and server exchange connection keys based on shared, private, large integers. The connection keys are used by the client to encrypt the password and the server to decrypt the password with 56-bit Data Encryption Standard (DES).

The object distribution facility gives users or applications the capability to distribute objects across a network. Information such as data files, source code, and print files can easily be exchanged between peer-connected systems (AS/400 system, System/36 and System/38) using SNA distribution services (SNADS). This capability protects customer investment in systems, data, and applications, while providing improved productivity through data access.

When coupled with DSNX, ODF can redistribute files and programs received from a System/370 host to another system. For example, a DSNX distribution from a System/370, using NetView distribution manager, can be sent to an AS/400 system, which in turn can forward the distribution to System/36s or other AS/400 systems.

Display station pass-through allows a user attached to a local AS/400 system to be connected to a remote System/36, System/38 or another AS/400 system, to sign-on to that system, and to execute applications or perform network management functions as if connected directly to the remote system. An options is provided to eliminate the requirement to sign on at the target system. System/36 and System/38 users can also sign-on to an AS/400 system and perform the same functions.

AS/400 users passing through to a remote AS/400 can have their printed output automatically printed on their local system. Exchange of printed data for System/36 and System/38 users passing through to a remote AS/400 may be accomplished using the object distribution facility and a user- written program.

DDM is a function of the operating system that supports distributed file and distributed relational access to data on remote systems. These remote systems must be connected by a communications network and must also be using DDM. For example, distributed file access is provided by System/36, IBM System/38, CICS/VS, or another IBM AS/400 System. SAA Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) and SAA Character Data Representation Architecture (CDRA) are used with DDM to provide distributed relational access to remote databases.

SNA Passthrough provides SNA controllers and T2.1 nodes attached to AS/400 system an unedited unaltered session to S/390 system. VTAM signon screen is displayed on supported devices attached to AS/400 system. The following sessions can be established using this support.

IBM NRF Support/400 is programming that enables connectivity between AS/400 system and the Network Routing Facility LPP operating on the IBM 3745 Communications Controller. LU-2 (3270-type) terminals and LU-1 SCS printers attached to an NRF node may be session partners to an AS/400 application host.

Session partner routing using NRF gives the appearance to the AS/400 application host that the terminals attached to NRF are directly connected. The NRF session between the terminal and the AS/400 application host is routed thru the SNA subarea without going to the System/390 host.

Autodial support is provided on the AS/400 system so that users can communicate with other systems by automatically dialing remote systems under control of an application program or procedure. Serial autodial using the V.25 bis command set is available for synchronous, bisynchronous, and asynchronous communications using one communication line. The IBM and attention command sets are also available for asynchronous communications. The IBM 5853 modem, the IBM 7855 modem, and other equivalent V.25bis modems can take advantage of this autodial support.

3270 device emulation allows any AS/400 printer or 5250 display to emulate an IBM 3278 (Model 2 or 5) or 3279 model S2B display station, or IBM 328x printer. Host DBCS applications also can be accessed using an SNA connection. Up to 254 concurrent sessions can be active to the System/370 per SNA connection. The 3270 extended field attributes are translated into the appropriate AS/400 5250 display attributes. Up to 255 input fields per 3270 application screen can be active when displayed on local 5250s. Any remaining 3270 input fields can be accessed by a scrolling function.

This support enables System/370 application programs that were written for IBM 3270 Model 2 thru 5 display stations to be accessed at the 3270 data stream interface level by AS/400 application programs. In addition, 3270 data stream extended attributes are supported by the AS/400 3270 SNA API for 3278 Models 2 thru 5.

OS/400 supports attachment of devices to the AS/400 that enable the ISDN data link control (IDLC) communications protocol and X.25. This ISDN support includes

OS/400 SNA support provides connectivity for 5250 sessions between an AS/400 system and a 5394 Remote Control Unit (with RPQ 8Q0775), a 5494 Remote Control Unit, and with a System/370 subarea using a subarea controller (37XX). Customer investment in SNA backbone networks is protected because no changes are required to AS/400 applications programs to use the 5x94 SNA support. The LU-4 and LU-7 sessions are encapsulated with LU-6.2. APPC sessions are supported as parallel LU-6.2 sessions on the same link as the LU-6.2 encapsulated sessions.

The AS/400 user can access file transfer to exchange System/36 data and library members and AS/400 database file members with other AS/400 systems and System/36s. This can be accomplished by using async, BSCEL, or APPC/APPN support. The user interface to this support is callable subroutines from RPG and COBOL programs.

ITF allows an AS/400 user, using asynchronous support, to send and receive data through applications such as electronic message services. ITF also exchanges files and library members with other ITF users. ITF can also send DW/36 documents, but it cannot receive documents from other ITF users.

SAA CPI-C support provides for program to program communications in the SAA environments of OS/400, OS/2, VM/ESA, VSE/VSA, and MVS/ESA (IMS, CICS, TSO). Because it is an architected, call level interface, applications written to it are portable and protect customer investment in communications programming. The CPI-C is accessible from every SAA language (RPG/400, FORTRAN/400, C/400, and Procedure Language/400 REXX).

Communications support architected for CPI-C is provided by communications logical unit type 6.2 (LU-6.2). On an AS/400 system, the CPI-C provides an application with transparent access to LU-6.2 session services (commonly known as APPC), to low entry networking (LEN) nodes (type 2.1 nodes), to all APPN networking function, and to data link controls (SDLC, Token Ring, and X.25).

The source or target for SAA CPI-C applications may be MVS/ESA, VM/ESA, VSE/ESA, CICS/ESA or IMS/ESA nodes. The CPI-C program-to-program session is supported across the SNA subarea and onto APPN networks using any LEN node and APPN application system.

The AS/400 CPI-C implementation provides the following CPI-C conformance classes, as defined by X/Open's "Developer's Specification for CPI-C":

IPX (Internetwork Package Exchange**)/SPX (Sequenced Package Exchange) communications over LAN and WAN protocols provides a framework for an AS/400 system to be an application server and IPX router in a Novell (IPX) network. Native IPX/SPX communications enables AS/400 applications to directly communicate with PC applications written to an IPX API and adds IPX as an option for any application written to an API that runs over AnyNet.

IPX (Internetwork Package Exchange) / SPX (Sequenced Package Exchange) communications over LAN and WAN protocols provides a framework for an AS/400 system to be an application server and IPX router in a Novell (IPX) network. Native IPX/SPX communications enables AS/400 applications to directly communicate with PC applications written to an IPX API and adds IPX as an option for any application written to an API that runs over AnyNet.

With IPX/SPX support:

IPX/SPX communications solutions include:

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) are supported, as well as IPXWAN Version 2.0.

ATM LAN emulation enables current LAN applications to run over ATM networks without modification by imitating the operation of a traditional LAN. ATM offers better productivity for LAN applications owing to faster access to information at a comparable technology cost with no changes to existing code required (initial system configuration is required). ATM also positions users for new multimedia applications and new ways of viewing and using information. ATM is the beginning of a new communication protocol technology standard.

The following national language versions are available from the program libraries indicated.


 || Program Library Supported |
 || SMS- | SMS- | SMS- | SMS- | SMS- |
 || B | E | C | J | A |
 || USA | EURO | CAN | JPN | AUST |
|o Albanian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Arabic || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Belgian Dutch || S | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Belgian English || S | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Belgian French || S | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Brazilian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
| Portuguese || | | | | |
|o Bulgarian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Canadian French || S | P/S | *P/S | -- | -- |
|o Chinese || S | S | S | S | *P/S |
| Simplified DBCS || | | | | |
|o Chinese || S | S | S | S | *P/S |
| Traditional DBCS || | | | | |
|o Croatian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Czech || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Danish || S | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Dutch || S | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o English U/L SBCS || *P/S | P/S | P/S | P/S | P/S |
|o English U/C SBCS || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | P/S |
|o English U/L DBCS || P | P/S | -- | P/S | *P/S |
|o English U/C DBCS || P | P/S | P- | P/S | *P/S |
|o Estonian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Farsi || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Finnish || S | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o French || S | *P/S | S | S | S |
|o French MNCS || -- | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o German || S | *P/S | S | S | S |
|o German MNCS || -- | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o Greek || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Hebrew || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Hungarian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Icelandic || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Italian || S | *P/S | S | S | S |
|o Italian MNCS || -- | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o Japanese DBCS || S | S | S | *P/S | S |
|o Korean DBCS || S | S | S | S | P/S |
|o Lao || -- | -- | -- | -- | P/S |
|o Latvian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Lithuanian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |

 || Program Library Supported |
 || SMS- | SMS- | SMS- | SMS- | SMS- |
 || B | E | C | J | A |
 || USA | EURO | CAN | JPN | AUST |
|o Macedonian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Norwegian || S | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o Polish || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Portuguese || S | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o Portuguese MNCS || -- | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o Romanian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Russian || -- | *P/S | -- | S | S |
|o Serbian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Slovakian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Slovenian || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Spanish || S | *P/S | S | S | S |
|o Swedish || S | *P/S | S | -- | -- |
|o Thai || -- | -- | -- | -- | *P/S |
|o Turkish || -- | *P/S | -- | -- | -- |
|o Vietnamese || -- | -- | -- | -- | P/S |

 o SMS-B Software Manufacturing Solutions - USA
 o SMS-E Software Manufacturing Solutions - Europe
 o SMS-C Software Manufacturing Solutions - Canada
 o SMS-J Software Manufacturing Solutions - Japan
 o SMS-A Software Manufacturing Solutions - Australia
 o '*' This is the primary library for this NLV.
 o PRI Primary language feature number
 o SEC Secondary language feature number
 o P/S Primary and secondary language supported
 o DBCS Double-Byte Character Set
 o SBCS Single-Byte Character Set
 o MNCS Multinational Character Set

Multilingual support allows multiple users on the same system to be operating in different languages. This means that system messages, displays and help information as well as user applications can be presented to the end user in his national language.

Not all licensed programs are translated into all languages nor are all national language versions available from all program release support centers. Contact your IBM representative for more information.

The national language in which the licensed programs is ordered is considered the primary national language. Any other languages are secondary languages. Users can switch among the languages as necessary.

The executable code is shipped with the primary language. When a secondary language is ordered, a separate tape containing only the translated machine-readable information (MRI) is sent to the customer. The primary language MRI and the national language MRI are installed in separate libraries on the AS/400 system. Each secondary NLV is shipped on a separate tape. Multiple NLVs can be installed on a single AS/400 system.

Each secondary language is ordered only once per system, not for each licensed program. The secondary language is selected by a feature code of the Operating System/400 (5769-SS1). The secondary language tape contains national language MRI for the products that have been translated for customers by the country translation centers. For products not translated, US English MRI is included. All of the MRI is contained on a single tape volume.

The Language Dictionaries for AS/400 licensed program (5716-DCT) includes the available national language dictionaries used by IBM OfficeVision for AS/400, and therefore it is not included in secondary national language tapes. AS/400 Client Access installation diskettes are not included with the secondary national language versions. All other support and service activities are only in US English. Regardless of the NLV, all system commands are in US English. Thus, a single set of system commands works in all national language environments.

To properly display all of the national language characters, the workstation (display and keyboard) must be capable of supporting the desired national language. When a personal computer is used as a workstation supported by the AS/400 Client Access licensed program, its keyboard can be redefined for a national language, specifying the language keyboard type, so that a special language keyboard is not required.

Each secondary language NLV is shipped from the program library without publications. It is the user's responsibility to determine whether the information in the data base is English or the secondary language. The system does not automatically know which device was used to enter the data. For example, if Spanish information is displayed by an application on an English work station, not all of the Spanish characters are shown correctly. For this reason, it is recommended that Spanish information be kept in one data base and accessed by a Spanish work station, and English information be stored in a separate data base and accessed by an English work station. This example applies also to the other national languages.

Although translated MRI for multiple products is included on the distribution tape for a secondary language, the customer may use the MRI only for the products for which he is licensed.

Many customers are doing business in a worldwide environment. It is too costly and time consuming for them to redesign and rewrite an application each time they need to support users in another national language or culture. These applications require the ability to store and process character data from more that one national language. For example, a database file may need to contain customer names in English, German, Greek, Arabic, Japanese and Thai characters. Also, this capability must be available in a client/server environment and in a network of heterogeneous systems that are exchanging character data via customer applications.

The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is an emerging global character encoding, developed jointly by the industry (UNICODE 1.1) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO/IEC 10646-1 defines a code page (UCS-2) encompassing the characters used by all currently significant languages, a rich set of scientific and publishing symbols, and a variety of script languages. This common code page, spanning the character sets of many languages, can ease the application development and management issues historically found in multiple code page system environments and networks. This capability is provided in OS/400 with the UCS2 Level 1 support for database that permits characters of any national language to "coexist" in database files.

UCS2 support also includes character and UCS2 compatibility in comparisons and assignments in SQL, Query for AS/400, and Query Manager. Query for AS/400 and Query Manager also implicitly convert UCS2 data to EBCDIC before displaying and printing so that it can be displayed and printed on existing devices.

There are also "cultural values" that change from one national language to another, and OS/400 simplifies the tasks that an application must perform to provide local cultural values. This support can be used whether or not an National Language Version (primary or secondary) is installed for that language on the AS/400. Examples of cultural values are:

Locale support allows for the creation, deletion, and access of locale-based information. C-applications can access locale information via C-runtime functions. Non-C applications can retrieve locale information via APIs.

A series of routines transform physical order to logical order. Culturally correct BiDi language support requires that the flow of text, left to right or right to left, be determined by the character entered or displayed at the workstation or printer device. However, the data must be stored in DB2 UDB for AS/400 (or any file system) in the sequence the characters were entered and not how they were displayed.

International Components for Unicode

The International Components for Unicode, option 39 of OS/400, is a C and C++ library that adds robust and full-featured Unicode support. It provides internationalization utilities for writing global applications in ILE programming languages.

As companies weave e-Commerce on a global scale into their fundamental business processes, their prospective customers, established customers, and active business partners can take advantage of increased revenue, decreased expenses, and better customer communications and savings through software internationalization.

Software internationalization is the development process using libraries, like the International Components for Unicode (ICU) libraries, that enable one single program to work with text in any language, for any place in the world. For example, instead of having software versions for ten different countries, you can use the ICU support to create one version that can work seamlessly and transparently in ten different and unique countries.

The ICU components are an integral part of software development because they hide the cultural nuances and technical complexities of locale-specific software requirements. These complexities provide critical functionality for applications but they do not burden the application developer with the tremendous effort and high cost to build them.

For more information about ICU, refer to:


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Technical Description


Operating Environment

Hardware Requirements

Software Requirements

Operating Environment

Hardware Requirements

V5R2 runs on iSeries Models 150, 170, 250, 270, 6xx, Sxx, 7xx, and 8xx.

V5R1 runs on all iSeries and AS/400 RISC systems.

V5 requires a minimum main memory size of 128 MB and recommended minimum disk size of 8 GB.

For OS/400 V5, an additional 90MB of free disk space is required as compared to V4R5 for V5 installation and an additional 270 MB of free disk space is required as compared to V4R4 for V5 installation. The total disk space for OS/400 will vary from approximately 350 MB to 1 GB.

Before installation of OS/400 refer to the "Memorandum to Users".

Hardware and Software Requirements for Client Access Express Client:

Client Access Express for Windows

Client Access Express for Windows can be installed on systems with OS/400 V4R5 or later, and requires 112 MB on the server for its install image.

Many functions of the Express client are included with OS/400. However, the PC5250 display and printer emulation and Data Transfer functions can only be used if the Client Access Family product (5722-XW1) is installed on the iSeries server.

Once the Express client is installed on the PC, the client can connect to OS/400 V4R4 or later.

PC Requirements

         Client Access Express without Operations Navigator:

o        Windows 98/98/Me/NT 4.0: Pentium(R) 100 MHz and at least 32 MB of memory

o        Windows 2000: Pentium 133 MHz and at least 64 MB of memory

Hardware Requirements for Integration for Windows Server:

         iSeries Server Requirements

o        Integration for Windows Server can be used with the following RISC models of the iSeries and AS/400 systems: 8xx, 270, SB2, and SB3

Software Requirements

Some OS/400 functions are separate OS/400 features, and some OS/400 functions are optionally installable. protocols.

Backward Object Support

Supported objects created with OS/400 V4R4 can be saved and subsequently restored and used on the following OS/400 releases: V4R4 and V4R5 Standard TGTRLS support is used to implement this function.

Program objects must be created as observable.

Software Requirements for EZ-Setup Wizard:

EZ-Setup Wizard requires Windows operating system component Dial-Up Networking Version 1.2, or later. The Wizard checks for the presence of the correct version of Dial-Up Networking and provides details on obtaining and installing it, if necessary. However, to prepare ahead of time, follow these instructions:

         Windows NT: Remote Access Service from the Windows NT CD; then apply Windows NT Service Pack 3, or higher. Download this software from the Microsoft home page at:


Download the Dial-Up Networking upgrade from the Microsoft home page at:


Use Dial-Up Networking from the Windows CD.

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Planning Information


Customer Responsibilities

Refer to the "Memorandum to Users" (shipped with the machine readable material and available from your IBM representative) for information necessary to plan the installation process, including estimation of the time required.


Beginning with V3R6, all of the TAATools (about 300 tools) in the QUSRTOOL example library are no longer shipped with OS/400. The TAA Tools examples provided in earlier releases of OS/400 may still be used on V3R6, or later release. These earlier versions of the TAATools were provided on an as-is basis, and some may need code alterations to operate correctly on V3R6, or later release. If you wish to bring an earlier version of TAATools forward to V3R6, or later release, and they were created with the default of no observability, you will need to either recompile with observability on your current release or restore the source and recompile on the desired release.


         Client Access Express Client:

Client Access Express runs on Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT 4.0, and 2000 operating systems. It can be used to connect iSeries and AS/400 systems running OS/400 V4R4, or later.

The iSeries servers 270, 820, 830, and 840 use a new interface to connect the Remote Control Panel. The Remote Control Panel uses a parallel interface, Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP), to connect. The PC used must have an EPP capable port.

The EPP support for the Remote Control Panel is only available with Windows NT Workstation* and Windows 2000 Professional*.

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Soft copy publications are shipped on CD-ROM. With the initial order, a two-CD kit (Information Center and Information Center: Supplemental Manuals) is shipped with OS/400. Additional copies of CD-ROMs are available for a fee by ordering SK3T-4091 through Puborder. The CD-ROMs contain all of the technical information for iSeries including information for programs that may not have been ordered.

The Information Center can be displayed, using a Web browser on a PC, or can be selectively installed on your iSeries system. The Information Center Supplemental Manuals contain PDF that can be viewed using Adobe Acrobat reader. The contents on the Information Center and Information Center Supplemental Manuals CD-ROMs are also available on the Internet at:


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Security, Auditability, and Control


This program uses the security and auditability features of the OS/400 operating system.

The customer is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communication facilities.


(R), (TM), * Trademark or registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

** Company, product, or service name may be a trademark or service mark of others.

Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited.

  IBM Corporation 2003.