5728-SS1 IBM OPERATING SYSTEM/400


Table of Contents

5728-SS1 IBM OPERATING SYSTEM/400
No Longer Available for IBM US as of December 31, 1991
There Is More Than One Language Version for This Product
Abstract
Highlights
Description
Operating Environment
Security, Auditability, and Control
Performance Considerations
Publications


5728-SS1 IBM OPERATING SYSTEM/400


No Longer Available for IBM US as of December 31, 1991

Program services for all version 1 system products will continue to be provided until May 31, 1993.

Effective December 31, 1991, IBM will withdraw from marketing the following programs licensed under the IBM Customer Agreement:

These AS/400 Version 1 Licensed Programs have been replaced by the Version 2 of the AS/400 Licensed Programs.

No additional releases or enhancements are planned for Version 1 software products.

On January 22, 1991, IBM announced the IBM Customer Agreement (ICA). The subject of this announcement is available to customers under the ICA or any equivalent agreement, accepted by IBM, that is still in effect.


There Is More Than One Language Version for This Product


Abstract

IBM's operating system for the IBM AS/400* System (IBM Operating System/400*) enables end users, programmers, and system operators to access menus and displays that are easy to use and consistent. This design consistency in Operating System/400 interfaces offers end users, programmers and system operators a significant number of functions previously available in other products, in addition to many new easy-to- use functions.

In order to meet customers' growth and flexibility requirements, the operating system's full-function capability enables the user to take advantage of those functions when and as they are needed.

The AS/400 System provides the foundation for support of an architecture of software interfaces, conventions and protocols called IBM's Systems Application Architecture (SAA).

For most customers with IBM System/36 or System/38 products installed, the IBM Operating System/400 functions (in conjunction with separate System/36 and System/38 Migration Aids) provide migration capabilities to the new system.


Highlights


Description

AS/400 Operating System/400 Enhancements at Release 3

Note: The following enhancements are not listed in a priority sequence.

User Interface
Operational Assistant

Operational Assistant (OA) presents a group of commonly used end user tasks in easy to understand non-technical terms. It does not simplify the whole system, it simply focuses on some of the common end user functions such as printer output, batch jobs, and messages. These tasks are made more understandable/usable by:

         Non-DP terminology: Words like spooling, queue or print file are absent.

Current Values Prompted on Change Commands

When using prompting with most change commands, current values are displayed rather than *SAME. This significantly improves the usability of the change function, especially where a long parameter value is involved (for example, the list of libraries in a job description).

Print Support
Simplified Printing Control

Printing is easier to control with the addition of several functions as well as simplified interfaces to determine and resolve problems. Specific functions include:

Support for New Printer Devices

The IBM LaserPrinter 4028 Model AS1 attaches to the AS/400 System Units through the AS/400 Twinaxial Workstation Controllers. The IBM LaserPrinter 4028 supports the Intelligent Printer Data Stream. Printer highlights include print speeds at up to ten pages per minute, and cut sheet and envelope capabilities. As in most laser printers, there is a no-print border of 1/6-inch around the paper edge. Existing applications that print to the edge of the paper will need to be modified.

OS/400 software supports text, graphics, image, and bar codes, however, the IBM LaserPrinter 4028 is not supported as an OS/400 Advanced Function Printing (AFP) printer. Advanced Function Printing Data Streams (AFPDS) cannot be printed.

Session Printer Support Enhanced in the System/36 Environment

All printing produced by a job running in the System/36 Environment can be directed to the printer designated by the FORMS OCL statement or the SET procedure. User productivity is improved by providing complete predictability as to where printing will occur on the "session" printer.

DASD Availability/Recovery
Enhanced Object Type Support in User Auxiliary Storage Pools (ASP)

Improved ASP support allows most object types to be easily placed in a user ASP. Object types not supported in user ASPs include documents, spool objects and certain printer object types. This new support further improves the user's ability to recover from a DASD failure quickly and completely.

Proper DASD planning and configuration are required to ensure adequate performance and growth capability. Overflow of a user ASP is supported but steps are required to reset the overflow condition.

Mirrored Protection

Mirrored protection in most cases, allows the system to continue to operate when a disk unit or disk attachment failure occurs. Mirroring is specified on an ASP basis and requires duplicate DASD devices of the same type. The user can choose to mirror the entire system or one or more ASPs. If the entire system is mirrored, double the DASD capacity is needed.

The minimum level of protection is duplicate DASD devices. This is called 'device level' and protects against the loss of a head disk assembly unit. In most cases, if a failure occurs on a mirrored unit, the system will continue to operate successfully without loss of data.

A DASD unit is attached to the system at the end of a path which includes a bus, an IOP (Input Output Processor), a controller and finally the DASD unit. If both units of the mirror are at the end of the same path, 'device level' protection exists. However, access to the data may be prevented by a failure along the path.

When mirroring is started, the system automatically selects DASD mirror pairs that provide the best path protection for the hardware configuration of the system. To increase the path protection, additional controllers and IOP's should be considered.

In a system with both mirrored and non-mirrored ASPs, a DASD failure in a non-mirrored ASP operates as described in the DASD Error Conditions section.

Mirrored protection is an alternative for checksum protection. The system ASP cannot have both checksum protection and mirrored protection.

Mirrored protection does not remove the need for a proper backup strategy. The user must protect against catastrophes (e.g., fire) or the possibility that both units of the mirror will fail. When one unit of the pair fails, the remaining unit is exposed to a failure until the repair action occurs and mirroring is resumed.

Mirrored protection is specified using DST (Dedicated Service Tools). A reload of the system is not required. The system reorganizes the data at the next IPL before starting mirroring.

Performance can be improved for certain applications using mirroring. The system must write to both devices of the mirrored pair, but it can read from either device. The greater the ratio of 'reads versus writes', the more likely performance will be improved. Heavy disk write functions (e.g., restore) will see some performance degradation.

DASD Error Conditions Handling

On a 9406, most failures to a DASD drive or the electronics associated with DASD will not halt the system. Instead, any jobs referring to the failed equipment will be held. A System Reference Code (SRC) will be displayed. On a 9406 after the required repair actions have been completed (such as the replacement of a card), the system will release the held jobs. Timeouts may occur, but in general, this support should improve the availability of the system in many cases by not causing an abnormal system termination and the resulting system recovery process.

Concurrent DASD Maintenance

Concurrent DASD maintenance is supported only on a properly configured AS/400 9406 mirrored system.

The best configuration for mirroring protection also provides the maximum degree of concurrent maintenance. For example, 'device level' mirroring prevents the loss of data, but will not allow the system to operate successfully if a controller failure occurs. 'IOP level' mirroring allows the system to operate successfully even if the IOP or any components attached to it fail. Concurrent maintenance can only occur if the system is operating successfully.

Assuming a proper mirrored configuration, it is possible for the system to operate successfully while experiencing a DASD failure and subsequent repair action. For example, a failure to a head disk assembly will not prevent the system from operating successfully. A replacement of the head disk assembly and resuming mirroring can occur while the system continues to operate successfully.

On some system configurations, the system restricts the load source device and its mirror to an attachment which will provide only a 'controller level' form of mirroring.

In some conditions, diagnosis and repair may require active mirrors to be temporarily suspended. Some users may prefer to defer maintenance until all normal operations are completed. In some conditions (for example an IOP failure), the repair action requires that the system be powered off.

Save/Restore
Improved Library Backup or Restore Process

Error handling has been improved during a save or restore library operation. Improvements include the ability to restart library saves and restores at the point of failure and the ability to restore damaged objects (not database files) on top of existing damaged objects.

Save Storage Enhancements

The Save Storage function is improved to assist in disaster recovery situations. If an unrecoverable tape error occurs during a Save Storage operation, tape error recovery supports restart at the current tape.

In addition, users of SAVSTG on the IBM 3480/3490 with the auto loader feature are no longer required to respond to the "Mount next cartridge" message when the next cartridge is ready.

Save File Enhancements

Users can now backup the contents of a save file, not just its object description, via a new option available on most save commands.

Maximum Object Count Increased for SAVXXX Commands

The maximum number of objects that can be saved with a single SAVXXX command is increased from 8000 to 16000.

Save Improvements for Documents and Folders

System availability is improved by allowing a save of all documents and folders during normal operations. Previously, this function could be performed only when no other jobs were running on the system. Documents being updated during the save are bypassed and not included on the save media.

Creation date can be specified as criterion for a save of new folders based on that date.

A restore also now allows for a system object name mismatch, when documents and folders are restored.

AS/400 Softcopy Library on CD-ROM
Publications available on CD-ROM disc

In addition to the standard publications available for the AS/400, the new AS/400 Softcopy Library offers selected AS/400 licensed program publications on a CD-ROM disc (available in US English only) (see the Publication section for the list of included publications). The CD-ROM disc is accessed from a CD-ROM drive attached to the user's personal computer. The IBM BookManager READ licensed program provides the function for accessing the publications. BookManager READ is a prerequisite for use with the AS/400 Softcopy Library. The AS/400 Softcopy Library will give users fast and easy access to product information.

The IBM AS/400 Softcopy Library (SK2T-8249) is available for a fee of $245.00. Copies may be ordered through your marketing representative or by direct order.

Debug Support
Conditional Breakpoints in Debug

Debugging capabilities are significantly enhanced and user productivity is greatly improved. With the addition of conditional breakpoint support, data condition checking (compare to variable or constant) and a "skip" count can be specified for breakpoint conditioning.

Debug Any Other Job (Batch or Interactive)

This support applies to CL, COBOL/400, RPG/400, PL/I, and BASIC programs and significantly enhances debugging capabilities for batch jobs.

The Start Service Job function is enhanced to allow all debugging functions for the job being serviced (called the "remote job"). Any job on the system can be easily put in debug mode, including batch jobs.

When an interactive remote job is being debugged, the remote job user sees only normal application displays, with longer response times; the breakpoint displays are shown only to the servicing job.

For batch jobs, debug can be specified while the job is still on a job queue. When the job is selected for execution, breakpoint or trace specification may be entered. Then the batch job is released for execution. When a breakpoint occurs, the breakpoint display will "break" into the servicing job to allow for appropriate action.

Remote jobs can be put in debug mode while they are executing, making it possible to interrupt a looping program to determine the problem and attempting a "repair" if the loop is controlled by a changeable data item.

Database
Improved Data File Search

When displaying the data in a physical file, search characters may be specified to aid in locating specific records. The search characters may be specified as a character string or a hexadecimal string, and it is a user option whether or not to ignore case. Improved ability to find specific data may shorten problem determination and debugging activities.

Reduction of Seize Contention

When a change is made to the data in a physical file, it is necessary to prevent access to the file and its dependent logical files (by "seizing" them) until all associated changes have been completed. When many dependent logical files with access paths requiring immediate maintenance are involved in a change, the time required to complete the changes can be lengthy and end user response time can be adversely affected (called "seize contention"). The licensed internal code is enhanced to seize only the affected parts of the files being changed, thus allowing unhindered access for users of the unaffected parts (a reduction in seize contention) and improved response time. Different jobs can simultaneously update/delete different records, and add new records to the same physical file without incurring as much seize contention.

Copy File in Conjunction with Open Query File

A new command allows the user to copy the data from one file into another, using the Open Query File function to determine what to copy. The resulting file may then be accessed by utilities such as DFU or by user-written programs. This may eliminate the need to write a program for some applications and also provides for powerful record selection capabilities when creating subsets of files for testing.

Device File Support
Invalid Data Input Clarification

User productivity is improved with the capability to show the specific reason for invalid data. A user-defined message can now be associated with the validity check for:

Improved Display of Error Messages

User productivity is enhanced by being able to display all errors on a single screen at once rather than one at a time via a new Data Description Specification (DDS) function. In addition, the keyboard remains unlocked so it is no longer necessary to press the Reset key before correcting the errors.

Device File Replace Function

An option is added to the create device file function for display, printer, ICF, tape, diskette, and DDM files to replace the existing device file with a new one. The object authorities of the file being replaced are copied to the new file.

Long Subfile Records Display Enhancements

When subfile record length exceeds the length of one display line, the program may choose a truncated or folded display. A user-specified function key controls switching to the other state.

New DDS Keyword Support

When display station pass through is used, this support clarifies for the user which system he/she is currently working on.

Command Keys Supported on Help Formats

Migration of applications from the System/36 Environment to the AS/400 environment is improved by the addition of a new DDS keyword that allows function keys to be associated with help records. An indication of which function key was pressed is returned to the application program. This support was previously available only when System/36 equivalence was specified but is now extended to native applications.

Floating Minus Sign Edit Codes in DDS

Application development is simplified by supporting the floating minus sign edit codes in Data Description Specifications (DDS). Previously, they were valid only in the RPG/400 licensed program. They may now be specified with field descriptions for externally-described files to be used by RPG or other high level languages as well as utilities such as Query and SQL.

Connectivity
Enhanced LAN Based Session Routing Using APPN

Direct sessions between AS/400 systems on a LAN that are undefined to each other and the auto configuration of necessary control blocks for each system is now supported. APPC sessions between AS/400 systems ON A LAN can be established without any intermediate nodes in the session route, thereby allowing the AS/400 to take advantage of direct session functionality and APPN network services.

Enhanced LAN Based Configuration of PCs Using APPN

This enhancement allows customers to add PCs, Systems, and Applications to a LAN (Token-Ring or Ethernet) environment while the LAN is operating and thereby enabling the user to be up and running sooner.

Communications Error Recovery Procedures

User written interactive workstation jobs may be assigned to a user controlled job group and may be disconnected based on job inactivity. Users may disconnect Workstation Function (WSF) PCS/400 jobs and the interactive WSF jobs of another user.

Multiple Requestor Terminal (MRT) jobs have improved I/O error detection for ICF requestor devices. These enhancements improve user productivity with better control over communications error recovery and performance.

Link Problem Determination Aid (LPDA-2) Enhancements

The OS/400 LPDA support now includes additional LPDA-2 commands in support of IBM modems. These commands are used to provide data about network components for enhanced problem determination. Highlights of the LPDA-2 enhancements include:

The LPDA enhancements provide significant improvement to the support provided in the initial release of OS/400 LPDA. With this enhanced support the user can more effectively manage a network of systems interconnected via IBM LPDA modems.

Token-Ring Network Management - Single Ring Server

Enhances the AS/400 system as a token ring LAN manager by providing active management support of a single Token-Ring. OS/400 now provides the customer with a complete set of LAN manager functions for small Token-Ring networks.

Enhancements over the support currently available:

DSNX Direct Support Enhancements

The OS/400 DSNX support has been enhanced to include the synchronous protocols to NetView Distribution Manager (NetView DM), referred to as the Direct node support. DSX V3R2 VSE supports the listed enhancements.

The support is most useful for customers in the environment where the cost of initiating extra sessions (redialing) may be greater than keeping the connection active until data transfer is complete.

APPN Information Support Enhancements

APPC Problem Determination Data for PU2.1 Nodes provides usability enhancements to current APPN Information Support. Customers will have better access to data with which to manage their APPN network.

ICF Finance Communications Support Enhancements

Additional support enables the AS/400 user to explicitly configure a FBSS controller, thereby providing Token-Ring LAN support for the finance user. The Token-Ring LAN support includes SNA LU0, LU1, and LU2. In addition, support is provided for the attachment/configurability of the Personal Banking Machines (IBM 4730, 4731, 4732, and 4736) and the Self-Service Transaction Station (IBM 4737) on the AS/400 system. The Personal Banking Machines can be attached directly using SDLC or indirectly through an IBM 4702 controller. The 4737 Self-Service Transaction Station is configured on the AS/400 system as a FBSS controller, thereby providing direct attachment via SDLC, X.25, or Token-Ring LAN. It can also be attached indirectly through a 4702 controller.

ICF Retail Communications Support Enhancement

ICF Retail has been enhanced to communicate with the Remote Change Management Server (RCMS) on a IBM 4684 controller. The AS/400 system now supports a maximum of 16 logical units active concurrently through a 4684 Retail Controller description.

Distributed Data Management (DDM) Enhancements

Change Physical/Logical File on the remote system and Copy File, including creating the target file on the remote system, are added to DDM to simplify application designs that require this support.

ISDN Connectivity via Teleos IRX9000 ISDN Resource Exchange

The Teleos Communications, Inc. Teleos IRX9000 Resource Exchange enables the migration of existing devices and applications to an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) environment by providing multiplexor access to ISDN in support of voice, data and image services. The IRX9000 is a customer premise equipment and provides ISDN multiplexing support to other customer premise equipment, including AS/400, through native ISDN interfaces and non-ISDN interfaces. It supports ISDN basic rate (144 Kbps), ISDN primary rate (1.544 Mbps) and T1 (1.544 Mbps).

The IRX9000 provides an IBM Token-Ring (TRN) LAN attachment which will allow the AS/400, and other TRN attached equipment, to use ISDN networks for existing SNA LU 6.2 data communications applications. One such method of using the &iap with AS/400 is to use ISDN network services to bridge up to 32 TRN LANs. AS/400 customer investments are protected since existing TRN devices and applications can utilize ISDN without modification. IRX9000 can also be used with CallPath/400 to supplement existing PBX and telephony applications when ISDN access is needed.

3270 Device Emulation 27X132 Screen Size

This support enables System/370 applications that were written for IBM 3278 Model 5 display station (27 x 132 screen size) to be accessed from 5250 type workstation with 27 x 132 screen sizes attached to an AS/400 system using the AS/400 3270 Device Emulation Program. This function should provide increased usage of the AS/400 3270 DE program and enable additional applications to AS/400 users.

16/4Mbps Token-Ring Attachment

Communication services offered by OS/400 and currently supported on the 4Mbps Token-Ring network are now available on both the 4Mbps and 16Mbps Token-Ring networks through this attachment.

Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD LAN Attachment

Communication services offered by OS/400 and currently supported on the 4Mbps Token-Ring network are now available on Ethernet or IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD networks through this attachment.

3270 SNA API Support for IBM 3278 Model 3, 4, and 5

This support enables System/370 applications that were written for IBM 3278 Model 3, 4, or 5 display station to be accessed at the 3270 data stream interface level by AS/400 application programs. Furthermore, 3270 data stream extended attributes are supported by the AS/400 3270 SNA API for 3278 Models 2, 3, 4, and 5. These additional functions expand the capabilities of the 3270 SNA API.

Public Switched Telephone Network Access to X.25 Packet Switched Networks

AS/400 user productivity is improved with the AS/400 support of switched lines between AS/400 and X.25 Packet Switched Networks using Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) facilities. X.25 Switched Virtual Circuits are supported from AS/400 via the PSTN switched through the X.25 Packet Switched Network.

AS/400 switched line connection functions may be utilized when supported by the X.25 Packet Switched Network for switched line access:

         V.25 bis Autodial

AS/400 support for leased line access to X.25 Packet Switched Networks remains unchanged.

DDN Certification

The AS/400 X.25 Communications Feature has successfully passed DDN (Department of Defense Data Network) certification. The X.25 Packet Network is utilized by the TCP/IP protocols.

Work Management Support
"Disconnect" Supported for Inactive Jobs

The disconnect function suspends a job thereby reducing system overhead but preserves its environment. When the user signs on again, they are quickly returned to the point of suspension in the job, avoiding the overhead of restarting the job.

"Disconnect" a Different Job

The Disconnect Job function can be used against a different job. This enables a user-written application to monitor the "Inactive job" message queue and disconnect an inactive job.

New "Change Class" Command

A Change Class command is added, and current values are shown if the command is prompted. This significantly simplifies class changes, which previously required a three-step process: print the old class, delete the old class; create the new class using unchanged information from the old class listing.

Pool Size and Activity Level Changes Simplified

The pool size and activity level data fields on the Work with System Status display now support both output and input so the values can be changed directly.

Batch Job Message Handling

When a batch job stops to wait for a message reply, an information message is sent to the submitter's message queue to alert him to the problem. This allows for quick identification of the cause of the wait so the submitter can handle the problem and assure timely completion of the batch job.

Main Storage Pools Improvements

Main storage pools other than *BASE can be shared between different subsystems. This makes it easier to segment interactive jobs into multiple subsystems for better control over communications error recovery and performance.

Install
Install Time Reduced

An option is supported to install multiple licensed programs concurrently to reduce the total time required for installation. The licensed program and PTF installation files are copied into online save files at optimal device speed and then multiple batch jobs are started to concurrently install the licensed programs from the online save files. This option requires sufficient DASD capacity to hold the required online save files in addition to the licensed program libraries to which their contents will be installed.

Additional enhancements include elimination of the need to copy selected object attributes from old programs to new and damaged object management.

Automated Install Process

Several functions have been added to the installation process to improve its usability and speed.

An "Installation profile" on the distribution tape supplied by IBM Software Manufacturing and Distribution containing the parameters and options required during installation create an unattended process except for required tape changes.

With the addition of user-specified installation profiles, users who support remote from a central site can build distribution tapes to automate the install at the remote sites. User libraries and user written programs can be included in the installation profile to allow necessary tailoring upon completion of the installation process.

Improved PTF Install Process

The "Install PTFs" function is extended to support electronically- delivered PTFs so that their installation can be accomplished as easily as PTF packages delivered on tape. In addition, a new option on the "Power down system" function allows the user to specify which of the two copies of the licensed internal code should be used for the next IPL. This simplifies the process of distributing and installing PTFs on a remote system from a central site.

Security
Improved User Profile Creation

A profile for a new user with similar requirements can be easily created by copying an existing user profile and simply assigning a new name and password. This simplifies the task of establishing new users on the system.

Security Improvements

A security journal is provided to log all security violations as well as all changes to the security definition. The logged information cannot be changed, providing greater assurance of being able to research and solve security problems.

Security management is improved with the addition of user id to the unsuccessful signon attempts message. This message can then be used by a user written program to initiate appropriate action (e.g., deactivate profile).

Authority Adoption Enhancements

Improvements have been made to adoption authority to allow a program owner to include open interfaces such as command entry, query, or DFU since he/she can now directly control what authority is in affect.

Auxiliary Storage Management Improvements

The capability to manage auxiliary storage requirements on the system is enhanced with the availability of "amount of auxiliary storage used" when using the retrieve user profile command.

Office
Enhanced "Move Document" Options

A new CL command (MOVDOC) allows movement of a document from folder to folder, from folderless document (no folder) into a folder, or from folder to folderless document. This allows the user flexibility in document management.

System/36 Environment
Improved Abnormal Procedure End Handling in the System/36 Environment

An *ESCAPE message is issued when a procedure ends abnormally (caused for example by a // CANCEL OCL statement or a 3 option to a halt). This makes it more obvious that a problem occurred. The message can be monitored within a CL program to enable easier more efficient handling of the problem.

Group File Save Support in the System/36 Environment

The capability to exchange files between an AS/400 system and a System/36, System/34, or System/32 system is enhanced to support saving a group of files to diskette or tape in the same format as if the save had occurred on a System/36. The Save System/36 File function supports a variety save options including:

CATALOG Supports Externally-Described Files

The catalog function in System/36 Environment now shows the same information for externally-described and program-described files. Also, additional information is shown to match more closely the System/36 CATALOG function.

Library List Enhancements in the System/36 Environment

Support is added to the System/36 Environment to search the job's library list for database files rather than confining the search to a single "files library". This allows a gradual, easier conversion to the use of native AS/400 functions.

Cross System Product/Application Execution (CSP/AE)
CSP/AE Enhancements

Additional support for processing of SQL/400 data by Cross System Product applications, including multi-column indexes and expanded use of execution-time statement build. These functions provide to users greater flexibility in organizing and processing data. They also offer enhanced performance for many CSP/AE applications.

Support for longer names and multi-line statements (including SQL statements). For example, valid data-item-name lengths can be up to 32 characters. Names can be more meaningful, and therefore more usable. Naming standards can be developed more easily, and conformance made less difficult--by minimizing constraints.

Support for external specification of commitment control for each individual file used by non-SQL processes. The increased granularity of control allows more efficient processing of files, and conservation of system resources.

Support for CSP XFERs and DXFRs with arguments including any record types. Fewer "lines of code" are required to produce an application, and system resources are conserved during execution by efficient sharing of application data between parts of an application system.

Support for program CALLs with up to 30 parameters. Easier and more efficient implementation of application systems with higher levels of inter-program communication are supported.

Cross System Product applications greatly simplify growth or migration to new hardware platforms. Some applications can be regenerated for a new target environment with no changes to the original source specifications. These new OS/400 functions help to maintain and enhance that compatibility between CSP/AE environments.

Application trace enhancements. The CSP/AE component's application trace capabilities now include program calls, Input/Output, object references, process names, application statements, SQL data areas, and Move/Compare/Math source operands. All options can be dynamically modified during interactive application execution. Thus, OS/400 supports faster and easier debugging of CSP/AE applications.

Support for longer names, allows naming standards to be customized and relaxed, and helps to encourage conformance by supporting simplification.

Support for external specification of commitment control. The administrator is relieved of an "all or none" decision, and is provided a method of utilizing function, as required, on a file by file basis.

General Object Support
Date of Last Reference for Most Object Types

Users will be better able to manage disk space utilization with the addition of several pieces of information to the object description of most object types:

Performance Information
Automatic Performance Data Collection

An additional set of commands/menus are provided to allow a user to automatically collect system performance data on a weekly schedule. This function provides the user with an easy way to collect data for trend analysis. The user can work with this data using the AS/400 Performance Tools licensed program which is also enhanced. For more information, please refer to the Performance Tools section of this text.

System/36 Coexistence
Help Text Document Interchange

This will provide IBM Business Partners and customers who prefer to develop System/36 applications on AS/400 a means of sending Helptext documents between systems.

Application Design
Waiting for Multiple Events in an Application

Some applications need the capability to "monitor" multiple sources of input (for example, input from either a display workstation or a communications line). A new parameter on a display or ICF file indicates a data queue on which to place an entry if there is display or ICF data available. The application program waits for an entry to arrive on the data queue, and either processes it (if it was placed there by the Send Data Queue function) or reads the display or ICF file depending on where data is available as indicated in the data queue entry.

Message Handling
Receive Message Enhancements

The Receive Message function is enhanced to support receiving the first or last message in a message queue, or a message preceding a referenced message. Previously, the sequence was determined by the type of message being retrieved, and there was an option to receive a message after a referenced message.

Security/Open System Interfaces
System Integrity

System Integrity is an important characteristic of the OS/400 product. For systems running with the highest security level (system value QSECURITY=40), IBM will now accept APARS that describe exposures to system integrity as defined below.

The machine architecture of AS/400 enforces controls requiring users be authorized to objects referenced when running a machine instruction. OS/400 has been developed using programming guidelines that maintain system integrity and control access to user data. Release 3 will introduce additional protection to isolate customer and system objects. This protection is designed to prevent unauthorized access to objects and the unauthorized use of privileged system interfaces and restricted machine instructions.

Since it is not possible to certify that any system has perfect integrity, IBM will accept APARS that describe exposures to the system integrity of the OS/400 System. System integrity APARs describe problems encountered when a program on the AS/400 introduces an exposure to system integrity provided that running under OS/400 the user or program are not authorized under a method under the users control. IBM will continue its efforts to enhance the integrity of OS/400 and will respond promptly when exposures are identified and reported in release 3 or subsequent releases of OS/400.

OS/400 System Integrity is defined as the inability of any program running under OS/400 not authorized by a method under the customers control to:

New Interfaces to System Functions

The primary purpose of the following functions is to allow customers and Business Partners to create system-type applications with supported interfaces that will provide release-to-release compatibility. This is achieved by providing direct access to selected system control blocks. The following can be retrieved using Call-level interfaces.

Other Call-level interfaces allow user programs to:

In conjunction with the addition of the above supported interfaces to system functions, use of currently unsupported interfaces is checked to help prevent system integrity problems and reduce the probability of release-to-release incompatibility.

All violations are logged to an optional journal so that use of unsupported interfaces and MI instructions may be audited. New security level 40 causes an abnormal end for a user program using unsupported interfaces and MI instructions.

System Application Architecture (SAA) Common Programming Interface (CPI)
PrintManager/400

PrintManager/400 is a set of OS/400 operating system functions that are designed to provide consistent access to printing, including Advanced Function Printing (AFP). PrintManager/400 consists of the following:

PrintManager/400 defines a set of print options that can be specified within the application. These print options, combined with the ability to create common, portable applications and printing definitions (with print descriptors), make possible easy and consistent access to printing across your organization. With PrintManager/400, you can use the SAA CPI element and API to create batch applications or installation-specific end-user interfaces for printing.

Query Management

Query Management (SAA Query Common Programming Interface (CPI)) may be used to import and execute queries generated in another SAA environment. Query Management is not a replacement for the AS/400 Query (5728-QU1) licensed program. It is not an end user tool, rather it is aimed at the DP professional.

Query Management may also be used to imbed query and report writer function in AS/400 applications, and optionally be sent to other SAA environments for execution.

Query Management and the existing AS/400 Query differ significantly in function and performance. Interactive, ad hoc detail reports run more slowly on Query Management than on AS/400 Query.

Procedures Language 400/REXX (REXX)

REXX is an easy to learn language designed to facilitate the writing of clear, structured, interpreted procedures. REXX can provide the data manipulation and procedural logic framework for OS/400 commands and conventional calls to other high-level language and CL programs.

The REXX interpreter implements the SAA level 1 definition of Procedures Language, as well as, the SAA level 2 definition with the exception of native language support for stream I/O. Because of this, it provides a more portable procedural alternative to OS/400 CL programming, thus reducing the programming investment for users who require applications which execute in several SAA environments. REXX also helps protect the programming investment for users who have already developed REXX procedures for other SAA environments. They need only replace the embedded environment commands with OS/400 commands to enable such procedures on an AS/400 system.

REXX also has a rich repertoire of arithmetic, string handling, and logic operations which can be interpreted by OS/400. Users may use REXX as a personal computing language, without requiring a compiler. The extended repertoire in this interpreter can enhance programmer productivity.

Procedures Language 400/REXX also supports DBCS for Asian language users.

Magnetic Tape Support
3480/3490 Magnetic Tape Subsystem Enhancements

The IBM 3480/3490 Tape Subsystem support, which initially provided 3422 Tape Unit emulation, has been enhanced to include support for the following:

Other Enhancements
New Retrieve Object Description Command

Applications that need to examine specific information about an object can do so more quickly with the new Retrieve Object Description command.

Additional Plotters Supported by GDDM

Additional plotters are now supported, giving the user greater flexibility to meet plotting requirements. The IBM 6182, 6184, 6185, 6186-1, and 6186-2 are 8-pen plotters that can be attached to an IBM Personal Computer or Personal System/2, emulating an IBM 5292-2 graphics display. The 6182 and 6186-1 have auto sheet feed capability while the 6184, 6185 and 6186-2 are floor models with large paper size to support architectural and drafting applications.

Enhanced Support of Simplified Chinese

OS/400 includes Simplified Chinese 32x32 DBCS font. With this font, Simplified Chinese can now be printed on a IBM 5337 printer. Additionally, OS/400 provides the capability to sort data in Simplified Chinese in a variety of sorting sequences via the SORT function of OS/400.

US English Capability on Japanese Display Stations

OS/400 now supports a new keyboard type (JUB) to allow a Japanese display station to use uppercase and lowercase English alphabets as well as Japanese Kanji. A Japanese Personal System/55 running 5250 PC programs now has the option to select the use of single-byte Katakana or English lowercase. Previously, the English lowercase alphabet was not supported on Japanese display stations.

Print System/370 DBCS Documents on the AS/400 System

It is now possible to print DBCS documents that were generated on a S/370 on one of the following AFP printers attached to an AS/400 system: IBM 3820, 3825, 3827, 3831, 3835. A DBCS document is one that uses Chinese, Korean, Japanese, or Thai characters. In order to use this support, the documents must be in Advanced Function Printing Data Stream (AFPDS).

SNA Japanese 3270PC Emulation Enhanced

The SNA Japanese 3270PC Emulation function of OS/400 is enhanced to provide 3270PC GDDM graphic support. This function can be used with low cost Personal System/55 (Models 5530-S and 5530-T) running DOS J4.0 as well as other higher cost models.

Improved Positioning via "Position to" Support

This enhancement simplifies moving to a desired position in a list and thus eliminates the need to repeatedly use the roll keys.

"Confirmation of Delete" for "Work with" displays

"Confirmation of Delete" screens are included for all "Work with" displays to allow verification that the pending delete request is correct.

Usability Enhancements for Command Entry Display

The Command Entry display is enhanced to improve user productivity for selected operations. Commands are entered in a single input area that supports multi-line insert and delete. A previous command can be duplicated and prompted with a single keystroke. A failed command is left in the command input area, and can be prompted even though it exceeds the size of the input area. DBCS characters are supported on the Command Entry Display.

Translated Error Messages During Signon

Error messages occurring at signon can be shown in a secondary national language specified by the user. They were previously shown in the primary national language even though the signon screen itself was shown in the national language.

System Distribution Directory Enhancement

Entry fields have been added for Name (last, first, preferred) and department/organizational information. A search function is now provided thus allowing an installation's users convenient access to data regarding users enrolled in the directory including hierarchical organization information. Maintenance is allowed by an administrator only and its use is optional.

QUSRTOOL Library Updated

The QUSRTOOL library contains tools that can be used to provide business solutions or improve user productivity. Some tools have been replaced by system support (for example, Work with System Values), some tools have been enhanced, and others have been added such as pop-up windows for PDM options.

Online Education

The Online Education function of the AS/400 is enhanced to support user courses written in Asian languages (double-byte character set). The existing interfaces to add and view courses can be used to accomplish this task. The usability of Self-Education Facility on the Personal System/2 (SEDF/2) (5601-267) is enhanced when creating courseware for the AS/400. For additional information, see the Self-Education Facility Author's Guide (SH12-5623).

Data Recovery from Diskette

Support is added to improve recovery of data from failing diskette media. The System Service Tools support a function to read data from a failing diskette, repair the data (if possible), and write the data back to a good diskette. This is equivalent support to that available on the IBM System/38.

The user may use this function to modify data on diskettes so that diskettes from other systems can be used on the AS/400.

Reduced Risk of Data Loss from Tape

When the Copy File (CPYF) function encounters a "read data check" error, CPYF will count one error and continue to the next tape block until the user-specified maximum-allowed error count is reached. This is an extension of current support for continuing after a "invalid length block" error.

Additional OUTFILE Support

OUTFILE support allows a user program to automate some aspects of system management by processing the data that would normally be displayed or printed. OUTFILE support is added for:

In addition, the system name, date and time are added to most OUTFILEs to identify the source of the information.

Problem Log Enhancements

Several enhancements are added to improve the function, usability and efficiency of resolving problems on the system.

New "Work with System Resources" Menu

This menu provides access to Work with Software and Hardware resources. The Work with software resources option provides the option to work with licensed programs or to display existing commands. The Work with Hardware Resources option provides access to a new Work with Hardware Resources command added to manage the hardware resources on the system. This command makes it easier to do device configuration and to research and handle configuration problems.

Release 3 to Release 2 Coexistence

This function provides the capability to move application objects from a Release 3 AS/400 system to a Release 2 AS/400 system. When using a create program command or save command, a user can ensure that the resulting object or save media is compatible with Release 2. This support allows a Release 3 AS/400 system to coexist in a network of other AS/400 systems.

For additional information on the new and enhanced products at Release 3, refer to "Application System/400 New Products Planning Information for Release 3", GA21-9579.

End of Release 3 Enhancements

AS/400 Operating System/400

The IBM Operating System/400 licensed program provides system support for all models of the IBM AS/400 System. Following are descriptions of the significant IBM Operating System/400 functions.

Single Integrated Operating System for all Models

All the OS/400* functions follow a consistent design philosophy, and this consistency is one of the cornerstones of AS/400 ease of use. The Operating System/400 licensed program includes everything described in this document. Functions not described elsewhere include:

         Object-Oriented Architecture

All system and user resources are stored on the system as "objects" that have a consistent architecture. Every object includes a description containing such information as the owner, date created, object size (in bytes), date of last save and the volume identifier of the media on which the save occurred, and text describing the object.

Object placement on different disk units is controlled by the system. The auxiliary storage disk units contribute to an overall pool of storage called Single-Level Storage and it is not necessary to be concerned with where individual objects are placed; the libraries are used to locate any object. The architecture supports multiple disk allocations to store objects, and additional allocations are automatically added as an object (for example, a physical or logical file) grows in size. This capability means you need to monitor overall auxiliary storage capacity but not the sizes of individual objects. This contributes significantly to the ease of operating the AS/400 System. Auxiliary storage capacity can be added as needed without changing current application programs.

A library is a directory to a group of objects (for example, programs and files), and allows a convenient form of grouping objects for either application or control purposes. Options exist to display, delete, or change objects in a library or to move or copy an object from one library to another. The normal method of processing is to use a library list (list of libraries) to control how the system accesses objects. A library can also be secured to prevent un-authorized users from accessing any objects.

Input and output spooling are supported.

Input spooling allows batch jobs to be placed on job queues to wait for an opportunity to execute. Batch jobs consisting of one or more commands can be submitted using a job stream on diskette or a database file. Batch jobs can also be submitted directly from a work station.

Output spooling queues printer requests until the requested printer becomes available. Options supported include multiple output queues, multiple print writers, numbers of copies and form type specifications. The system allows the output of a user's job to be directed to a specific printer or to a specific output queue. Various displays allow the user to see what is to be printed, control the printing, and manage the spooled files. The spool functions can be controlled from any work station. It is possible to establish a spool environment for an individual user totally under that user's control.

An option exists to automatically start the spooling environment when the system is started.

Message handling displays messages for various system and user operations. This allows feedback for successful operations or to identify error conditions. The user may define and send messages between users (individual users or all active users), between users and applications or between applications. Application programs can utilize the substitution of variable data along with editing to tailor the messages. Message replies are supported, and a "break" option is supported to allow an immediate interruption of the end user's activities.

Each user and each work station device has an implicitly created message queue. The user message queue can be used by another user, a program, or the system to communicate to a particular user, while the work station message queue can be used to communicate to a particular work station.

The system supports multiple levels of job accounting and captures job-related information. Users may be assigned accounting codes so defined units of work can be recorded. The information is placed in a journal receiver, and user-written programs are required to process the data.

Tape and diskette devices are supported for data interchange as well as the save/restore functions. A High Level Language (HLL) program or the copy command can directly read or write to a specific device.

A range of work station printers is supported for data processing or text quality output. Printer graphics are supported for bar codes and other graphic representations.

Display data management provides a large number of options to allow screen formatting control and validation of input. The screen definitions are entered using either DDS (an Operating System/400 function) or the Screen Design Aid (SDA) utility (included in the AS/400 Application Development Tools licensed program, 5728-PW1). The Field Reference File (a form of data dictionary) may be used to simplify entry of field descriptions. Interaction with the HLL program is achieved by setting various indicators to control work station functions or provide feedback. Sub-file support enables a program to work with a list of identically formatted information for either display, update or input.

Cursor sensitive help information may be designed into user applications. The help information can be supplied in the same display file used by the application program, a different file, or from a document created by the word processing function of OfficeVision/400 (5728-WP1).

The system supports a data area object that allows storage of up to 2,000 bytes of information that can be accessed and updated by various programs within a single job or across jobs. Data areas are also directly supported by some HLLs. A local data area exists for any job and can also be used to pass information to programs submitted to batch or to other programs operating within a job.

The system supports a call interface to send and receive information from a data queue object. This is designed to handle job-to-job communication with a high volume of requests.

Work Management supports the concurrent execution of batch jobs and interactive and non-conversational transactions on the system. Functions are supported to display and control the activities of a job and its performance characteristics. Each job is protected from other jobs on the system, but facilities exist to allow for job-to-job communication.

Different levels of interfaces allow the user to utilize Work Management by operating with the system defaults as well as providing for individual tailoring of specific functions. An option exists to request automatic tailoring of the execution environment to the CPU model, size of main storage, and configured devices. This automatically-established execution environment should provide good performance for many installations, although some may achieve better performance by changing some of the execution environment attributes.

The system can be powered on manually or automatically, at a specific time of day or from a remote location. Power down of the system is normally done by a command executed interactively or under program control.

Up to 16 different functions can be active as a result of a single sign-on to a work station. To switch from one function to another requires pressing an "interrupt" key and then selecting a new function from a menu. This can significantly increase the productivity of users who perform a variety of tasks of short duration (for example, interrupting an order entry application to switch to an unrelated inquiry application to answer a telephone request). It is also possible to sign on a second time, to have two different sessions active (and have up to 16 active functions in the second session).

A set of commands/menus are provided to allow a user to manually collect system performance data for a single time period or to automatically collect data on a weekly schedule. This function provides the user with an easy way to collect data for trend analysis. The user can work with this data using the AS/400 Performance Tools licensed program.

The copy facility copies data from one file to another. The files may be input from the database, tape, or diskette and be output to the database, tape, diskette or printer. Various options are available to control reformatting and the records selected for copy.

Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS):

Various recovery functions are supported to assist the user in case of a failure to the system such as a loss of power or the loss of a Direct Access Storage Device (DASD) device. The Uninterruptable Power Supply feature is supported so a user program can be notified when operating on a vendor-supplied Uninterruptable Power Supply or the Battery Power Unit feature of the IBM 9404 System Unit.

Improved ASP support allows most object types to be easily placed in a user ASP. Object types not supported in user ASPs include documents, spool objects and certain printer object types. This new support further improves the user's ability to recover from a DASD failure quickly and completely.

Mirrored protection in most cases, allows the system to continue to operate when a disk unit or disk attachment failure occurs. Mirroring is specified on an ASP basis and requires duplicate DASD devices of the same type. The user can choose to mirror the entire system or one or more ASPs. If the entire system is mirrored, double the DASD capacity is needed.

When mirroring is started, the system automatically selects DASD mirror pairs that provide the best path protection for the hardware configuration of the system. To increase the path protection, additional controllers and IOPs should be considered.

Mirrored protection is an alternative for checksum protection. The system ASP cannot have both checksum protection and mirrored protection.

Mirrored protection does not remove the need for a proper backup strategy. The user must protect against catastrophes (e.g. fire) or the possibility that both units of the mirror will fail. When one unit of the pair fails, the remaining unit is exposed to a failure until the repair action occurs and mirroring is resumed.

On a 9406, most failures to a DASD drive or the electronics associated with DASD will not halt the system. Instead, any jobs referring to the failed equipment will be held. A System Reference Code (SRC) will be displayed. On a 9406 after the required repair actions have been completed (such as the replacement of a card), the system will release the held jobs. Timeouts may occur, but in general, this support should improve the availability of the system in many cases by not causing an abnormal system termination and the resulting system recovery process.

Concurrent DASD maintenance is supported only on a properly configured AS/400 9406 mirrored system.

Assuming a proper mirrored configuration, it is possible for the system to operate successfully while experiencing a DASD failure and subsequent repair action. For example, a failure to a head disk assembly will not prevent the system from operating successfully. A replacement of the head disk assembly and resuming mirroring can occur while the system continues to operate successfully.

In some conditions, diagnosis and repair may require active mirrors to be temporarily suspended. Some users may prefer to defer maintenance until all normal operations are completed. In some conditions (for example an IOP failure), the repair action requires that the system be powered off.

Save/Restore functions provide the capability to copy objects off and back onto the system for backup and recovery purposes. Any tape or diskette device as well as an online save file can be used for saving objects or members. Use of a save file allows an unattended off-shift save with a subsequent copy to media when the system operator is available. Various options are provided to save by library or object or save only the changed objects on the system. In addition, there is an option to save all auxiliary storage without regard to library or object contents. The restore capability allows the user to restore objects or members which were previously saved, including single objects from a group of objects saved at one time or a single member from a multiple- member file.

Journal support records all changes to records in a file as they occur. Before and after images are supported. This provides for an audit trail of changes and the capability for file recovery (either forward or backout) using the journaled images. When a file is journaled, the system ensures that any changes to the data are written to the journal.

The system also supports access path journaling to provide faster recovery of access paths in case of an abnormal system termination. If an access path is being maintained when the system abnormally terminates, the access path is placed in an invalid state. Journaling of access paths allows the system to quickly make the access path operational instead of requiring a rebuild of the entire access path.

Commitment Control ensures that a multiple database change transaction is completed successfully or backed out. An application programmer can easily provide for recovery at a transaction boundary. Commitment Control requires journaling. HLL statements allow for application rollback or commitment.

A Checksum Protection facility is provided to protect against a loss of data in the event of a single DASD failure. User-defined auxiliary storage pools may be used to isolate recovery object types (journals, journal receivers and save files) to help assure their availability for recovery in the event of a DASD failure.

Error handling has been improved during a save or restore library operation. Improvements include the ability to restart library saves and restores at the point of failure and the ability to restore damaged objects (not database files) on top of existing damaged objects.

The Save Storage function is improved to assist in disaster recovery situations. If an unrecoverable tape error occurs during a Save Storage operation, tape error recovery supports restart at the current tape.

Users can now backup the contents of a save file, not just its object description, via a new option available on most save commands.

The maximum number of objects that can be saved with a single SAVXXX command is increased from 8000 to 16000.

System availability is improved by allowing a save of all documents and folders during normal operations. Previously, this function could be performed only when no other jobs were running on the system. Documents being updated during the save are bypassed and not included on the save media.

Creation date can be specified as criterion for a save of new folders based on that date.

Programs produced by the Query licensed program (5728-QU1) and the Data File Utility (DFU) (included in the Application Development Tools licensed program, 5728-PW1) can be executed using OS/400 functions. It is not necessary to have the Query or Application Development Tools licensed program installed on the execution system.

The following query specifications can be changed at run time:

Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of queries for selection to execute or delete and to display a list of files available to query.

Limited query capability is provided directly in OS/400. Functions include:

Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of DFU programs for selection to execute and to display a list of files available to DFU.

Limited data entry capability is provided directly in OS/400. Functions include:

Ease of Use, Installation, and Maintenance

         Operational Assistant

Operational Assistant (OA) presents a group of commonly used end user tasks in easy to understand non-technical terms. It lowers the technical skills required to perform these tasks on the AS/400. It does not simplify the whole system, it simply focuses on some of the common end user functions such as printer output, batch jobs, and messages. OA also provides some automatic "housekeeping," i.e., OA automatically cleans up joblogs, history log files, and system journals.

The single set of menus for OA is set up as an attention program so that it can be accessed at any time within an application with one keystroke. If the application being used already has an attention program, OA can be added as an option on the application's existing attention menu.

System-supplied menus provide a task-oriented approach so that the system can be set up and operated by a user unfamiliar with Operating System/400 control language. The menus also support an object-oriented approach by providing access to "work with" list displays. A fast path method allows quick access to system functions for the more experienced users.

The user can request that locally-attached devices be automatically configured, including using either of two system-supplied naming conventions for each device. In addition, local displays and printers can be added, changed or removed without affecting users signed on to displays connected to other controller ports.

The AS/400 Help facility provides comprehensive help to explain display functions for both single input fields and the entire display. An Index Search facility can be used to request help in starting a given task that may involve multiple displays.

For example, when a user presses a Help key, the information provided is determined by the current location of the cursor on the display. When the cursor is in a line or field, specific field help is provided. When the cursor is in other, non-specific areas of a display, extended help is provided on the use of the display as a whole, along with the description of the use of individual fields.

The help information linked to specific displays provides immediate assistance to successfully interact with each display. Through Index Search, users can get a "big-picture" idea of how to perform a task that encompasses multiple displays, or, if needed, an explanation of a concept or term. The Index Search function includes many synonyms. Users may ask for information in their own words, not only the terms used by the system.

System operational functions can be performed on an attended, partially attended, or a predominantly unattended basis. System operator functions can be interactively entered or executed under program control. Printer paper and media handling are manual functions. Various displays are provided to allow for control of jobs, spooling operations and communication lines.

The Operating System/400 programs use a "table-driven" design. Variation in function is achieved by changing an external table of controlling variables. The installation of OS/400 software involves primarily copying the system objects from the distribution media onto the system auxiliary storage; no "system generation" is required. Tailoring can be easily accomplished by changing values in the various external tables (such as System Values, Network Attributes, and Subsystem Descriptions).

Several system functions provide assistance in problem determination including dedicated and system service functions, messages, help information, and problem analysis commands.

A copy screen function allows an image from one work station to be displayed on another work station to assist in problem determination for user-or IBM-supplied programs. This is especially useful when used in conjunction with remote service support.

PTFs (including licensed internal code changes) can be loaded and applied using a command. Deferred PTFs can be applied only at IPL time, but an option allows this to be done unattended. PTFs can be shipped to a central site, either on media or electronically, and may then be packaged and distributed to remote or DSLO license sites, either on media or electronically. With the exception of the loading of media, the handling of PTFs can be automated for remote sites.

Productive Application Development Environment

Various OS/400 functions such as interactive debug, command prompting and the cross-reference capability are included to assist in programming the system. A programmer menu, a data dictionary capability, and the Application Development Tools (5728-PW1) licensed program, are integrated with the operating system to form an application development environment. This environment supports a hierarchical approach to application development which can increase programmer productivity.

         Interactive Debug

The debug facilities help to increase programmer productivity by providing various tools to assist in program creation and maintenance. An RPG/400, COBOL/400, BASIC, PL/I, or CL program can be debugged at any time (with no special compilation required), and the program source statement numbers and variable names are used when requesting debug functions. Functions supported include:

Note: Pascal programs have their own interactive debug support including all the above functions except single-step execution. A compile-time option allows the user to specify that debug capability should be included in the Pascal program.

Each command (both system and user) supports prompting to allow simple entry of command parameters. Conditional prompting is used to bypass certain parameters based on values entered into previous parameters. Selective prompting results in a subset of command parameters being displayed, with predetermined values used for unprompted parameters. Conditional prompting and selective prompting can greatly simplify required user input. Online help information is available to assist in understanding the command or the individual parameters and values.

The system supports cross-reference capability to allow for the following types of questions to be answered:

And for the user of Interactive Data Definition Utility (IDDU),

A Programmer Menu is also supported to allow creation and maintenance of objects with minimal use of system commands.

IDDU support allows the user to create IDDU Data Dictionaries and file, record format and field definitions to assist in the creation of database files. This is an alternative method to using Data Description Specifications (DDS) to describe some physical files. Easy-to-use functions within IDDU assist in the creation of files with existing field definitions. Definitions are entered into a dictionary and multiple dictionaries may exist for different application areas.

Support for Running Cross System Product Applications

The Cross System Product/Application Execution (CSP/AE) component of the OS/400 operating system executes applications generated on a System/370 using Cross System Product Version 3 Release 2 Modification Level 1 (or later).

Cross System Product applications greatly simplify growth or migration to new hardware platforms. Some applications can be regenerated for a new target environment with no changes to the original source specifications. These new OS/400 functions help to maintain and enhance that compatibility between CSP/AE environments.

See "CSP/AE User's Guide and Reference" (SH23-0516) for details of functions and usage of this OS/400 component.

Significant Database Functions

The database support (using a relational model) is integrated into both the machine and the operating system. Its functions provide a high degree of data integrity and programmer productivity. For example, the database licensed internal code monitors a program's use of a file, and when sequential access is recognized, the licensed internal code automatically switches to double buffering to improve performance of sequential processing.

The database consists of physical and logical files. Logical files provide an alternate view of the physical data, which can include a different record sequence, a subset of records by select/omit criteria, or new fields created from a subsetted concatenation of fields. (Programs that use a logical view of the data need no change when the physical data is updated, which can mean a reduction in program maintenance.) Logical files can provide access to either single or multiple physical files. If multiple physical files are involved, the logical file definition may involve either multiple formats (one per physical file) or a single format which is created by joining up to 32 physical files.

Access paths may be defined for files to allow access in either keyed or arrival sequence order. Access paths are maintained when a change to the data occurs. This allows multiple users to be immediately aware of changes in the data base and to access the current information in their required sequence. The following keyed access path functions are supported:

Definitions of files can be entered by Data Description Specifications (DDS), by Interactive Data Definition Utility (IDDU), or by IBM Structured Query Language/400 (a separate licensed program, 5728-ST1). The file definition can be used by a variety of functions on the system such as the utilities or HLL programs.

DDS supports the capability to define a Field Reference File (a form of data dictionary) to describe, in one place, the attributes of all data fields for use by multiple applications. This acts as a repository for all field information including display attributes, edit codes, edit words, validity checks for interactive data entry, and descriptive information. When a field name is specified in a file definition, the Field Reference File is used to extract the proper field information. The Field Reference File allows a single definition of a field in the data base and helps ensure consistency in field names and defined attributes. This can result in significant benefit in the areas of application design, maintenance, standardization, and programmer productivity.

The database supports record additions, updates, deletions, initialization, and reorganization. A full range of processing options are available for the HLL programs such as sequential or random access (by key or relative record number), and retrieval of next and previous record. Commands allow many of the database functions (for example, record selection and ordering) to be described dynamically and performed externally to the HLL program, thus maximizing programmer productivity.

Database also allows a record-level definition of a file, enabling HLL programs to provide field definitions when the file is processed. Files, including multiple record types defined only to the record level on the system, can be defined at a field level using IDDU. This allows utilities such as Data File Utility (DFU) and Query to process the file, minimizing the System/36 migration effort. These utilities are available as separate licensed programs: 5728-PW1 for DFU and 5728-QU1 for Query. In addition, System/38 versions of these utilities are available (5728-DB1).

Electronic Customer Support

IBM AS/400 Electronic Customer Support is an innovative approach designed to help make users self-sufficient by offering an integrated set of functions which enhance customers' ability to service and support any environment, from a single system to complex systems and networks. In addition to locally available functions, the product's applications provide access to both remote marketing support systems and IBM service support. Because of its simplicity and ease-of-use characteristics, customers with medium or small installations, where data processing knowledge or experience may be limited, are now able to configure and support their systems.

The benefits are not limited to end users. Electronic Customer Support enables third party software and support organizations to support systems and networks from a central site. This partnership between these organizations, IBM Agents, and IBM results in enhanced service and support to IBM AS/400 customers.

Electronic Customer Support solutions enhance self-sufficiency in resolving problems, and maximize system availability by providing timely response to customer service and support needs. Primary elements of Electronic Customer Support include the following:

Online Education

Online education for the IBM AS/400 System provides an integrated, flexible and innovative approach for customers to obtain AS/400 education. It brings education on the system directly to the customer's work place. Because it is modular, it enables the users to progress at their own pace with minimum work interruption.

Online education is composed of three related components:

         Tutorial System Support: A set of modules covering the basic IBM AS/400 terminology, concepts, facilities and operations; shipped with each system.

Comprehensive Security to all System Resources

Each AS/400 installation can use one of the following levels of security to satisfy a range of requirements:

It is easy to control access to system resources by giving each user a menu from which to select functions.

It is also possible to secure individual system and/or user resources using a combination of public authority (for functions available to any user who can access the resource) and private authority (for functions available only to specific individuals). Facilities are provided to specify a group of users who should have the same authority to a group of objects. There is also a function to exclude a user from the authority granted to the public.

Listed below are the discrete object and data authorities that can be granted:

         Object Authorities

o        Object Existence (User can delete the object)

o        Object Management (User can change the object description)

o        Operational (User can use the object)

Application Program Interface to System Functions

         Control Language (CL)

The control language provides a consistent interface to all system functions. Most commands can be executed both interactively and in a compiled CL program. The control language provides rich function and a consistent set of terminology and syntax. User-written commands can also be created.

CL programs allow the use of variables, error handling and access to the data base. Programming functions include:

The programmer can create tailored solutions that utilize the full range of system functions without end user or operator awareness of what is being executed. Most commands can also be executed from within a HLL program.

OS/400 office host support provides a programming interface designed around the AS/400 control language. The commands are provided for application programming interfaces (APIs) to the following AS/400 services.

The majority of the APIs are provided with the OS/400 licensed program; however, there are some that are shipped with two other licensed programs:

The commands shipped with the OS/400 licensed program can be used without the OfficeVision/400 licensed program or any other licensed program installed. However, some commands provide more function when the OfficeVision/400 licensed program is installed; for example, the Work with Documents (WRKDOC) command. Most of these commands offer both interactive and batch options which allow customers to write and tailor applications for these services.

Graphics functions are supported using the Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM) which may be accessed from an HLL program or using the AS/400 Business Graphics Utility (BGU) licensed program (5728-DS1). The following OS/400 interfaces to graphics functions are supported.

Programs can be written in either a High-Level Language (HLL) or CL. A program written in one language can call and pass parameters to a program written in the same or a different language. All system and user programs are re-entrant, and each user executes the same "read only" object code of a program with the system maintaining separate, unique work areas for each job and each program within the job. In addition, only those portions of the object code actually in-use are required to be in main storage. These two factors can increase the number of programs concurrently operating in the available main storage.

The Sort utility supports sorting and merging of data base files. A full record sort and an address sort are available as well as summary sorting. Selection and sorting using the Sort utility has definite performance advantages over the use of data base access paths for certain applications. The sort utility can:

Multiple Operating Environments

In addition to running applications written specifically for the AS/400 System, in most cases, OS/400 functions allow execution of many applications migrated from the System/34, System/36, and System/38 with little or no modifications required. Data can be shared by applications written for OS/400, System/36, or System/38.

         System/36 Environment

Most System/36 applications can execute on the AS/400 System. This is done in the System/36 environment. When running in the System/36 environment all of the following can be executed:

The end user should see only minor changes when dealing with user- written applications and screens. Some operational differences will be apparent to end users of applications that use system functions (for example, system menus due to the implementation of SAA guidelines).

A separate Migration Aid licensed program (5727-MG1) is available on the System/36 to assist the user in the migration from a System/36 to the System/36 Environment on the AS/400 System.

There are many new OS/400 functions immediately available for System/36 applications and for program development. For example, the interactive debug capability can be used regardless of whether the user is debugging an RPG II or RPG III program. Functions like journaling can be added to applications without making any program changes.

There is special support for the differences between the AS/400 and System/36 handling of zoned and packed decimal data. System/36 environment programs accept invalid characters in decimal data fields and will replace the invalid characters to get a valid decimal number. OS/400 programs do not accept invalid characters in zoned and packed decimal data fields.

The programmer can continue to maintain System/36 source for distribution to System/36s in a network. However, compilation of System/36 programs must be done on a System/36.

Most System/36 users can begin to use OS/400 functions by mixing System/36 and OS/400 functions. This is true of data files and applications. Program defined files can be converted to external defined files and the System/36 RPGII or COBOL programs can still process the files. System/36 RPGII programs or OCL may be replaced gradually with the AS/400 RPGIII and CL programs. When intermixing System/36 and AS/400 functions in the same System/36 environment job, architectural differences between the two environments can cause special programming considerations. These apply especially to situations where both programs do I/O.

The OS/400 supports a set of commands designed to migrate data between the System/36 and AS/400 or the AS/400 and System/36. One set of these commands support saving and restoring of library source and procedure members, another set is for saving and restoring of data files between the two systems. The commands that save and restore data files can handle a single file, all files in a file group or all files in a specific library.

Some of the System/36 functions have been enhanced to make use of functions available on the AS/400. Some examples of this are:

o        Provide support to change the default files library (FLIB procedure and FILELIB OCL statement).

The System/38 Environment provides for:

The System/38 Environment allows the execution of most programs written for a System/38. The same job can execute any combination of AS/400 or System/38 programs. The Programmer Menu supports new source types which enable the identification of System/38 syntax. The programmer can maintain either AS/400 or System/38 programs during the same job. Compilations of programs to be distributed to System/38s must be done on a System/38.

A separate Migration Aid licensed program (5714-MG1) is available on the System/38 to assist in the migration from a System/38 to the System/38 Environment on the AS/400 System.

Connectivity to Remote Devices, Systems, and Networks

The AS/400 System offers a wide range of communications capabilities and functions that enable communications with a variety of IBM and non-IBM systems either in batch or interactive modes. Traditional SNA hierarchical, emerging SNA peer networks and SAA standards are supported, thereby offering the user the greatest flexibility possible in network design both now and in the future.

Supported protocols and networks:

Network Management Facilities:

Communications Facilities:

Supported Protocols and Networks

The AS/400 System directly connects to the IBM Token-Ring Network (either 4 or 16 Mbps) and to Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD LANS. AS/400 LAN Attachment Features are configured and appear to the system as types of communication lines. OS/400 supports multiple concurrent SNA communication sessions with a variety of IBM products over both LAN types. TCP/IP sessions are also possible over both Token-Ring and Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 LANS (Refer to IBM AS/400 TCP/IP connectivity utilities 5728-LCL).

The maximum number of Local Link Stations supported per LAN attachment on each system are indicated below:

 

SYSTEM MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LINK STATIONS/LAN

 

9406 256

9404 128

9402 64

 

BSC, Async, and SDLC support provides the user with the ability to communicate with other systems and devices that use the comparable protocol. Communications via async to other systems and to Async/ASCII devices such as terminals, printers and plotters requires user-written application programs. Async support may be run on an X.25 packet- switched data network. An integrated PAD (packet assembler/disassembler) is provided that supports CCITT Recommendations X.3, X.28, and X.29.

The AS/400 System provides an interface for attachment to an X.21 leased or circuit-switched network using either X.25 or SDLC communications.

The AS/400 System provides an attachment and support for X.25 packet- switched data networks via a non-switched line through either an X.21 or X.21.bis (V.24 or V.35) interface and via a public switch telephone network (PSTN) facilities on a V.25 bis autodial or V.25 bis/RS-366 parallel autodial interface.

Note: All networks currently supported by the IBM System/36 and IBM System/38 will also be supported by the IBM AS/400 System.

DDN Certification

The AS/400 X.25 Communications Feature has successfully passed DDN (Department of Defense Data Network) certification. The X.25 Packet Network is utilized by the TCP/IP protocols.

Network Management Facilities

The AS/400 System provides Communication and System Management (C&SM) functions that allow the management and control of the AS/400 System in a System/370 host-controlled network, in an AS/400 peer network, and as an intermediate node in a System/370, AS/400, or IBM Personal Computer network. Change management, change distribution, problem management, and problem determination functions are provided.

         Alerts Support to NetView*, System/36, System/38, AS/400

The Alerts support allows problems detected within the network to be quickly reported to a network operator located at a central site for problem management, thereby allowing for increased uptime for the network. The system at the central site could be another AS/400 System, a System/36, System/38 or a System/370 with the NetView licensed program.

The Alert notifies the AS/400 network operator of an actual or impending loss of resource and provides information about the problem including recommended actions.

Options are provided to include:

o        Controlling the receiving, logging, forwarding and displaying of Alerts.

This support records and reports problems related to Token-Ring adapters and media. The operator is notified when hard or soft errors occur. A hard error indicates a permanent error resulting in the loss of a network resource. Soft errors may indicate the impending loss of a network resource, and are recorded when an error threshold for transient, recoverable errors is exceeded. Operators are Alerted to the probable source of the error.

Additionally operators are given the capability to query an individual LAN station for profile information and if an unacceptable number of errors are occurring, force that station off the ring.

The Network operator can display and print the LAN topology, allowing him to monitor current LAN station status, and initiate repair actions if a station should go down.

If the network operator is located at another system (either a AS/400 System or System/370), error notification is accomplished by the Alerts support described above.

This support applies to the local ring to which the AS/400 System is attached. Larger networks consisting of multiple rings or centrally- managed distributed sites may require more extensive network management support. A licensed program for the IBM personal computer is available. (The IBM LAN Manager, Version 1.0, Program Number 83X9-100).

The OS/400 Distributed Host Command Facility allows the users of display stations of a System/370, using the Host Command Facility (HCF) companion program under ACF/VTAM to:

o        Interactively operate and control an AS/400 System as if attached as a remote AS/400 work station.

The OS/400 LPDA function provides data about network components for problem determination. These architectural network commands are issued to determine which of the various network components might be causing an error, including commands for modem and line status, and transmit and receive tests intended primarily for IBM signal converter products (modems).

The OS/400 LPDA support includes additional LPDA-2 commands in support of IBM modems. These commands are used to provide data about network components for enhanced problem determination. LPDA-2 dial commands are not supported.

The OS/400 Distributed Systems Node Executive (DSNX) support allows the AS/400 System, System/36, and IBM personal computer to become part of an SNA network in which distribution of data objects and installation of software changes are centrally controlled at the System/370 focal point by NetView Distribution Manager (NetView DM). DSNX is used to distribute application programs, programming changes, objects, files, procedures and messages from the NetView DM host system.

The AS/400 System functions as an end node to the NetView DM focal point and as an intermediate node between NetView DM and other AS/400 Systems, System/36s, and IBM Personal Computers.

Once AS/400 DSNX support is active, no operator interaction is required. The NetView DM host system controls all transfers of information between the nodes and the NetView DM host system. As an intermediate node, DSNX can process distribution lists received from NetView DM and forward the requests to the other nodes in the network.

The OS/400 DSNX support includes the synchronous protocols to NetView Distribution Manager (Netview DM), referred to as the direct node support.

Communications Facilities

         X.21 Short Hold Mode (SHM) and Multiple Port Sharing (MPS)

X.21 Short Hold Mode (SHM) and Multiple Port Sharing (MPS) are supported to take advantage of the fast call set-up and clearing characteristics of X.21 SHM/MPS.

Work stations from the 5250 family of displays and printers (as well as programmable work stations that emulate the 5250) are supported via 5250 remote controllers. Programs written for interactive applications need not be aware of the work station location (local or remote). For information on 3270 Remote Attachment, see the section on 3X74 Remote Attachment.

The Intersystem Communications Function provides the application interface for the AS/400 System communications support. The following communication types are supported through this interface:

The application program uses high-level language operations and communications functions to communicate with a remote system. Either externally described data or system-supplied formats (compatible with System/36 SSP-ICF operations) can be used.

Support functionally equivalent to that known on the System/36 as "ICF INTRA Support" is also provided. This Intrasystem Communications function allows communications between applications running on the same AS/400 system as if they were using a communications line. This allows:

APPN provides a way to establish and maintain a network of AS/400 Systems, System/36s, and other IBM systems in a powerful, easy-to-use manner. The AS/400 user can install and keep up to date a complex network of interconnected systems without requiring highly skilled programmers. Configuration and maintenance of the network is accomplished by the controlling nodes that make up the network. Systems that use DDM, Alerts support, Display Station Pass-through, SNA/DS, File Transfer Support, Electronic Customer Support, and APPC can take advantage of APPN networks. APPN also provides connectivity to an SNA backbone.

Enhancements to APPN on the AS/400 System include:

which allows users to control the priority of data transmitted through the network.

which allows users to control how data is routed through the network.

allows direct sessions between AS/400 systems on a LAN that are undefined to each other and the auto configuration of necessary control blocks for each system.

allows customers to significantly reduce AS/400 system configuration for LAN based PCs using APPC support.

APPC allows a program on one system to communicate with a program on a remote system so that users can run applications and have access to functions not available on the local system. AS/400 APPC is based on SNA LU6.2 and PU Type 2.1 and is designed to provide a common session protocol for both document interchange and distributed data processing.

The OS/400 SNA/DS support is an integrated queued asynchronous connection to a SNA/DS network and remote document libraries. It provides routing, sending, and receiving operations for users to exchange distributions containing messages, data, or objects with other users in the SNA/DS network. SNA/DS uses a system distribution directory to direct distributions to users in a local system or to other systems in a SNA/DS network.

The network configuration menu provides options to:

o        Work with SNA distribution services (SNA/DS)

The Object Distribution Facility uses SNA Distribution Services (SNA/DS) to exchange objects between peer-connected systems. Information such as data files, source code, and print files can be easily exchanged between the AS/400 System, System/36 and System/38. The Object Distribution Facility, when coupled with DSNX, can redistribute files and programs received from a System/370 host to another system. As an example, a DSNX distribution from a System/370 using NetView Distribution Manager can be sent to an AS/400 System, which, in turn, can forward the distribution to System/36s or other AS/400 Systems.

Display Station Pass-through allows a user attached to a local AS/400 system to be connected to a remote System/36, System/38, or another AS/400 system, sign-on to that system, and execute applications or perform network management functions as if connected directly to the remote system. An options is provided to eliminate the requirement to sign on at the target system. System/36 and System/38 users can also sign-on to an AS/400 System and perform the same functions. Exchange of printed data may be accomplished using the Object Distribution Facility and a user-written program.

Distributed Data Management (DDM) provides both Source and Target support as defined in Level 1.0 of the DDM Architecture. Source DDM provides the ability to process a file on another system which supports Target DDM (for example, System/36, IBM System/38, CICS/VS, or another IBM AS/400 System). Target DDM provides the ability to process file requests received from another system which supports Source DDM (for example, System/36, System/38, Personal Computer or Personal System/2, or another AS/400 system). Target DDM also supports the shared folders function of AS/400 PC Support.

The SNA Upline Facility provides the AS/400 user with communications to:

This provides for program-to-program communication between AS/400 and System/370 programs and supports customers migrating from SNA Upline Facility on System/36 as well as DSNX.

Autodial support is provided on the AS/400 System so that users can communicate with other systems by automatically dialing remote systems under control of an application program or procedure. Serial Autodial using the V.25 bis command set is available for synchronous (SDLC), bisynchronous (BSC) and asynchronous communications using one communication line. The IBM and Attention command sets are also available for asynchronous communications. The IBM 5853 modem, the IBM 7855 modem, and other equivalent V.25bis modems can take advantage of this autodial support.

3270 Device Emulation allows any AS/400 5250 display or printer to emulate an IBM 3278-2, 3278-5, or 3279-S2B display or IBM 328x printer. Up to 254 concurrent sessions can be active to the System/370 per SNA connection. The 3270 extended field attributes (blinking, reverse Video, highlighting, underscore and seven-color) are translated into the appropriate AS/400 5250 display attributes. Up to 960 input fields per 3270 application screen can be displayed on local 5250s. (A maximum of 254 3270 input fields can be accessed at one time). Any remaining 3270 input fields can be accessed by a scrolling function. Access is given to the 3270 Device Emulation translate tables allowing the user to map keyboards and handle infrequently used characters such as the 3270 field mark. IBM Personal Computers or Personal System/2s with 5250 adapters or remote 5250 emulation are provided 3270 Device Emulation functions. ASCII devices attached via the ASCII Work station Controller or via the IBM 5208/ROLMbridge LPC are also provided 3270 Device Emulation functions.

By using the IBM Personal Computer System/370 File Transfer PRPQ (P84132 5799-PEH), IBM personal computers attached to the AS/400 System running DOS with IBM 5250 or Token-Ring Network adapters can exchange files with the System/370.

This support enables System/370 application programs that were written for IBM 3270 Model 2 thru 5 display stations to be accessed at the 3270 data stream interface level by AS/400 application programs. In addition, 3270 data stream extended attributes are supported by the AS/400 3270 SNA API for 3278 Models 2 thru 5.

3x74 Remote Attach allows IBM 3270 remote control units or IBM Personal Computers executing PC 3270 Emulation Program, Version 3 (59X9969 or Feature Number 9969 of licensed program 5875-MMA) to be attached to the AS/400 System via an SNA/SDLC communications port (3174/3274) or IBM Token-Ring Network (3174-3R or -53R). 3x74 Remote Attach gives any 3x74-attached IBM 3270 display access to most 5250 applications with essentially 5291 or 5292-1 functions. Major 5250 function exclusions are the word processing function of IBM OfficeVision/400, 5250 graphics, and 132-column display. 3270 printers are provided 3287/5256 level of function. Any IBM 3270 display accessing System/370 applications is passed through the AS/400 System, giving total 3270 display function. IBM Personal Computers with IBM 3278/79 adapters attached to 3x74s may exchange files with the System/370 via the pass- through capability of 3x74 Remote Attach. These personal computers cannot access AS/400 PC Support, but can access the same 5250 applications as 3270 displays.

Also supported are DBCS 5578 displays and PS/55 executing DBCS 3270 PC programs.

The IBM 5294 Remote Control Unit can be used to attach up to eight 5250-type displays and printers to a AS/400 System via a communications link. The function provided will be equivalent to that available on the System/36 and System/38 with the exception that access to AS/400 PC Support to attached Personal Computers will not be supported.

The IBM 5394 Remote Control Unit attaches up to 16 5250-type displays and printers to a AS/400 System via a communications link. The function provided to the remotely-attached work stations will be identical to that provided to the local work stations.

The user interface provided by the ICF Retail Communications Support is the Intersystem Communications Function (ICF) file interface used by high-level languages. The ICF Retail Communications Support provides the capability to attach Retail Controllers (3651, 3684, 4680, and 4684) to the AS/400 system using SNA LU Type 0/SDLC communications. The ICF Retail Communications Support enables communication with the Remote Change Management Server (RCMS) on a 4684 Retail Controller. In addition, the ICF Retail Communications Support allows a maximum of 16 logical units active concurrently through a 4684 Retail Controller description. NMVT alerts generated by the 4680 and 4684 Retail Controllers are supported by the AS/400 system. However, RECFMS alerts generated by the 3651 and 3684 Retail Controllers are not supported.

The SNA LU Type 0 / SDLC communication can be over a point-to-point switched line or a point-to-point or multipoint non-switched line. The switched line support provides for automatic dial (V.25bis), automatic call (V.25), manual dial, automatic answer, and manual answer. ICF Retail Communications Support can share the same primary SDLC multipoint line with Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC) Support, ICF Finance Communications Support, and Remote Workstation Support. Each can be active on the multipoint line at the same time.

The ICF Retail Communications Support allows concurrent operation of retail terminals and 3270 displays/printers from one retail controller. However, the controller must also support concurrent Retail (SNA LU Type 0) and 3270 (SNA LU Type 1 and 2) operations.

The ICF Retail Communications Support includes a retail pass-through utility and retail point-of-sale data translation routines. When the AS/400 system is functioning as an in-store processor, the retail pass- through utility is an "application" that bridges the SNA LU Type 0 secondary session with the host system (e.g., S/370 running NDM, CICS, or ADCS using VTAM/NCP) and the LU Type 0 primary session with the retail point-of-sale controller. The retail pass-through utility uses the AS/400 SNA Upline Facility (SNUF) for the SNA LU Type 0 secondary session to communicate with the host (e.g., S/370).

The user interface provided by the ICF Finance Communications Support is the Intersystem Communications Function (ICF) file interface used by high-level languages. The ICF Finance Communications Support provides the capability to attach Finance Controllers (3601, 4701, and 4702) to the AS/400 system using SNA LU Type 0/X.25 and SNA LU Type 0/SDLC communications and Finance Controller (3694) to the AS/400 system using SNA LU Type 0/SDLC communications. The ICF Finance Communications Support enables the AS/400 user to explicitly configure a Financial Branch System Services (FBSS) controller, thereby providing SNA LU Type 0/X.25, SNA LU Type 0/SDLC, SNA LU Type 0 Token-Ring LAN communications support. The ICF Finance Communications Support provides the capability for the attachment and configurability of the Personal Banking Machines (4730, 4731, 4732, and 4736) and the Self Service Transaction Station (4737) on the AS/400 system. The Personal Banking Machines can be attached directly to the AS/400 system using SNA LU Type 0/SDLC or indirectly to the AS/400 system through a 4702 Finance Controller. The Self-Service Transaction Station is configured on the AS/400 system as a FBSS controller, thereby providing direct attachment using SNA LU Type 0/X.25, SNA LU Type 0/SDLC, or SNA LU Type 0 Token-Ring LAN or indirect attachment through a 4702 Finance Controller.

The SNA LU Type 0/SDLC communications can be over a point-to-point switched line or a point-to-point or multipoint non-switched line. The switched line support provides for automatic dial (V.25bis), automatic call (V.25), manual dial, automatic answer, and manual answer. The ICF Finance Communications Support can share the same primary SDLC multipoint line with Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC) Support, ICF Retail Communications Support, and Remote Workstation Support. Each can be active on the multipoint line at the same time.

The ICF Finance Communications Support allows concurrent operation of finance terminals and 3270 displays/printers from one finance controller. However, the controller must also support concurrent finance (SNA LU Type 0) and 3270 (SNA LU Type 1 and 2) operations.

The ICF Finance Communications Support includes 3601/4701 diskette download support. Application programs that run in the IBM 3601/4701 Finance Controllers are generated on a S/370 system in a basic exchange diskette file format. This diskette is loaded on an AS/400 system and the diskette file is sent to the 3601/4701 Controller by the ICF Finance Communications Support.

Note: The AS/400 system does NOT have an equivalent IBM 4702 Finance Controller diskette download capability.

The Finance Support provides the capability to attach to AS/400 Systems:

1.      The 4701/4702 Finance Communication Controllers via SNA/SDLC and SNA/X.25 communications lines, and

2.      The 3694 Document Processors via SNA/SDLC communication lines.

An application program interface is also provided for a high-level interface to this support. Ease-of-use features that facilitate communication with the IBM Finance Communication System Online Terminal Support (OTS), IBM Finance Communication System Advanced Branch Controller System (ABCS) or equivalent support, in the 470X controller, is also provided. This finance support is based on System/38 Finance. The 470X Control Unit can be programmed to perform 3270 emulation. IBM 4704 devices can be used to emulate 3270 displays, or IBM 3278, 3279, and 3287 devices can be attached to the controller via device cluster adapter (DCA) ports.

The AS/400 user will be able to access File Transfer Support to exchange System/36 data and/or library members as well as AS/400 Data Base file members with other AS/400 Systems and System/36s. This can be accomplished by using Async, BSCEL, or APPC/APPN support. The user interface to this support is via callable subroutines from RPG and COBOL programs.

ITF allows an AS/400 user, using Async support, to send and receive data through applications such as electronic message services. ITF also exchanges files and library members with other ITF users. ITF can also send DW/36 documents, but it cannot receive documents from other ITF users.

BSCEL support on the AS/400 System allows a program to start a program on another system which also has BSCEL support:

BSCEL support also allows a program to communicate to other systems and devices using the Binary Synchronous Communications (BSC) protocol. It is a program-to-program function.

Office Host Services

The AS/400 System provides office host services for DIA devices and OfficeVision/400.

Major functions include:

Document Interchange Architecture (DIA) Host Support

DIA host services allow the AS/400 System to serve as an office systems host for document distribution and document library services. The support allows users to work with their own documents and objects or to work on behalf of another user.

DIA host services are available to the IBM 5250 family of work stations through the IBM OfficeVision/400 licensed program (5728-WP1), and IBM Personal Computers through the IBM AS/400 PC Support licensed program (5728-PC1). DIA host services also support the IBM 6580 Displaywriter.

         Document Distribution Services

DIA distribution services provides support for sending documents to and receiving documents from other office systems hosts in an SNA LU6.2 network. Document interchange uses the OS/400 SNA/DS support. Office users can distribute documents and messages to one or many recipients on either the local system or remote systems. Remote distribution services are provided for the IBM AS/400 System, IBM System/36, IBM System/38, DISOSS/370, and IBM 5520. Connectivity is provided to:

o        IBM System/36 Personal Services/36 (PS/36) licensed program (5727-WP3 on 5360 or 5362, or 5727-WP8 on 5364 or 5363)

IBM AS/400 documents can be interchanged with the following systems: System/36 (PS/36), System/38 (PS/38), AS/400 System, 5520 (Administrative Processing System), Displaywriter (EDD), DISOSS, 8100 (DOSF) via DISOSS, and PROFS via DISOSS or via the IBM MVS/VM bridge (using BSC or SNA) included in the IBM AS/400 Communications Utilities licensed program, 5728-CM1.

Document Library Services allow local and remote systems office users to store and control access for documents in the local document library on an AS/400 System and search for them by using the descriptions stored with the documents. OS/400 functions include DIA Document Library Services for remote users of IBM OfficeVission/400, System/36 Personal Services/36, and Displaywriter (via Electronic Document Distribution).

The user can perform searches in the DIA document library for documents that satisfy specified criteria. A list of all documents that the requestor can access based on the specified search criteria will be created. The user can:

Reference information for printed copy documents (regular mail), which qualify based on the search criteria, will be included in the document list.

The local AS/400 office user may also perform these document library services in remote document libraries on another AS/400 System, System/38, or DISOSS on a System/370. As part of local document library devices, the IBM AS/400 provides a folder concept for a natural way of organizing filed information. The objects within a folder may include documents, graphs, images, data, and reference information for printed copy documents (regular mail). The user may also optionally file information in the DIA document library without a folder.

Folder management services and transforms are provided on the local AS/400 System. Functions include the following:

Shared folders are designed to handle text documents from both the word processing function of OfficeVision/400 and IBM Personal Computer DisplayWrite programs. In addition, the shared folders can be used to store data and applications from IBM personal computers. Transformations between personal computer ASCII and AS/400 EBCDIC are completed only when necessary to allow data sharing between IBM personal computers and the AS/400 System.

A recovery option screen is presented to the user if previous work was ended abnormally. The user can return to the last active page or begin again.

Through the use of data stream transformations provided with the AS/400 office support, the word processing function of OfficeVision/400 (in conjunction with OS/400 document distribution) supports FFT-DCA and Revisable Form Text-Document Content Architecture (RFT-DCA) data streams for interchange between the AS/400 System and users of other IBM word processing programs or systems supporting FFT-DCA and RFT-DCA, including DISOSS, another AS/400 System, PROFS, System/36, System/38, Displaywriter, and the IBM Personal Computer DisplayWrite programs.

Print services include draft and letter quality support with special handling options for certain printers. View services include support for viewing final form documents and the text portions of a compound document.

Spelling aid dictionaries may be created for use with proofreading aids in the OfficeVision/400 licensed program (5728-WP1) and the Text Management/38 utility (included in the AS/400 System/38 Utilities licensed program, 5728-DB1).

Processor-based Charge Group Matrix

 

Application System/400

Processor-Based Charge Groups

(as of 08/21/90)

from - Exhibit no. M4125-4 Z125-4125 (US only)

 

Machine Processor

Type Model Group

 

9402 C04 C5

9402 C06 D5

9404 B10 D5

9404 C10 D5

9404 B20 E5

9404 C20 E5

9404 C25 F5

9406 B30 F5

9406 B35 F5

9406 B40 G5

9406 B45 G5

9406 B50 H5

9406 B60 J5

9406 B70 K5

 

National Language Support

National Language Versions and Multilingual Support

The following national language versions are available:

1.      Available from the Software and Publications Center (Europe).

2.      Available from the Canadian Program Release Support Center.

3.      Available from the Australian Program Release Support Center.

4.      Available from the Japanese Program Release Support Center.

5.      Available from the Mexican Program Release Support Center.

6.      Available from All Program Release Support Centers.

7.      Available from the Argentinian Program Release Center.

8.      Available from IBM Software and Manufacturing Distribution (US).

Note: * indicates available as secondary language ONLY from that library.

Note: MNCS is the abbreviation for Multi National Character Set.

Note: DBCS is the abbreviation for Double Byte Character Set.

Multilingual support allows multiple users on the same system to be operating in different languages. This means that system messages, displays and help information as well as user applications can be presented to the end user in his national language.

Not all licensed programs are translated into all languages nor are all National Language Versions available from all Program Release Support Centers. Contact your IBM representative for more information.

Information about Secondary National Languages

The national language in which the licensed programs is ordered is considered the primary national language. Any other languages are secondary languages. Users can switch among the languages as necessary.

The executable code is shipped with the primary language. When a secondary language is ordered, a separate tape containing only the translated MRI (machine readable information) is sent to the customer. The primary language MRI and the national language MRI are installed in separate libraries on the AS/400 system. Each secondary NLV is shipped on a separate tape. Multiple NLVs can be installed on a single AS/400.

Each secondary language is ordered only once per system, not for each licensed program. The secondary language is selected by a feature code of the Operating System/400 (5728-SS1).

The secondary language tape contains national language MRI for the products that have been translated for customers by the country translation centers. For products not translated, US English MRI is included. All of the MRI is contained on a single tape volume.

The MRI for the following licensed programs is included in the secondary language tape subject to availability:

The Language Dictionaries Licensed Program (5728-DCT) includes the available national language dictionaries used by OfficeVision/400, and therefore it is not included in secondary national language tapes.

PC Support installation diskettes are not included with the secondary national language versions.

The NLV question and answer (Q&A) database is available on the secondary language tape. All other support and service activities are only in US English.

Regardless of the NLV, all system commands are in US English. Thus, a single set of system commands works in all national language environments.

To properly display all of the national language characters, the workstation (display and keyboard) must be capable of supporting the desired national language.

When a personal computer is used as a workstation supported by the PC Support licensed program, its keyboard can be redefined for a national language using the INZPCS command, specifying the language keyboard type, so that a special language keyboard is not required.

Each secondary language NLV is shipped from the program library without publications.

It is the user's responsibility to determine whether the information in the data base is English or the secondary language. The system does not automatically know which device was used to enter the data. For example, if Spanish information is displayed by an application on an English work station, not all of the special characters will be shown. For this reason, it is recommended that Spanish information be kept in one data base and accessed by a Spanish work station, and English information be stored in a separate data base and accessed by an English work station. This example applies also to the other national languages.

Although translated MRI for multiple products is included on the distribution tape for a secondary language, the customer may use the MRI only for the products for which he is licensed.

Additional Information

For additional information concerning national language support refer to the following:

AS/400 National Language Support: User's Guide (GC21-9877)


Operating Environment

Machine Requirements

A minimum of 600 million bytes (MB) of disk storage is recommended. The 600MB includes space for licensed internal code, licensed programs, applications, and user data. The auxiliary storage requirements for the AS/400 licensed internal code and licensed programs are included for convenience in calculating total requirements.

Auxiliary storage is required on all AS/400 systems for licensed internal code:

 

IBM 9402/9404 System Unit 76.0 million bytes

IBM 9406 System Unit 94.0 million bytes

 

In addition, disk space equivalent to the main storage size is required to accommodate a main storage dump. The licensed internal code sizes include dump space for a 4MB system.

The Operating System/400 licensed program supports all models of the IBM AS/400 system, and uses 155MB of auxiliary storage. The OS/400 extended base support is installed automatically after the OS/400 base support has been successfully installed and uses 6MB of auxiliary storage. System work space is also required, estimated at 12 percent of the total size of all installed 5728-XXX and 5730-XXX licensed programs.

Additional auxiliary storage is required for each of the following optional Operating System/400 functions. The following optional functions are loaded during installation, however, each can be selectively deleted after installation.

 

Online Information 19.5 million bytes

Online Education 5.0 million bytes

S/36 and S/38 Migration 6.5 million bytes

System/36 Environment 11.0 million bytes

System/38 Environment 2.0 million bytes

Example Tools Library 23.5 million bytes

AFP Compatibility Fonts 6.0 million bytes

Previous Release CL Compiler Support 3.0 million bytes

Operational Assistant 2.5 million bytes

 

The auxiliary storage requirements for other AS/400 licensed programs are included for convenience in calculating total requirements. Where two or more product descriptions are shown for one licensed program, the separate product functions may be selected during installation.

 PROGRAM
 SIZE IN
 PROGRAM MILLION
 DESCRIPTION Number BYTES

 

IBM AS/400 BASIC 5728-BA1 2.0

IBM COBOL/400 5728-CB1 2.0

Previous Release Compiler

Feature (#6050) 5728-CB1 1.5

IBM AS/400 System/36-

Compatible COBOL 5728-CB1 2.0

Previous Release Compiler

Feature (#6050) 5728-CB1 1.5

IBM AS/400 System/38-

Compatible COBOL 5728-CB1 1.5

IBM AS/400 Communications Utilities 5728-CM1 3.0

IBM AS/400 System/38 Utilities 5728-DB1 7.5

IBM AS/400 Cryptographic Support 5728-CR1 0.5

IBM AS/400 Application Development Tools 5728-PW1 13.0

IBM AS/400 Business Graphics Utility 5728-DS1 2.0

IBM AS/400 PC Support Base 5728-PC1 3.5

DOS Programs 5728-PC1 11.0

OS/2 Programs 5728-PC1 8.5

NOTE: If you have both DOS and OS/2, there is 3.5MB of shared

space - so the total when both are installed is 16.0.

 

IBM OfficeVision/400(formerly AS/400 Office)5728-WP1 17.0

IBM AS/400 Pascal 5728-PS1 5.0

IBM AS/400 Performance Tools 5728-PT1 11.0

IBM AS/400 PL/I 5728-PL1 2.0

IBM AS/400 Query 5728-QU1 2.5

IBM RPG/400 5728-RG1 2.5

Previous Release Compiler

Feature (#6050) 5728-RG1 1.0

IBM AS/400 System/36-

Compatible RPG II 5728-RG1 2.0

Previous Release Compiler

Feature (#6050) 5728-RG1 1.0

IBM AS/400 System/38-

Environment RPG III 5728-RG1 2.0

IBM Structured Query Language/400 5728-ST1 1.0

IBM C/400 5728-CX1 9.0

Previous Release Compiler

Feature (#6050) 5728-CX1 7.0

IBM FORTRAN/400 5730-FT1 3.5

IBM RM/COBOL 5730-MC1 4.0

IBM Systems Management Utilities 5730-SM1 1.0

IBM AS/400 Point-of-Sale

Communications Facility 5728-CF1 2.5

IBM AS/400 Transmission Control Protocol 5728-TC1 10.0

IBM CallPath/400 5730-TL1 4.0

IBM AS/400 Language Dictionaries 5728-DCT 11.0

All dictionaries are loaded during installation of the IBM AS/400

Language Dictionaries licensed program. Those that are not

needed may be deleted after installation.

 

Brazil .25

Catalan .20

Danish .49

Dutch .51

Dutch (modern) .52

Finnish .005

French .84

French Canadian .84

German .62

Greek .71

Icelandic .40

Italian .25

Norwegian (Bokmal) 1.9

Norwegian (Nynorsk) .49

Portuguese .28

Spanish .90

Swedish .82

Swiss-German .62

U. K. English .48

U. S. English .48

U. S. English Legal .05

U. S. English Medical .22

 

IBM AS/400 Advanced Function Printing Fonts:

 

Sonoran Serif** (#5051) 5728-FNT 4.5

Sonoran Serif Headliner (#5052) 5728-FNT 5.0

Sonoran Sans Serif**(1) (#5053) 5728-FNT 4.5

Sonoran Sans Serif Headliner (#5054) 5728-FNT 5.0

Sonoran Sans Serif Condensed (#5055) 5728-FNT 3.0

Sonoran Sans Serif Expanded (#5056) 5728-FNT 2.5

Monotype Garamond** (#5057) 5728-FNT 3.5

Century Schoolbook** (#5058) 5728-FNT 4.0

Pi and Specials (#5059) 5728-FNT 1.5

ITC Souvenir** (#5060) 5728-FNT 4.0

ITC Avant Garde Gothic** (#5061) 5728-FNT 3.5

Math and Science (#5062) 5728-FNT 3.0

Data1 (#5063) 5728-FNT 1.0

APL2 (#5064) 5728-FNT 1.0

OCR-A and OCR-B (#5065) 5728-FNT 1.0

 

IBM AS/400 Advanced Function Printing DBCS Fonts:

 

DBCS Printing Fonts:

Japanese 5730-FN1 43.2

Korean 5730-FN1 24.3

Traditional Chinese 5730-FN1 13.1

Simplified Chinese 5730-FN1 8.1

Thai 5730-FN1 3.4

 

Each National Language Version for multilingual support requires up to 55.0 million bytes of auxiliary storage.

         (1) Sonoran Sans Serif is a functional equivalent of Monotype Arial.

Programming Requirements

There are no programming prerequisites on AS/400 for any Operating System/400 functions.

Use of the following functions between an AS/400 and an System/36 requires that the System/36 be at SSP Release 5.1 with Preventive PTF package DK3700 or later.

Use of the following functions between an AS/400 and an System/38 requires that the System/38 be at CPF Release 8.0 with Interim PC package F.

Use of APPN also requires that the System/38 be at Machine Product PERIODIC 17 (EC 841962). Contact your IBM service representative for installation of this EC.

Corequisites also exist for the following communications environments:

         Alert Support to NetView

o        AS/400 to System/370 VM requires

         System/370 NetView licensed program Release 2.0 (5664-204).

o        AS/400 to System/370 MVS requires

         System/370 NetView licensed program Release 2.0 (5665-361).

o        AS/400 to System/370 MVS/XA requires

         System/370 NetView licensed program Release 2.0 (5665-362).

o        AS/400 to System/370 DOS/VSE requires

         System/370 NetView licensed program Release 2.0 (5666-343).

The AS/400 System, System/36 and System/38 systems can interchange objects within an established SNA/DS network when the following products are installed:

o        System/36:

         System/36 Release 5 Modification Level 1 with Object Distribution Facility (ODF)

         PRPQ 5799-CXF (for the 5360/5362-P84153), or

         PRPQ 5799-CXG (for the 5363/5364-P84154)

         System/38 Control Program Facility (CPF) Release 8.0 (Program 5714-SS1)

         Operating System/400 (Program 5728-SS1)

or

and

System Integrity

System Integrity is an important characteristic of the OS/400 product. For systems running with the highest security level (system value QSECURITY=40), IBM will now accept APARS that describe exposures to system integrity as defined below.

The machine architecture of AS/400 enforces controls requiring users be authorized to objects referenced when running a machine instruction. OS/400 has been developed using programming guidelines that maintain system integrity and control access to user data. Release 3 will introduce additional protection to isolate customer and system objects. This protection is designed to prevent unauthorized access to objects and the unauthorized use of privileged system interfaces and restricted machine instructions.

Since it is not possible to certify that any system has perfect integrity, IBM will accept APARS that describe exposures to the system integrity of the OS/400 System. System integrity APARs describe problems encountered when a program on the AS/400 introduces an exposure to system integrity provided that running under OS/400 the user or program are not authorized under a method under the users control. IBM will continue its efforts to enhance the integrity of OS/400 and will respond promptly when exposures are identified and reported in release 3 or subsequent releases of OS/400.

OS/400 System Integrity is defined as the inability of any program running under OS/400 not authorized by a method under the customers control to:


Security, Auditability, and Control

This program uses the security and auditability features of the AS/400 hardware and software.

User management is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communication facilities.


Performance Considerations

Performance depends upon a variety of factors, including processor speed, main storage size, number and types of auxiliary storage devices, and the amount and types of work occurring concurrently. For additional information pertaining to performance, contact the IBM Customer Center or your IBM representative.


Publications

Unlicensed Documentation
Softcopy Publications

The following publications are included in the AS/400 Softcopy Library on CD-ROM.

Operating System/400 (5728-SS1)

OS/400 (5728-SS1) Optional Feature #7060:

OS/400 (5728-SS1) Optional Feature 7061:

OS/400 (5728-SS1) Optional Feature 7069:

OS/400 (5728-SS1) Optional Feature 7070:

OS/400 (5728-SS1) Optional Feature 7071:

OS/400 (5728-SS1) Optional Feature 7072:

OS/400 (5728-SS1) Optional Feature 7075:

AS/400 PC Support (5728-PC1):

AS/400 Performance Tools (5728-PT1):

AS/400 Query (5728-QU1):

RPG/400 (5728-RG1):

SQL/400 (5728-ST1):

AS/400 Application Development Tools (5728-PW1):

OfficeVision/400(5728-WP1) (formerly AS/400 Office):

C/400 (5728-CX1):

COBOL/400 (5728-CB1):

AS/400 TCP/IP Connectivity Utilities (5728-TC1):

AS/400 Communications Utilities (5728-CM1):

AS/400 Systems Management Utilities (5730-SM1):

FORTRAN/400 (5730-FT1):

Hard Copy Publications

One copy of the following publications are supplied automatically with the basic machine-readable material:

Standard Publications for Operating System/400, 5728-SS1 (#5050) or 5750-ABD (#1701):

Subsequent updates (technical newsletters or revisions between releases) to the publications shipped with the product will be distributed to the user of record for as long as the software remains in effect. A separate publication order or subscription is not needed.

Additional/multiple copies of these publications will be available for a fee after product availability. These copies may be ordered through SLSS by order number or a bill-of-forms number.

Optional Publications

The following publications are not shipped automatically with the program and must be ordered in groups by specifying the appropriate feature numbers. There is no charge for the initial copy of these publications.

Optional Publications for Operating System/400, #7060 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7061, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7062, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7063, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7068, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7069, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7070, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7071, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7072, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

#7075, 5728-SS1 and 5750-ABD

Additional/multiple copies of these publications will be available for a fee after product availability. These copies may be ordered through SLSS by order number or a bill-of-forms number.

To order publications, contact your IBM representative.

Licensed Documentation

The following licensed publication is not shipped automatically and must be ordered by specifying the appropriate feature number. There is a charge for each copy of this publication.

Note: This publication may be ordered with either 5728-SS1 or 5750-ABD.)

         LY21-0597 IBM AS/400 System Support: Diagnostic Aids

Subsequent updates (technical newsletters or revisions between releases) to the publications shipped with the product will be distributed to the user of record for as long as a license for this software remains in effect. A separate publication order or subscription is not needed.

Trademarks

(R), (TM), * Trademark or registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

** Company, product, or service name may be a trademark or service mark of others.

Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.