Program Marketing Service Replaced
Number VRM Announced Available Withdrawn Discontinued By
5738-SS1 2.03.0 1993/12/16 1993/12/17 1995/12/29 1996/05/31 5716-SS1
5738-SS1 2.02.0 1992/02/18 1992/12/18 1994/09/06 1995/06/30 -
5738-SS1 2.01.1 1991/04/22 1992/03/06 1992/12/18 1994/06/30 -
5738-SS1 2.01.0 1991/04/22 1991/05/24 1992/03/06 1994/06/30 -
(For IBM US, No Longer Available as of December 29, 1995)
(For IBM US, Program Services Discontinued as of May 31, 1996)
The productivity of end users and programmers is enhanced when using the IBM AS/400* system because of the ease-of-use and design consistency of the Operating System/400 system. User interfaces are tailored to users of different skill levels.
Growth in the customer enterprise is enabled by the Operating System/400* support of the AS/400 hardware that ranges from the 9402 to the 9406. In addition, the single-level-store design of the Operating System/400 enables easy growth of the system's main storage.
Customer investment in skills and applications is protected by Operating System/400 support of standard software interfaces, conventions, and protocols called Systems Application Architecture (SAA)*. The migration capabilities of Operating System/400 protect customer investment in IBM System/36 or IBM System/38 applications, systems, and skills.
Electronic customer support, integrated functions for connectivity to remote devices and systems. Advanced peer-to-peer network facilities enhance the AS/400 systems management capabilities.
Operating System/400 enables business solutions with its extensive run-time application support, the 29 national language versions supported, and the externally-described data objects.
Single Integrated Operating System for All Models
Ease of Installation, Use, and Maintenance
Extensive Run-time Application Function
Productive Application Development Environment
High System Availability
Electronic Customer Support
Comprehensive Security for System Resources
Application Programming Interface to System Functions
Printed Output Support
Multiple Operating Environments
Connectivity to Remote Devices, Systems and Networks
Office Host Services
National Language Versions and Multilingual Support
What's New in Version 2 Release 3 of OS/400
The Integrated Language Environment (ILE) is an architectural enhancement to the AS/400 system to meet the challenge of providing new function and greater application design flexibility. ILE exploits modern high-level language (HLL) technology while protecting compatibility with existing applications.
Network support enhancements include: SNA Primary LU2 support, APPC session level compression, and network maintenance enhancements.
Availability enhancements include: the mixing of RAID 9337 Disk Array Subsystem and non-RAID DASD within a mirrored ASP, Save-While-Active across libraries, system limit improvements, and restore operational improvements.
5250 data stream support by DDS (Data Description Specifications) has been enhanced with certain Common User Access (CUA) Graphical User Interface (GUI) constructs that allows programmers to easily implement improved user interfaces for AS/400 applications.
National Language Sort Sequencing enhances the development of collating sequence sensitive applications for single byte character set languages. Also, provided is workstation, printer and User Interface Manager (UIM) support enhancements.
Enhanced security support (Security Level 50 - Designed to enable a C2 level of trust evaluation by the US Government).
AS/400 Software License Management assists customers with managing the terms and conditions of software products that are available under the User-Based One-Time-Charge option.
Operating System/400 Version 2
The IBM Operating System/400 Version 2 licensed program provides system support for all models of the IBM AS/400 System. The single Operating System spanning all models of hardware represents a significant protection of customer investment in skills and applications. The following are some of the characteristics and functions:
Single Integrated Operating System for all Models
All functions of the OS/400* follow a consistent design philosophy; this consistency is one of the cornerstones of AS/400 ease-of-use. The ease-of-use translates into higher productivity for its users and easier systems management. The Operating System/400 Version 2 licensed program includes everything described in this document. Some important characteristics are
All system and user resources are stored on the
system as "objects," having a consistent architecture. Every object
includes a description containing such information as the name of the creator
and current owner, date created, object size (in bytes), date of last save,
date of last reference, volume identifier of the media on which the save
occurred, and text describing the object.
Object placement on different disk units is
controlled by the system. The auxiliary storage disk units contribute to an
overall pool of storage called single-level storage. It is not necessary to be
concerned with where individual objects are placed; the libraries are used to
locate any object. The architecture supports multiple disk allocations to store
objects, and additional allocations are automatically added as an object (for
example, a physical or logical file) grows in size. This capability requires that
you monitor overall auxiliary storage capacity but not the sizes of individual
objects. This contributes significantly to the ease of operating the AS/400
system. Auxiliary storage capacity can be added as needed without changing
current application programs.
A library is a directory to objects (for example,
programs and files), allowing a convenient grouping of the objects for either
application or control purposes. Options exist to display, delete, or change
objects in a library or to move or copy an object from one library to another.
This function makes systems management of authorization to objects easier. The
normal method of processing is to use a list of libraries to control how the
system accesses objects. A library can also be secured to prevent unauthorized
users from accessing any objects.
Messages are displayed for various system and user operations. Message handling functions allow feedback for successful operations or to identify error conditions. Messages can be defined and sent between users, between users and applications, or between applications. Message replies can be sent; a "break" option allows immediate interruption of the end user's activities.
Each user and each work station device have a message
queue. The user message queue can be sent messages by another user, a program,
or the system; messages can also be sent to a particular workstation queue.
The system supports multiple levels of job
accounting and captures job-related information through the assignment of
account codes to users. The accounting information on defined units of work is
recorded in a journal receiver and may be accessed and processed by
The operating system supports use of
Display Data Management
Interactive applications are supported by a
screen definition language that provides greater flexibility in designing the
"look and feel" of interactive interfaces. In addition, many
attributes of the screen can be controlled outside application programs to
simplify the development effort and improve programmer productivity (for tasks
like validation of keyed input and punctuation of numeric output).
Cursor-sensitive help information may be designed into user applications,
including use of hypertext and index search function that allows easy access to
descriptions of system functions.
Data Description Specifications (DDS)
Data Description Specifications (DDS) enhancements support the new 5250 Display Data Stream extensions. There are four advantages to the 5250 display data stream extensions:
Application developers can define certain Common User Access (CUA) Graphical User Interface (GUI) constructs using DDS display files. The DDS GUI support includes: menu bars, pull downs, single choice selection fields, and multiple choice selection fields. Also, the support for DDS pop up windows now enables a GUI presentation.
From a single DDS application, the GUI constructs take on a different look and feel, depending on the device targeted.
An Enhanced User Interface (EUI) enabled PC 5250 emulator can present all-points-addressable GUI constructs.
New InfoWindow II displays attached to an EUI enabled work station controller can present a GUI-like interface.
Existing displays present an user interface style much like previously available on the AS/400 system.
Application developers can define improved entry field editing capabilities using DDS display files. The DDS support includes: continued entry field (not available for DBCS entry fields), programmable cursor progression, edit mask, and highlighted entry fields.
Field level help is now available to DDS application developers.
Performance of existing DDS windows applications will generally be improved when the device targeted is either an EUI enabled 5250 emulator, or a display attached to an EUI enabled work station controller.
The operating system supports a data area object
that allows storage of up to 2,000 bytes of information, which can be accessed
and updated by various programs within a single job or across jobs. Data areas
are also directly supported by some HLLs. A local data area exists for any job
and can also be used to pass information to programs submitted to batch or to
other programs operating within a job.
The operating system supports a call interface to
send and receive information from a data queue object. This is designed to
handle job-to-job communication with a high volume of requests.
The work management function eases the job of systems management by giving the operator control of the activities of a job and of its performance characteristics. Work management supports the concurrent execution of batch jobs, interactive jobs, and non-conversational transactions on the system. Each job is protected from other jobs on the system; however, job-to-job communication is allowed.
Different levels of interfaces to work management
allow users to operate with the system defaults or tailor specific functions.
Automatic tailoring of the execution environment to the CPU model, size of main
storage, and configured devices can be done using an option. This
automatically-established execution environment should provide good performance
for many installations, although some may achieve better performance by
changing some of the execution environment attributes.
Save is the capability of making a backup copy of objects or members on tape, diskette, or online save file. Restore is the capability to copy saved objects back to the original or a different system. The OS/400 save/restore functions are designed to ease the job of systems management.
Copying to a save file allows an unattended, off-shift save with a subsequent copy to media when the system operator is available. Saves can be done by library, object, changed object, or for all auxiliary storage, without regard to library or object contents. The system is available when saving documents and folders during normal operations; however, documents being updated during the save process are not saved. Saved objects--including single objects from a group of objects saved at one time, or members--including a single member from a multiple-member file--can be restored.
"Save while active" enables objects to
be saved while they are being used by applications. The system ensures the
entire object saved to the save media is consistent with the status of the
object when the save operation was initiated. However, it is the user's
responsibility to establish an application synchronization point either by
temporarily quiescing the application for the time required to initiate the
save operation or using journal/commit for all processes which impact any
objects related to the save operation.
Remote or Timed IPL
Key to convenient system management is the
capability to power on the system manually or automatically, at a specific time
of day, and from a remote location. Power down of the system can be done by a
command executed interactively or under program control.
Multiple Concurrent Tasks at the Same Work Station
Up to 16 different functions can be active as a
result of a single sign-on to a work station. To switch from one function to
another requires pressing an "interrupt" key and then selecting a new
function from a menu. This can significantly increase the productivity of users
who perform a variety of tasks of short duration (for example, interrupting an
order entry application to switch to an unrelated inquiry application to answer
a telephone request). It is also possible to sign on a second time and have two
different sessions active, with up to 16 active functions in the second
A user can manually collect system performance
data for a single time period or automatically collect data on a weekly
schedule using a set of commands/menus. This systems management function
provides data to assist the user in workload scheduling, system tuning,
performance reporting, performance-problem analysis, and capacity planning. The
user can also work with this data using the Performance Tools/400 licensed
The copy facility copies data from one file to
another. The files may be input from the database, tape, or diskette and be
output to the database, tape, diskette or printer. Various options control
format and record selection.
Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of queries for selection to execute or delete and to display a list of files available to query.
Some query capability is provided directly by
OS/400. It includes processing database files, default output formatting, and
windowing left and right for results that exceed the width of the screen.
Extensive query capability is available with Query/400 (5738-QU1) licensed
program and SAA Structured Query Language/400 (5738-ST1) licensed program.
OS/400 Data File Utility (DFU) Support
Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of DFU programs to select for execution, and to display a list of files available to DFU. Some data entry capability is provided directly in OS/400. Functions include processing non-join database files, default selection of fields and record formats, and default audit log listing.
Ease of Installation, Use, and Maintenance
Operating system installation and modification are table-driven. Functions can be tailored by changing external tables of controlling variables. The installation of OS/400 software involves copying the system objects from the distribution media onto the system auxiliary storage.
Automatic Configuration for Local Devices
The user can request that locally-attached
devices be automatically configured. Local displays and printers can be added,
changed or removed without affecting users signed on to displays connected to
other controller ports.
Operational Assistant (OA) presents a group of tasks, commonly done by an application end user or system operator, in easily understood non-technical terms. Users unfamiliar with the AS/400 system, its terminology, and sequence of steps to do a task are relieved of these complexities.
User productivity is improved by operational assistant making it easy to do tasks such as managing printer output, managing batch jobs, sending and answering messages. Systems management is facilitated by using OA to enroll and delete users on the system, to back up libraries, and automatically clean up job logs, history log files, and system journals. The system administrator is also assisted in setting up and scheduling simple backups, managing users signed on to the system, understanding the status of the system and managing the system's disk space.
The operational assistant function can be accessed in four ways:
Information Assistant options were added in Version 2 Release 2 to provide one-stop shopping for a user's AS/400 Information needs. A menu provides selectable options to inform the user about where that look for information, how they can comment on information, and highlights about what is new in Version 2 Release 3 of the AS/400 system. In addition, access to searching the help index, starting online education and starting the question and answer function is provided. Information Assistant options are accessed from the AS/400 Main Menu, the Operational Assistant Information and Problem Handling menu, or by typing GO INFO on the command entry line.
System-supplied menus to most system functions
provide a task-oriented approach so that a user unfamiliar with control language
can set up and use Operating System/400. The menus use an object-oriented
approach by providing list of objects for the user to work with. A fast path
gives quick access to system functions for the more experienced users.
The AS/400 help facility provides comprehensive explanations of display functions to help users be more productive. The index search facility can be used to request help for a task that involves multiple displays. Index search includes many synonyms so that users may ask for information in their own words or in the terms used by the system.
The help information provided is determined by
the current location of the cursor on the display. It may be specific to a
field or line on the screen, or to extended help on the use of the display as a
User Tool Library
The QUSRTOOL library contains tools that can
provide business solutions or improve user productivity. These tools can be
used as examples or enhancements to currently supported functions. They are
provided with no plan of future enhancement or support.
System operational functions can be performed on
an attended, partially attended, or a predominantly unattended basis. System
operator functions can be interactively entered or executed under program
control. Printer paper and media handling are manual functions. Various
displays are provided to allow for control of jobs, spooling operations and
Several system functions provide assistance in problem determination including dedicated and system service functions, messages, help information, and problem analysis commands.
A useful function in problem determination is
copying a screen image from one work station for display on another work
station. This is especially useful when used in conjunction with remote service
Improved Software Problem Isolation and Data Collection
User-friendly, easy-to-use OS/400 tools provide
customers with the ability to collect problem data at a central site. This
OS/400 support for software problem isolation and data collection enables
customers to recreate software problems, save the results, and then view the
data from a central site. Initiation of the tools can be done locally or
System Detected Software Problems
Symptom strings are now automatically created by
the OS/400 licensed program at the time an error occurs, thus making management
of problems in the system easier and recovery quicker. The automatic generation
of symptom string data improves in the rate at which customers can find
appropriate PTFs for problems. Problem resolution time is decreased when
failure data is collected at the time of occurrence thus reducing the need for
Programming Temporary Fixes (PTFs)
PTFs (including licensed internal code changes)
may be loaded and applied using a command. Deferred PTFs can be applied only at
IPL time, but an option allows this to be done unattended. PTFs can be shipped
to a central site, either on media or electronically, and may then be packaged
and distributed to remote or DSLO license sites, either on media or
electronically. With the exception of the loading of media, the handling of
PTFs can be automated for remote sites.
Software Management Services
Software Management Services, a framework for software packaging, provides a consistent process for managing software on an AS/400 system. This consistent process covers IBM and non-IBM AS/400 software and PC-based software using AS/400 folders/documents support. When a vendor or customer uses the SystemView System Manager/400 licensed program to package an application, that application can now be installed and maintained using the same procedures that are used for installing and maintaining IBM AS/400 licensed programs. These procedures include software media packaging and distribution, application installation, application registration within the AS/400 system, and application servicing. Convergence to a common process for packaging enables the OS/400 facilities to provide consistent management of these packaged applications. This reduces redundancy and inconsistencies for applications and current procedures.
For Version 2 Release 2 or later, support was added to detect processor model changes on the 9404 and 9406 AS/400 systems through the use of a 16 digit system password. In Version 2 Release 3, the system password was added to the 9402 system. The purpose of the System Password is to identify all model changes to:
Help maintain the quality and integrity of the AS/400.
Ensure that IBM is paid the applicable charges due for the use of its licensed programs, including those having processor-based charges.
Ensure the protection of IBM's intellectual property including IBM Licensed Internal Code.
After Version 2 Release 2 or later is installed, the system requires a single entry of the system password at the time of a system model change. If the correct system password is not entered, a temporary system password bypass can be selected to allow time (70 days) to obtain the correct system password. The customer can obtain the correct system password by contacting his marketing representative and having him place an RPQ order for the system password. If the correct system password is not available and the system password bypass time ends, the system will not complete the next IPL until the correct system password is obtained and entered. While in bypass mode, the system indicates through informational console messages the time remaining until the bypass time ends.
In Version 2 Release 3, the system password support is extended to include the 9402 system and to detect system movement that may indicate possible system ownership change. The support is intended to prevent software licenses from moving with used or auctioned equipment. If a condition is detected that indicates possible ownership change, the stored system password will be invalidated and a new system password version must be obtained and entered. If the system password is invalidated, the system password bypass can be selected to continue system usage for the duration of the bypass time. If the required new system password version is not obtained and entered into the system before the bypass time ends, the system will not complete the next IPL.
Extensive Run-time Application Function
Operating System/400 is a functionally-rich platform for applications. Because it is enabled to run a wide range of applications, customers can easily grow their application base as their business needs grow. The extensive run-time function integrated into the OS/400 system enables applications that use the following support to run without the corresponding products:
Cross System Product/Application Execution (CSP/AE)
The CSP/AE function in Operating System/400 executes applications generated on a System/370, using Cross System Product Version 3 Release 2 Modification Level 1, Version 3 Release 2 Modification Level 2 or Version 3 Release 3. This function protects investment by enabling applications to be portable across systems and supports migration to new hardware platforms. Some applications can be regenerated for a new target environment with no changes to the original source specifications. OS/400 CSP/AE functions are compatible with other CSP/AE environments.
The CSP/AE function of OS/400 includes:
CSP object management, which provides the system administrator with tools necessary to install and manage CSP/AE applications in the OS/400 operating environment. It executes in batch and interactive environments.
CSP application execution facility controls user interactions with an execution of CSP/AE applications generated by CSP/AD on a System/370 for execution on the AS/400 system.
Highlights of the CSP/AE component of the OS/400 operating system:
Cross System Product applications are stored as executable program objects (similar to load modules), which are compatible with applications of other OS/400 programming languages. There is no Cross System Product Application Load File (ALF) in OS/400. Standard OS/400 system commands also work with all Cross System Product application program objects.
OS/400 Data Description Specifications (DDS) source members can (optionally) be created for an application's database files during application install processing. The system administrator may then create the physical and/or logical database files from this source, for use by the application. Required DDS information can be generated, with the application, by CSP/AD on the System/370.
A user message file created on a System/370 using the Cross System Product Message File Utility can be transported to the AS/400 and loaded as an OS/400 message file. Standard OS/400 system commands can then be used for message file maintenance.
Standard OS/400 system commands are supplemented by a set of CSP/AE object management functions. These functions have either menu or command interfaces that operate on Cross System Product programs and all related table and map group objects.
Cross System Product application trace capabilities to aid in problem isolation involving Cross System Product applications. Trace functions include program calls, Input/Output, object references, process names, application statements, SQL data areas, and Move/Compare/Math source operands. Options can be dynamically modified during interactive application execution.
Productive Application Development Environment
Operating System/400 includes many functions to assist in programming the system. These functions, along with the Application Development Tools (5738-PW1) licensed program, provide a productive application development environment. This environment supports a hierarchical approach to application development which can increase programmer productivity. The programming functions included in OS/400 are:
These facilities increase programmer productivity
by providing assistance in creation and maintenance of programs written in
RPG/400, COBOL/400, BASIC, PL/I, CL, and Pascal. Debugging of batch or
interactive jobs can be done at any time; no special compilation is needed.
Productivity of users executing commands is
increased by command prompting. Each system and user command can be prompted
for help with parameters. Parameters can be filtered based on values previously
entered or predetermined parameters. Online help explains parameters and
Programmer productivity is increased by relieving
the burden of cross-referencing. The system has the capability to
cross-reference files to related programs and fields to related files.
Using this menu, creation and maintenance of
objects require minimal use of system commands.
Interactive Data Definition Utility (IDDU)
IDDU assists in the creation of database files by
creating IDDU data dictionaries, defining files, record formats, and fields.
Programmer productivity is thus enhanced by using IDDU. It is an alternative to
using Data Description Specifications (DDS). Easy-to-use functions within IDDU
assist in the creation of files with existing field definitions.
Interfaces to System Functions
Call-level interfaces enable programmers to create extensions to OS/400 functions and system applications. These interfaces provide fast access to the information in selected system objects, such as
Integrated Language Environment (ILE)
The Integrated Language Environment (ILE) is an architecture enhancement to the AS/400 system to meet the challenge of providing new function and greater application design flexibility. ILE exploits modern high-level language (HLL) technology while maintaining compatibility with existing applications.
The AS/400 system's ability to integrate multiple applications from multiple independent sources is improved. Each application is allowed to define its own boundaries. Multiple applications within the same job each have their own commitment control in effect for data base management. This is accomplished through improved isolation in data and commit scoping.
ILE provides a common framework for ILE conforming languages in the areas of program activation, storage management, condition management, and program debugging. ILE also defines calling conventions for access to ILE bindable APIs and provides consistency and improved performance for interlanguage communication.
Also, provided is the Dynamic Screen Manager (DSM). The DSM offers versatility and adaptability in generating screens during application execution. DSM provides a set of bindable APIs for low level, window and session services.
New elements introduced by ILE:
ILE Program Binder
With the introduction of the Integrated Language Environment come the introduction of a new step in the application development process, binding. The purpose of binding and the Binder is to create program objects in such a way that efficient external calls may be performed.
The Binder will support all the new ILE compilers being built in Toronto or Santa Theresa.
These compilers will create modules (object type *MODULE) and the Binder will bind several modules together to form a program object. Note that these ILE program objects are logically as well as physically different from unbound program objects.
The Binder will provide several commands for creating and managing program objects.
ILE Message Handling
Message Handling support of Job Message Queues has been modified extensively. Support for Standard Message Queues has remained essentially unchanged. The changes being made in the area of Job Message Queues are in support of the Integrated Language Environment architecture. The new Job Message Queue support applies to both prior program model and ILE programs. There is only one version of Message Handling and only one version of the Job Message Queue support.
Message Handling supports the new ILE Exception Model. The new ILE Exception Model introduces new constructs for exception and messaging support at the micro code level.
New Exception Related Constructs
ILE introduces a new exception model. In particular, the concept of a message and the concept of an exception are unified in ILE. A message and an exception will be sent at the same time. The concepts of monitoring for an exception and handling an exception remain unchanged for a previous program model program but are significantly changed for a ILE program.
The new exception model is applicable to both
previous program model and ILE programs. The existing Message Handling commands
have been enhanced to support the ILE Exception Architecture. In most cases,
the enhancements are fully upward compatible. However, there are a few
instances where incompatibilities will be introduced to the external users of
the Message Handling interfaces.
Support for Expanded Message Content
Additional Message Information (AMI) panels and
the Job Log print format have been modified to support expanded message
content. In particular, Message Handling supports the fully qualified ILE
procedure name which consists of bound-program-name, module-name, and
procedure-name. This fully qualified name can appear as either the sending
program or receiving program name. Unbound programs will continue to be
identified by program-name only.
Changes to User Interface
Message Handling has changed the DDS for the printed JOBLOG taken from the Process Queue Space object. A message can contain more information than is possible today. The printed job log and the Additional Message Information screen have been changed.
The openness APIs that support Message Handling functions have been enhanced to support the new exception model constructs.
The SNDPGMMSG, RCVMSG, and RVMMSG commands have been changed.
ILE Source Debugger
The Non Programmable Terminal Integrate Language Environment Source Debugger will be shipped as part of OS/400 and available to all AS/400 customers. It is used to debug all bound programs and service programs. This debugger is a source debugger, allowing debugging to be done in terms of the source associated with a program. It will not debug the previously unbound programs. These programs must be debugged with the system debugger and EPM debugger, respectively.
A debugger API will be provided, allowing compilers and other pre-processors which contribute to module creation to create debug view information associated with a module object. The API allows source debuggers to be built for the AS/400 system.
The debugger provides debug function in several areas, including module source, program flow of control, and program data.
When a program is debugged, the source for the modules is displayed. The basic debug screen shows mostly source, allowing debug commands to operate against this source. When a runtime error occurs in a program, such as a divide by zero, the debugger will display the source of the program, and indicate where the error occurred in terms of a position in the source of the module.
When looking at the source displayed by the
debugger, it is possible to change the view being displayed. This allows the
user to determine what was generated by a particular line of source. For
example, with the cursor on a macro invocation in the Source View, the user can
select the Listing View, which will show the expansion of the macro invocation.
Program Flow of Control
These functions allow the user to observe the flow of control of a program being debugged. The functions provided are: BREAKPOINT (a program can be stopped at a specified location), CONDITIONAL BREAKPOINT (a program can be stopped at a specified location when a specified condition is met), and STEP (the execution of a program is stopped at every statement, allowing the flow to be observed).
The operation of these functions depends on which
view is being displayed. For example, if the Source View is displayed, a
breakpoint can be set on any source line. However, if the Listing View is being
shown, a breakpoint can be set on every statement, including statements in a
macro invocation. One macro invocation in the Source View may produce many
statements in the Listing View.
These functions provide for the displaying and changing of program variables. These variables will be displayed according to their type, such as integer, enumerated, etc.
The user may enter a C expression, which will be interpreted and the results displayed.
These functions depend on the position in the view being displayed, since variables may be inside procedures and not visible to all parts of the program. For example, when displaying the variable x, it will depend where the view is currently positioned when determining which x to display.
Dynamic Screen Manager (DSM)
Dynamic Screen Manager offers versatility and adaptability in generating screens during application execution with a set of bindable Application Program Interface (APIs). DSM enables ILE developers to create screens and windows dynamically, no longer requiring predefined static screens. This provides improved programmer productivity over using UDDS to perform low-level screen I/O operations and greater flexibility in controlling the screen appearance dynamically for the application. The DSM support falls into the following categories:
Low level services - provides a simple API interface to the UDDS commands, greatly simplifying applications that require low-level control of the screen.
Window services - supports the dynamic creation, drawing, selection, moving, and re-sizing of one or more windows on the screen. Data and fields can be defined inside the windows.
Session services - provides support for dynamically placing data inside an area of a window and scrolling the data, similar in concept to subfiles.
National Language Sort Sequencing
NLSS will make it easier to develop collating sequence sensitive applications. In addition to providing sort sequence tables which represent both unique and shared weight default sort sequences for over forty Single Byte Character Set (SBCS) languages and making it easier for sort sequence tables to be created, many commands and system support functions have been enhanced to allow a single sort sequence table to be referenced in all parts of the application. Reference to the system provided tables can be made symbolically.
Workstation, Printer, and User Interface Manager (UIM) support
Workstation, printer and UIM support is enhanced by removing the requirement that the user matches the CHRID (Character Set and Code Page) of his workstation display with the CCSID (Coded Character SET ID) of their job. This removes the requirement that the CHRID of the printer file be equal to the CHRID of the user's job CCSID. In addition, conversions between the encoded graphic characters is now supported between all of the languages supported by the AS/400 system.
The integrated AS/400 database offers many advantages. The same copy of data may be shared by applications using file and database interfaces, by applications using SQL, by system utilities, and by basic system functions. This data sharing, along with the data mapping features of views and logical files, reduces the need for redundant copies of data. The database is installed with OS/400. This eliminates a separate installation procedure and automatically starts the database and recovery functions when the system is IPLed. Integration also allows the database commands and display interfaces to have a look and feel that is consistent with the rest of the system. For example, database objects are automatically included as part of the system-wide cross reference facilities and the basic system administration commands for save, restore, security, and object management can be used to administer the database. This allows the database to exploit new system functions and hardware for improved availability, recovery, security, concurrency, and performance.
The database support is integrated into the
machine and the operating system. It provides a high degree of data integrity
and programmer productivity. A relational database by design, it may be viewed
by users in terms of a relational model or a file model, depending on their
choice of interfaces. Those choosing the relational model see tables and views
while those using the file model see physical and logical files. The data
resides in tables or physical files but may be seen in different sequences,
with omissions or additions in logical views. Productivity of doing program
maintenance is increased because programs that use a logical view of the data
need no change when the physical data is updated.
Files can be defined using data description
specifications (DDS), interactive data definition utility (IDDU), or IBM SAA
Structured Query Language/400 (a separate licensed program, 5738-ST1). The file
definition can be used by a variety of functions on the system, including
utilities and HLL programs. Database also allows a record-level definition of a
file, enabling HLL programs to provide field definitions when the file is
processed. Files, including multiple record types defined only to the record
level on the system, can be defined at a field level using IDDU, Utilities such
as data file utility (DFU) and query can process the file, minimizing the
System/36 migration effort. These utilities are available as separate licensed
programs: 5738-PW1 for DFU and 5738-QU1 for AS/400 Query. System/38 versions of
these utilities are also available (5738-DB1).
Access paths may be defined for files to allow access in either keyed or arrival sequence order. Access paths are maintained when a change to the data occurs, allowing multiple users to be immediately aware of changes in the database and to access the current information in their required sequence.
DDS can define a field reference file, a form of data dictionary, that describes the attributes of all data fields for use by multiple applications. It contains all all attributes and descriptive information about the data. The field reference file ensures consistency in field names and defined attributes, resulting in significant benefits to application design, maintenance, standardization, and programmer productivity.
The database supports record additions, updates,
deletions, initialization, and reorganization. A full range of processing
options are available for the HLL programs such as sequential or random access
(by key or relative record number), and retrieval of next and previous record.
Many database functions can be described dynamically and performed externally
to the HLL program, thus maximizing programmer productivity.
Distributed Database Support
As an SAA system, OS/400 supports SAA distributed relational database, SQL, and a wide range of data types, including date and time. This SAA support allows read and write access from an AS/400 system to another AS/400 system, to a DB2 on MVS/ESA or MVS/XA, and to a SQL/DS on VM/SP or VM/ESA. OS/2 Extended Edition has read and write access to the AS/400 system. The SAA CPI for database is Structured Query Language (SQL). Customer investment in data is protected by this distributed support, which allows data connectivity across SAA platforms. Interactive access to distributed database is possible using the prompted facilities of interactive SQL (ISQL).
Distributed file access through DDM between an
AS/400 system, CICS, PCs, System/36, and System/38 is also available. This
support allows access to remote files by applications using file and database
National Language Capability
Data in multiple national languages may reside in the same table and be accessed across the SAA distributed database platforms.
High System Availability
The AS/400 system is one of the most reliable computers in the industry. However, to ease system management and minimize recovery, customers must follow a sound backup plan and choose some of the following functions as appropriate:
Uninterruptable Power Supply is a feature the operating system supports by notifying a user program of a loss of power. To use this feature, a vendor-supplied uninterruptable power supply may be used, or the Battery Power Unit feature of the IBM 9402, 9404, and 9406 System Units may be used. The Battery Power Unit supplies power for a few minutes; for longer backup support, a vendor-supplied uninterruptable power supply should be used.
Journal changes to files. Before and after images provide for an audit trail of changes and the capability for file recovery (forward or backward). When a file is journaled, the system ensures that any changes to the data are written to the journal.
Access path journaling enables faster recovery. An access path being maintained at the time the system terminates is placed in an invalid state. The system can quickly make the access path operational instead of requiring a rebuild of the entire access path.
Commitment control completes or backs out a multiple, database-change transaction when a termination occurs. An application programmer can easily provide for recovery at a transaction boundary. Commitment control requires journaling. HLL statements allow for application rollback or commitment.
User Auxiliary Storage Pools (ASPs) allows most object types to be easily placed in a user-defined ASP and be recoverable quickly and completely after a DASD failure. Object types not supported in user ASPs include documents, spooled output files and certain printer object types.
Checksum protects against loss of data in the event of a single disk failure. The checksum facility automatically rebuilds the data on the failed disk unit for both system- and user-defined auxiliary storage pools.
Mixing of 9337 RAID and non-RAID DASD within mirrored ASP.
Support is now integrated into OS/400 that
provides for the mixing of 9337 RAID and non-RAID DASD within mirrored ASP.
DASD data loss protection for mixes of DASD that use RAID-5 array techniques,
called Device Parity, with other non-Device Parity DASD units is accomplished
by allowing RAID DASD units to be configured into mirrored ASPs. When this is
done, each of the non-RAID DASD units will have a mirrored partner while DASD
with RAID will be self-protected. With this solution, the system will be able
to continue running for any single DASD device failure. Therefore, it is now
easier than ever to select the best DASD option right for your protection,
capacity and performance needs. This OS/400 support is for the RAID protected
DASD as implemented on the IBM 9337 Disk Array Subsystem.
Disk mirroring, in most cases, allows the system to continue to operate after a disk unit or disk attachment failure occurs. Mirroring is specified on an ASP-basis and requires duplicate disk devices of the same type. The entire system or one or more ASPs may be mirrored. If the entire system is mirrored, double the disk capacity is needed. When mirroring is started, the system automatically selects disk mirror pairs that provide the best path protection for the hardware configuration of the system. To increase the path protection, additional controllers and IOPs should be considered.
Mirrored protection is an alternative for checksum protection on an ASP basis; IBM recommends only one of these methods be used on a given ASP. Mirrored protection does not remove the need for a proper backup strategy to protect against catastrophes or the possibility that both units of the mirror may fail. When one unit of the pair fails, the system is exposed to a failure until the repair action occurs and mirroring is resumed.
In mixed mirrored and device parity protection
environments, device parity units are self-protected while non-device parity
units have mirrored partners.
Concurrent DASD maintenance is supported only on a properly configured AS/400 9406 mirrored system or mixed mirrored and device parity protected system. With a proper configuration, it is possible for the system to operate successfully while experiencing a DASD failure and subsequent repair action. Diagnosis and repair may require active mirrors to be temporarily suspended. Some users may prefer to defer maintenance until all normal operations are completed. In some conditions (for example an IOP failure), the repair action requires that the system be powered off.
Several enhancements are being made to the Save-While-Active support in order to provide additional function and fewer operational considerations:
When more than one library is being saved, a checkpoint for all libraries being saved will occur before the first save operation begins, so that all libraries are in sync. In the original support, each library reached a check point and was saved independently. As a result, operations had to be suspended until the save of the last library started or there would be a mismatch in the contents of the saved data. This change reduces the amount of time production operations must be quiesced when multiple libraries are saved. The limit to the number of libraries that can be checkpointed are defined by the save commands.
A checkpoint can now be established for applications that have done a read for update, but have not yet updated the record. The previous Save-While-Active function needed to wait until the update took place or the record was released by the application. The new support establishes checkpoints more quickly and consistently than the original support.
Document objects that are being changed without recovery (typically PC based applications that write to documents) will not be saved. A message will be sent to the job log listing the objects that could not be saved.
Outfile support is provided for restore operations. When restore failures do occur, records in the outfile identify the error. As a result, systems management is enhanced with improved methods of tracking restore functions. Outfiles can be queried or otherwise processed by user written programs to audit results and track changes.
Electronic Customer Support
Electronic Customer Support is an integrated approach to helping users service and support single or complex systems and networks. It is menu-driven, supported by online help text, and includes locally available functions and access to remote marketing support systems and IBM service support.
Simplicity and ease-of-use characteristics mean that configuring and supporting systems requires limited data processing knowledge or experience. Additionally, electronic customer support enables third party software and support organizations to support systems and networks from a central site, providing business solutions and partnerships that improve service and support to IBM AS/400 customers. The following are the systems management capabilities of electronic customer support:
Online education for the IBM AS/400 System provides a flexible and integrated approach for customers to obtain AS/400 education. It saves user productivity by bringing education to fit the user's specific tasks into the customer's work place. Because it is modular, it enables the users to progress at their own pace with minimum work interruption. Online education is composed of related components:
Tutorial System Support is a set of modules covering the basic IBM AS/400 terminology, concepts, facilities and operations; shipped with each system.
Discover/Education* for AS/400 is a series of courses, available for one-time charges as AS/400 licensed programs; for those who need more advanced online education. The courses are presented on either an IBM Personal Computer or IBM Personal System/2* attached to the IBM AS/400 System.
Self-Education Facility on the IBM Personal System/2 (SEDF/2, 5601-267) is an authoring system available for a onetime charge as a licensed program. It enables AS/400 customers to create PS/2 or AS/400 based education, which can be accessed the same way as tutorial system support.
Comprehensive Security for System Resources
The many levels of security available with OS/400 ease the job of system security management. The levels are:
Access to system resources is controlled by giving each user a tailored menu from which to select functions. It is also possible to secure individual system resources and user resources using a combination of public authority (for any user) and private authority (for specific individuals). Facilities are provided to:
The discrete object and data authorities are:
As part of the security mechanism on the AS/400 system, a complete set of user and object auditing, as well as, special security related functions are available.
'Enhanced Security Support (Security Level 50)'. will provide a new level of security in Version 2 Release 3. Security Level 50 is designed to enable the AS/400 system to operate at the C2 level of trust as defined by the US Government publication DOD 5200.28-STD, "Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria" (Orange Book).
The AS/400 system is currently in evaluation by the US Government. No prediction can be made about when this evaluation might be completed or that the target rating of C2 will be awarded.
The enhancements to OS/400 security include higher levels of system integrity and significant options for additional auditing of users and objects.
The QSECURITY system value will support security level 50 for enhanced system integrity over security level 40.
The amount and type of auditing desired will be controlled with new system values, new CL commands, and a new *AUDIT special authority.
Certain applications may have to be modified to operate with QSECURITY set to 50. APIs will be provided where applicable. Restrictions at Security Level 50 that may affect applications include:
The MODS MI instruction for program associated spaces will be blocked at both levels 40 and 50.
User state programs will have restrictions on sending exception messages to system state programs.
Passing of pointers in message replacement text on external message queues will not be allowed.
In addition, application developers should note that:
User domain objects *USRSPC, *USRQ, and *USRIDX will only be allowed to exist in library QTEMP or libraries designated by the new system value QALWUSRDMN.
Programs which run system state will now use an isolated activation group. Attempts to reference system state programs' variables from programs running with user state will fail.
'AS/400 Software License Management' assists customers with managing the terms and conditions of software products that are available under the User-Based One-Time-Charge option. It monitors usage of these programs, provides notification of user access attempts which exceed user limits authorized by the vendor, and provides usage data. Software License Management is included in Version 2 Release 3 and is available at no charge.
Software products, both IBM and non-IBM, may require the License Management as a prerequisite when the customer chooses the User-Based One-Time-Charge option.
This program is a pre-requisite for the customer choosing the User-Based Pricing option for PC Support/400 Version 2.
A programming interface is provided so that other vendors can utilize License Management.
Application Programming Interface to System Functions
Control Language (CL)
The control language provides a consistent
interface to all system functions. Thus, a programmer can tailor solutions
using system functions without the end user or operator seeing what is being
executed. The control language provides rich function and a consistent set of
terminology and syntax. User-written commands can also be created. Most
commands can be executed interactively, in a compiled CL program, or in a HLL
program. The ease of using CL and its rich function make it a productivity aid
for programmers. CL programs allow the use of variables, error handling and
access to the database. Programming functions include reading and writing to a
display or database file, IF/THEN/ELSE logic, calling or being called from
another program, and so on.
Consistent Program Structure
Programs can be written in either a high-level
language or control language. Programs written in one language can call and
pass parameters to a program written in the same or a different language. All
system and user programs are re-entrant, and each user executes the same
"read only" object code of a program with the system maintaining
separate, unique work areas for each job and each program within the job. In
addition, only those portions of the object code actually in-use are required
to be in main storage. These two factors can increase the number of programs
concurrently operating in the available main storage.
The SAA query common programming interface (CPI)
can be used to import and execute queries generated in other SAA environments.
Query management may also be used to imbed query and report writer function
into AS/400 applications or send them to other SAA environments for execution.
Query management is a productivity aid for the application programmer.
Procedures Language 400/REXX
REXX is an easy language to learn. It facilitates writing clear, structured, interpreted procedures. REXX can provide the data manipulation and procedural logic framework for OS/400 commands and conventional calls to other high-level language and CL programs.
The REXX interpreter implements the SAA level 1
definition of Procedures Language and the SAA level 2 definition except for
native language support for stream I/O. Thus, it provides a more portable
procedural alternative to OS/400 CL programming. It reduces programming
investment for users who require applications that execute in several SAA
environments. REXX also helps protect the programming investment for users who
have already developed REXX procedures for other SAA environments. They simply
replace embedded environment commands with OS/400 commands to port procedures
to an AS/400 system. Procedures Language 400/REXX also supports DBCS for Asian
Programming Interface to DIA Services and Office Functions
OS/400 office host support provides a programming interface designed around the AS/400 control language to enable customer application development. The commands are provided for application programming interfaces (APIs) to the following AS/400 services.
Most of the APIs are provided with OS/400; however, some are shipped with IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 (5738-WP1) and PC Support/400 (5738-PC1)
Many of the commands shipped with the OS/400
licensed program can be used without the IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 licensed
program or any other licensed program installed. Some commands, however,
provide more function when the OfficeVision/400 licensed program is installed.
Most of these commands offer both interactive and batch options which allow
customers to write and tailor applications for these services.
Graphics functions are supported using the Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM), which may be accessed from an HLL program or using the AS/400 Business Graphics Utility (BGU) licensed program (5738-DS1). The following OS/400 interfaces to graphics functions are supported:
The sort utility supports sorting and merging of database files. Selection and sorting using the sort utility has performance advantages over the use of database access paths for certain applications. The sort utility can
Double Byte Character Set Support
Printed Output Support
OS/400 supports IBM and non-IBM printers, some directly and some through emulation, which have a wide variety of price, function, speed, attachment method, and use. This integrated operating system function supports printing of text, images, graphics, bar codes, electronic forms, multiple fonts, logos, signatures, and more, thus providing the basis for business solutions like business reports, preprinted forms and letters. Printing of these graphics depends on the capability of the target printer. Specifically, OS/400 supports:
Advanced Function Printing Utilities/400, a separately licensed program (5738-AF1) makes it possible to use AFPDS natively on the AS/400 system. Through its print format utility, a user can merge a database file with an overlay and send it to print without the need for additional programming. Double-byte data can be generated also. Overlays can be generated in conjunction with the form data merge capability to enable the use of electronic forms and production of bar code labels.
PrintManager/400 is an operating system function designed to provide consistent access to printing across SAA environments. It includes:
PrintManager/400 defines a set of print options
that can be specified within the application. These print options, combined
with the ability to create common, portable applications and printing
definitions (with print descriptors), make possible easy and consistent access
to printing across the customer organization. Batch applications or
installation-specific end-user interfaces for printing can be created using
PrintManager/400, the SAA CPI element and the API.
Print DBCS Documents on the AS/400 System
Print of Double Byte Character Set (DBCS)
documents that were generated through Advanced Function Printing Utilities/400,
native generation of AFPDS, or AFPDS sent from a S/370 or a S/390, can be
printed on one of the following AFP printers attached to an AS/400 system: IBM
3820, 3825, 3827, 3831, 3835. A DBCS document is one that uses characters such
as Chinese, Korean, Japanese, or Thai characters.
Management of printing includes a comprehensive list of functions. Some of these are:
Multiple Operating Environments
For most customers with an IBM System/36 or System/38 installed, the migration to IBM Operating System/400 can be accomplished using OS/400, in conjunction with separate System/36 and System/38 Migration Aids. In addition to running applications written specifically for the AS/400 system, OS/400 can execute many applications migrated from the System/34, System/36, and System/38 with few or no modifications. Data can be shared by applications written for OS/400, System/36, or System/38.
Multiple operating environments in Operating System/400 protects customer investment in data, applications, and training.
Most System/36 applications can execute on the AS/400 system using the System/36 environment. When running in the System/36 environment all of the following can be executed:
The OS/400 supports a set of commands designed to migrate data between the System/36 and the AS/400 system or the AS/400 system and the System/36. These commands save and restore library source, procedure members, and data files between the two systems. A separate Migration Aid licensed program (5727-MG1) is available for the System/36 to assist the user in the migration from a System/36 to the System/36 Environment on the AS/400 system.
The end user should see only minor changes to user-written applications and screens. Some operational differences may be apparent to end users of applications, which use system functions. There is special support for the differences between the AS/400 system and System/36 handling of zoned and packed decimal data.
The AS/400 System/36 environment programmer can continue to maintain System/36 source for distribution to System/36s in a network. However, compilation of System/36 programs must be done on a System/36. OS/400 functions, not in System/36, are available for System/36 applications and for program development. For example, the interactive debug capability can be used regardless of whether the user is debugging an RPG II or RPG III program. Other functions, like journaling, can be added to applications without making any program changes.
Most System/36 Environment users can begin to use OS/400 functions by mixing System/36 and OS/400 functions. For instance, program-defined files can be converted to externally-defined files and the System/36 RPGII or COBOL programs can still process the files. System/36 RPGII programs or OCL can be replaced gradually with the AS/400 RPGIII and CL programs. When intermixing System/36 and AS/400 functions in the same System/36 environment job, architectural differences between the two environments can cause special programming considerations. These apply especially to situations where both programs do I/O. There are some special error handling considerations when mixing CL and OCL that need to be addressed in the System/36 Environment.
System/36 coexistence Helptext documentation interchange is provided for IBM Business Partners and customers who prefer to develop System/36 applications on AS/400 and send Helptext documents between systems.
The catalog function in System/36 Environment displays the same information for externally-described and program-described files. Additional information is shown to match the System/36 CATALOG function.
Some System/36 functions have been enhanced to make use of functions available on the AS/400 system. Some examples are:
The System/38 Environment provides for:
The System/38 Environment allows the execution of most programs written for a System/38. The same job can execute any combination of AS/400 or System/38 programs. The programmer menu supports new source types which enable the identification of System/38 syntax. The programmer can maintain either AS/400 or System/38 programs during the same job. Compilations of programs to be distributed to System/38s must be done on a System/38.
A separate Migration Aid licensed program (5714-MG1) is available on the System/38 to assist in the migration from a System/38 to the System/38 environment on the AS/400 system.
Connectivity to Remote Devices, Systems, and Networks
OS/400 offers many integrated capabilities and functions that enable communications with a variety of IBM and non-IBM systems either in batch or interactive modes. This integrated connectivity function provides customer solutions by enhancing integration of business systems. Traditional SNA hierarchical, emerging SNA peer networks and SAA standards are supported, thereby offering the user the greatest flexibility possible in network design now and in the future.
Supported protocols and networks:
The following is the protocols and networks supported by the Operating System/400. This support provides a basis for integration of customer business systems, and thus, business solutions.
The AS/400 System directly connects to the IBM Token-Ring Network (either 4 or 16 Mbps), to FDDI/SDDI LANs (Fiber Distributed Data Interface / Shielded - twisted - pair Distributed Data Interface), and to ETHERNET/IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD LANS.
AS/400 LAN attachment features are configured and appear to the system as types of communication lines. OS/400 supports multiple concurrent SNA communication sessions with a variety of IBM products over both LAN types. TCP/IP sessions are also possible over both TOKEN-RING and ETHERNET/IEEE 802.3 LANS
The maximum number of local link stations supported per LAN attachment on each system are indicated below:
SYSTEM MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LINK STATIONS/LAN
AS/400 communications support includes integrated services digital network (ISDN) basic rate interface (BRI) adapter, which can support two independent 64 kbps full duplex data channels and one 16 kbps signalling channel. The ISDN BRI adapter implements the ISDN data link control (IDLC) protocol. X.25 communications over the ISDN B-channel is also supported.
X.25 Packet sizes supported have been increased to 4096 bytes.
T1/E1/J1 and Fractional T1 Network connections are supported using the V.35 line adapter and Six-line communication controller at speeds up to 640k bps for one line per controller; 512k bps each for two lines per controller and 384k bps each for three lines per controller. SDLC protocol is supported allowing APPN and SNA networks to be connected. V.35 input is required on DSU, MUX or CBX type DEC equipment interfacing to T1 Network facilities.
BSC, Async, and SDLC support provides the user with the ability to communicate with other systems and devices that use the comparable protocol. Asynchronous communications to other systems and to Async/ASCII devices such as terminals, printers and plotters requires user-written application programs. Async support may be run on an X.25 packet-switched data network. An integrated PAD (packet assembler/disassembler) is provided that supports CCITT recommendations X.3, X.28, and X.29.
The AS/400 system provides an interface for attachment to an X.21 leased or circuit-switched network using either X.25 or SDLC communications.
The AS/400 system provides an attachment and support for X.25 packet-switched data networks, using a non-switched line through either an X.21 or X.21.bis (V.24 or V.35) interface and public switch telephone network (PSTN) facilities, on a V.25 bis autodial or V.25 bis/RS-366 parallel autodial interface.
All networks currently supported by the IBM System/36 and IBM System/38 are also supported by the IBM AS/400 System.
The OS/400 when used in conjunction with the
AS/400 X.25 Communications Feature is certified by the Department of Defense
Data Network (DDN). The X.25 packet network is used by the TCP/IP protocols.
Network Management Facilities:
Several communications and systems management functions are available to manage the Application System/400 system. Some are integrated into the Operating System/400 and some are separately priced features. These functions help manage and control local systems and distributed systems that may operate within a network controlled by a host S/370 or by another AS/400 system.
Functions available for the AS/400 system are:
More detail about network management facilities for AS/400 follow:
Alerts Support to NetView*, System/36, System/38, AS/400
Alerts are messages that comply with System Network Architecture (SNA); they are sent from systems within a communications network to a central management site, called the problem management focal point. Alerts carry information about a problem and suggest corrective actions to the problem management focal point operator. Alerts can be used to monitor unattended systems and devices and control system resources.
Alerts may be sent to other AS/400 systems, System/36s, System/38s or System/370s. An AS/400 system can act as the generating and sending point for an alert, as a node that forwards alerts to the focal point, or as the problem management focal point that receives alerts.
When an AS/400 system is the problem management
focal point for a network, the operator can display, delete, receive, forward,
log, or hold alerts for forwarding. When operating within a network with a
System/370 host system, alerts may be forwarded to the NetView(TM) licensed
program on the S/370, which has focal point capabilities.
Token Ring Network Manager - Single Ring Server
This integrated support aids the AS/400 operator in managing an attached token ring local area network. The support provides monitoring and active management for the token ring. Functions include:
Networks of multiple token ring LANs (bridged
networks) may require more extensive network management support than these
Distributed Host Command Facility (DHCF)
The OS/400 distributed host command facility allows the users of display stations of a System/370, using the host command facility (HCF) companion program under ACF/VTAM to:
Link Problem Determination Aid (LPDA)
The OS/400 LPDA and LPDA-2 functions provide data about network components to aid in network problem determination. These architectural network commands are issued to determine which of the various network components might be causing an error. The commands include requests for modem and line status and receive tests for IBM signal converter products (modems).
The LPDA-2 commands are an extension to the
standard LPDA commands. They can be initiated concurrently with other activity
on the line. The commands include transmit and receive test and line analysis.
The results of the LPDA-2 tests may be presented to the user's display or
printer. The data presentation is similar to those panels available on the
System/370 NetView(TM) licensed product.
Distributed Systems Node Executive (DSNX)
The OS/400 distributed systems node executive (DSNX) support allows the AS/400, S/36 and IBM PCs and PS/2s to be part of a SNA network in which distribution of data--including files, programs, IBM software, procedures--is centrally controlled by the System/370 focal point. The controlling S/370 product is NetView* Distribution Manager (NetView/DM). Interaction between NetView/DM and DSNX provides the control functions required for change management within a network of distributed systems. AS/400 DSNX support operates with either NetView/DM on MVS or DSX V3R2 on VSE.
The interaction of NetView/DM and DSNX provides functions such as:
The AS/400 DSNX can act as an end node (the target system for an action) or as an intermediate node (gateway) between NetView/DM and other AS/400 systems, S/36s or IBM PCs and PS/2s. When the acting as an intermediate node, AS/400 can distribute to a list of other systems on the network.
Once AS/400 DSNX support is activated, no operator interaction is required on the AS/400. The NetView/DM host system controls all transfers of information between the distributed systems and the NetView/DM host.
AS/400 DSNX support allows for either synchronous
or asynchronous connection to the NetView/DM host. When acting as a synchronous
node (referred to as the DIRECT NODE support), the AS/400 keeps the line active
(session established) until all requests are complete on the AS/400.
The following are the supported communications facilities in Operating System/400. These facilities protect customer investment in equipment and applications by enabling communication between diverse resources.
Detail about the communications facilities available with Operating System/400 follow:
X.21 short hold mode (SHM) and multiple port sharing (MPS)
SHM and MPS are supported to take advantage of
the fast call set-up and clearing characteristics of X.21 SHM/MPS.
Remote Work Station Support
Work stations from the 5250 family of displays
and printers (as well as programmable work stations that emulate the 5250) are
supported by 5250 remote controllers. Programs written for interactive
applications need not be aware of the work station location (local or remote).
Intersystem Communications Function
The intersystem communications function provides the application interface for the AS/400 system communications support. The following communication types are supported through this interface:
The application program uses high-level language operations and communications functions to communicate with a remote system. Either externally described data or system-supplied formats (compatible with System/36 SSP-ICF operations) can be used.
Support functionally equivalent to that known on the System/36 as ICF INTRA support is also provided. This intrasystem communications function allows communications between applications running on the same AS/400 system as if they were using a communications line. This allows:
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN)
APPN provides a way to easily establish and maintain a network of AS/400 Systems, System/36s, and other IBM systems. The AS/400 user can install and maintain a complex network of interconnected systems without requiring highly skilled programmers. Configuration and maintenance of the network is done by the controlling nodes that make up the network. Systems that use CPI-C, APPC, DDM, display station pass-through, SNA distribution services (SNADS), SNA backbone, file transfer support, electronic customer support, and PC Support/400 can take advantage of APPN networks.
APPN support allows LAN-based AS/400 systems to establish a direct LAN session without being defined to one another. The configuration of 2.1 type PCs on a LAN is significantly reduced using APPN and auto configuration support. An APPN network may be established spanning LAN and remote communication facilities while providing a seamless appearance to nodes in the network.
APPN multi-network connectivity provides APPN session paths between adjacent APPN networks of dissimilar network identifications. Therefore, established APPN networks having unique network identifications can be connected, a large APPN network may be partitioned for operational control, and service providers may connect to client APPN networks. The SNA Network Registry is available to register customer network names. To prevent name conflicts between attached networks, the networking customer can obtain a unique, registered network identifier (NETID) from their IBM branch office representative.
Back-up APPN network node support provides
dynamic switching of an AS/400 APPN end node to a back-up network node server
upon link failure for sending network management alerts to the network
management focal point.
Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC)
APPC allows a program on one system to communicate with a program on a remote system so that users can run applications and have access to functions not available on the local system. AS/400 APPC is based on SNA LU6.2 and PU Type 2.1 and is designed to provide a common session protocol for both document interchange and distributed data processing.
Customers using APPC/ICF, CPI-C, DSPT, DDM, SNA/DS, or any other application using APPC LU6.2 have the option to enable session level compression which significantly reduces traffic on the slower speed communications lines such as SDLC and X.25.
APPC uses one of two compression algorithms, Run
Length Encoding (RLE) or Lempel-Zev (LZ). RLE uses String Control Bytes (SCBs)
to encode duplicate repetitive bytes of data. LZ assigns codes to represent
unique character strings which are stored in tables.
SNA Distribution Services (SNADS)
The OS/400 SNADS support is an integrated queued
asynchronous connection to a SNADS network and remote document libraries. It
provides routing, sending, and receiving operations for users to exchange
distributions containing messages, data, or objects with other users in the
SNADS network. SNADS uses a system distribution directory to direct
distributions to users in a local system or to other systems in a SNADS
SNA Primary Logical Unit 2 Support
Connectivity, Increased Capability and Performance Improvements
SNA Primary LU2 (3270 type terminal) support improves the AS/400 participation in an SNA backbone network. It enables any LU2 terminal user in the network to access either any AS/400 system or any S/390 (R) system in the network with the same user and network interface. AS/400 application programs written for 5250 displays may also be accessed by a LU2 terminal through the network with this new SNA Primary LU2 support.
This will protect the investment in the SNA backbone network, installed AS/400 systems, and installed S/390 systems. It also provides a central point of control for network management and distribution. The IBM Network Routing Facility licensed program is not needed with this support.
SNA Primary LU2 support enhancements provide for attachment of more than one Network Control Program (NCP) Communication Controller. Each controller may be in the same or different subarea. Previously, some customers were restricted by a limitation of 253 sessions. Now theoretically up to 60,000 SNA LU2/1 application primary sessions may be configured on an SDLC link between an AS/400 system and an NCP Communications Controller, and up to 6000 SNA LU2/1 application primary sessions may be configured for each IBM TR/LAN attaching an AS/400 system and NCP Communications Controller.
In addition, the AS/400 shared line support is enhanced with this new SNA Primary LU2 capability. LU2/1 application primary sessions, APPN/APPC sessions, SNUFs sessions, 3270 Device Emulation sessions, and DSNX sessions may all share the same SDLC link between an AS/400 system and an NCP Communications Controller.
The AS/400 system's ability to connect 3270 work stations to an APPN network is greatly improved. AS/400 systems with APPC, CPI for communications and using APPN networking may now add OS/400 application primary sessions to the AS/400 system in the SNA subarea network environments. This increases use of the AS/400 system as a distributed system and/or a central site processor.
At least one VTAM host using VTAM V3R4 and its companion release of NCP V5R4 is required for OS/400 SNA Primary LU2 support. Included with this is support for DBCS displays and printers.
Also, with SNA Primary LU2 support, user and network interface routing is handled directly by NCP and the controllers in the network.
OS/400 SNA Primary Logical Unit (PLU) support in Version 2 Release 3 significantly improves the initial and ongoing configuration effort for large networks. It exploits the use of dynamic LU definition and independent LU extended bind capability in attached NCP controllers which significantly reduces NCP configuration of AS/400 systems. Furthermore, OS/400 allows auto-create and auto-delete of configuration control blocks needed by the AS/400 application program for its LU2 terminal and LU1 printer sessions. Auto-create/delete are selectable device configuration options of OS/400 configuration support allowing for flexible application and network design. LU2 terminals of 24x80 screen size are supported.
Also, there are several LU1 (3270 type printer) operational enhancements. LU1 SCS printer sessions are supported by OS/400 for application initiation, a terminal's associated printer, an auto-LOGON printer, and a designated network printer thru terminal input to an application. Printing may be done directly by the application program or spooled using the AS/400 spool writer facility. In addition, LU1 SCS session primary applications may have printer output directed to an AS/400 system printer.
The SNA/Management Services Transport support,
enables the OS/400 licensed program to send and receive management services
data with other systems in an SNA network that provide support for the
SNA/Management Services architecture. This includes other systems using OS/400,
NetView and OS/2 licensed programs. An Application Programming Interface (API)
is also provided to enable AS/400 customers and business partners to use this
support in their network and systems management applications.
Distributed Relational Database Support
The Remote Unit of Work function described in
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) is a function of the
operating system that supports distributed relational access to data on remote
systems. These remote systems must be connected by a communications network and
must also support DRDA. The Remote Unit of Work also supports SAA Character
Data Representation Architecture (CRDA) and is used with Distributed Data
Management (DDM) architecture to provide distributed relational access to
remote databases. DRDA compliant access is provided by DB2, SQL/DS and OS/2EE
Network Configuration Menu
The network configuration menu provides options to:
Object Distribution Facility (ODF)
The object distribution facility gives users or applications the capability to distribute objects across a network. Information such as data files, source code, and print files can easily be exchanged between peer-connected systems (AS/400 system, System/36 and System/38) using SNA distribution services (SNADS). This capability protects customer investment in systems, data, and applications, while providing improved productivity through data access.
When coupled with DSNX, ODF can redistribute
files and programs received from a System/370 host to another system. For
example, a DSNX distribution from a System/370, using NetView distribution
manager, can be sent to an AS/400 system, which in turn can forward the
distribution to System/36s or other AS/400 systems.
Display Station Pass-through
Display station pass-through allows a user
attached to a local AS/400 system to be connected to a remote System/36,
System/38 or another AS/400 system, to sign-on to that system, and to execute
applications or perform network management functions as if connected directly to
the remote system. An options is provided to eliminate the requirement to sign
on at the target system. System/36 and System/38 users can also sign-on to an
AS/400 system and perform the same functions. Exchange of printed data may be
accomplished using the object distribution facility and a user-written program.
Distributed Data Management (DDM)
DDM is a function of the operating system that
supports distributed file and distributed relational access to data on remote
systems. These remote systems must be connected by a communications network and
must also be using DDM. For example, distributed file access is provided by
System/36, IBM System/38, CICS/VS, or another IBM AS/400 System. SAA
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) and SAA Character Data
Representation Architecture (CDRA) are used with DDM to provide distributed
relational access to remote databases. DRDA access is provided by DB2, SQL/DS,
and OS/2EE database systems.
SNA Upline Facility to S/370 IMS and CICS Hosts
The SNA upline facility provides the AS/400 user with communications to:
This provides for program-to-program
communication between AS/400 and System/370 programs and supports customers
migrating from SNA upline facility on System/36 as well as DSNX.
SNA Passthrough provides SNA controllers and T2.1 nodes attached to AS/400 system an unedited unaltered session to S/390 system. VTAM signon screen is displayed on supported devices attached to AS/400 system. The following sessions can be established using this support.
IBM Network Routing Facility/400
IBM NRF Support/400 is programming that enables connectivity between AS/400 system and the Network Routing Facility LPP operating on the IBM 3745 Communications Controller. LU2(3270-type) terminals and LU1 SCS printers attached to a NRF node may be session partners to an AS/400 application host.
Session partner routing using NRF gives the
appearance to the AS/400 application host that the terminals attached to NRF
are directly connected. The NRF session between the terminal and the AS/400
application host is routed thru the SNA subarea without going to the S/390
Autodial support is provided on the AS/400 System
so that users can communicate with other systems by automatically dialing
remote systems under control of an application program or procedure. Serial
autodial using the V.25 bis command set is available for synchronous,
bisynchronous, and asynchronous communications using one communication line.
The IBM and attention command sets are also available for asynchronous
communications. The IBM 5853 modem, the IBM 7855 modem, and other equivalent
V.25bis modems can take advantage of this autodial support.
3270 Device Emulation
3270 device emulation allows any AS/400 printer
or 5250 display to emulate an IBM 3278 (Model 2 or 5) or 3279 model S2B display
station, or IBM 328x printer. Host DBCS applications also can be accessed using
an SNA connection. Up to 254 concurrent sessions can be active to the
System/370 per SNA connection. The 3270 extended field attributes are
translated into the appropriate AS/400 5250 display attributes. Up to 255 input
fields per 3270 application screen can be active when displayed on local 5250s.
Any remaining 3270 input fields can be accessed by a scrolling function.
System/370-Personal Computer File Transfer
3270 SNA API Support for IBM 3278 Model 3, 4, and 5:
This support enables System/370 application
programs that were written for IBM 3270 Model 2 thru 5 display stations to be
accessed at the 3270 data stream interface level by AS/400 application
programs. In addition, 3270 data stream extended attributes are supported by
the AS/400 3270 SNA API for 3278 Models 2 thru 5.
ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Adapter
OS/400 supports attachment of devices to the AS/400 that enable the ISDN data link control (IDLC) communications protocol. This ISDN support includes
3x74 Remote Attach
The 3x74 remote attach protects customer investment by allowing IBM 3270 remote control units or IBM Personal Computers executing PC 3270 Emulation Program, Version 3 (59X9969 or feature number 9969 of licensed program 5875-MMA) to attach to the AS/400 system using an SNA/SDLC and X.25 communications port (3174/3274), or IBM token-ring network (3174-3R or -53R). The 3x74 remote attach gives any 3x74-attached IBM 3270 display access to most 5250 applications with essentially 5291 or 5292-1 functions. Major 5250 function exclusions are the word processing function of IBM OfficeVision/400, 5250 graphics, and 132-column display. The 3270 printers are provided 3287/5256 level of function as well as 3286/5575 (DBCS) level of function. Any IBM 3270 display accessing System/370 applications is passed through the AS/400 System, giving total 3270 display function. IBM Personal Computers with IBM 3278/79 adapters attached to 3x74s may exchange files with the System/370 using the pass-through capability of 3x74 remote attach. These personal computers cannot access PC Support/400, but can access the same 5250 applications as 3270 displays.
Also supported are DBCS 5578 displays and PS/55
executing DBCS 3270 PC programs.
5X94 Remote Attach
The IBM 5294 Remote Control Unit can be used to attach up to eight 5250-type displays and printers to a AS/400 System using a communications link. The function provided is equivalent to that available on the System/36 and System/38 with the exception that access by PC Support/400 to attached Personal Computers is not supported.
The IBM 5394 Remote Control Unit attaches up to 16 5250-type displays and printers to a AS/400 System using a communications link. The function provided to the remotely-attached work stations is identical to that provided to the local work stations.
The IBM 5494 Remote Control Unit supports the attachment of remote workstations to the AS/400 system. It manages the operations of these workstations and the communications to the AS/400 system. There are two models of the 5494:
Model 001 manages the operation of up to 28 twinaxial attached workstations and allows the workstations to communicate with the AS/400 system through a type 2.1 connection.
Model 002 can communicate with an AS/400 system over a Token-Ring network while supporting up to 28 twinaxial devices. Model 002 can support token-ring attached devices while communicating with an AS/400 system over an SDLC, X.21, or X.25 connection. In this configuration the 5494 supports up to 40 devices of which up to 28 could be twinaxial attached, and the rest token-ring attached.
5394 SNA Backbone Support
OS/400 SNA support provides connectivity for 5250
sessions between an AS/400 system and a 5394 Remote Control Unit installed with
RPQ 8Q0775, with a S/370 subarea using a subarea controller (37XX). Customer
investment in SNA backbone networks is protected because no changes are
required to AS/400 applications programs to use the 5394 SNA support. The LU 4
and LU 7 sessions are encapsulated with LU 6.2. APPC sessions are supported as
parallel LU6.2 sessions on the same link as the LU 6.2 encapsulated sessions.
ICF Retail Communications Support
The user interface provided by the ICF retail communications support is the intersystem communications function (ICF) file interface used by high-level languages. The ICF retail communications support provides business solutions through the capability to attach retail controllers (3651, 3684, 4680, and 4684) to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:
Communication with the remote change management server on a 4684 Retail Controller is enabled by the ICF retail communications support, which allows a maximum of 32 logical units active concurrently through a 4684 Retail Controller description.
ICF retail communications support
includes a retail pass-through utility and retail point-of-sale data translation routines. When the AS/400 system is functioning as an in-store processor, the retail pass-through utility is an application that bridges the SNA LU-0 secondary session with the host system (e.g. S/370 running NDM, CICS, or ADCS using VTAM/NCP) and the LU-0 primary session with the retail point-of-sale controller. The retail pass-through utility uses the AS/400 SNA upline facility (SNUF) for the SNA LU-0 secondary session to communicate with the host (e.g. S/370).
ICF Finance Communications Support
The user interface provided by the ICF finance communications support is the intersystem communications function (ICF) file interface used by high-level languages. The ICF finance communications support provides business solutions with its capability to attach finance controllers (3601, 3694, 4701, and 4702) to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:
The ICF finance communications support enables the AS/400 user to explicitly configure a financial branch system services (FBSS) controller, thereby providing the following connectivity:
The ICF finance communications support provides the capability for the attachment and configurability of the Personal Banking Machines (4730, 4731, 4732, and 4736 and the Self-Service Transaction Station (4737) on the AS/400 system. The Personal Banking Machines can be attached to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:
Indirectly through a 4702 Controller
The self-service transaction station is configured on the AS/400 system as a financial branch system services (FBSS) controller, thereby providing the following connectivity:
Indirectly through a 4702 Controller
NON-ICF Finance Communications Support
The finance support provides an application programming interface and the capability to attach to AS/400 Systems:
Ease-of-use features are provided that allow
communication with the IBM finance communication system online terminal
support, IBM finance communication system advanced branch controller system
(ABCS) or equivalent support, in the 470X controller. This finance support is
based on System/38 Finance. The 470X Control Unit can be programmed to perform
3270 emulation. IBM 4704 devices can be used to emulate 3270 displays, or IBM
3278, 3279, and 3287 devices can be attached to the controller using device
cluster adapter (DCA) ports.
File Transfer Support
The AS/400 user can access file transfer to
exchange System/36 data and library members and AS/400 database file members
with other AS/400 systems and System/36s. This can be accomplished by using
async, BSCEL, or APPC/APPN support. The user interface to this support is
callable subroutines from RPG and COBOL programs.
Interactive Terminal Facility (ITF)
ITF allows an AS/400 user, using asynchronous
support, to send and receive data through applications such as electronic
message services. ITF also exchanges files and library members with other ITF
users. ITF can also send DW/36 documents, but it cannot receive documents from
other ITF users.
Binary Synchronous Communications Equivalence Link (BSCEL)
BSCEL provides systems management on the AS/400 system by enabling one program to start another program on another system, also having BSCEL support. The other system can be IBM AS/400 System, IBM System/36, or IBM System/34.
BSCEL support also allows a program to
communicate to other systems and devices using the binary synchronous
communications (BSC) protocol. It is a program-to-program function.
SAA Common Programming Interface for Communications (CPI-C)
SAA CPI-C support provides for program to program communications in the SAA environments of OS/400, OS/2, VM/ESA, VSE/VSA, and MVS/ESA (IMS, CICS, TSO). Because it is an architected, call level interface, applications written to it are portable and protect customer investment in communications programming. The CPI-C is accessible from every SAA language (RPG/400, FORTRAN/400, C/400, and Procedure Language 400/ REXX).
Communications support architected for CPI-C is provided by communications logical unit (LU) type 6.2. On an AS/400 system, the CPI-C provides an application with transparent access to to LU 6.2 session services (commonly known as APPC), to low entry networking nodes (type 2.1 nodes), to all APPN networking function, and to data link controls (SDLC, Token Ring, and X.25).
The source or target for SAA CPI-C applications may be MVS/ESA, VM/ESA, VSE/ESA, CICS/ESA or IMS/ESA nodes. The CPI-C program-to-program session is supported across the SNA subarea and onto APPN networks using any LEN node and APPN application system.
Office Host Services
The AS/400 system provides host services for document interchange architecture (DIA) and IBM SAA OfficeVision/400. As a host for DIA, OS/400 supports document distribution and document library services.
DIA host services are available to the IBM 5250 family of work stations through the IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 licensed program (5738-WP1), to IBM 6580 Displaywriter, and to IBM Personal Computers through the IBM PC Support/400 licensed program (5738-PC1).
Document Distribution Services
DIA distribution services provide support for sending and receiving documents among office systems hosts in an SNA LU6.2 network. DIA provides a business solution because it helps manage the flow of information in an enterprise. Document interchange uses the OS/400 SNADS support. Office users can distribute documents and messages to one or many recipients on either the local system or remote systems. Remote distribution services are provided for the IBM AS/400 System, IBM System/36, IBM System/38, DISOSS/370, and IBM 5520. Documents can be sent to:
IBM AS/400 documents can be interchanged with the following systems:
Document Library Services
Document library services allow local and remote systems office users to store and control access for documents in the local OS/400 document library and search for them by using the descriptions stored with the documents. When IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 and the search function are installed, local office users may use the text search services allowing full text retrieval of documents that have been indexed. This control, management, and access to information improves user productivity.
OS/400 supports DIA document library services for remote users of IBM SAA OfficeVision/400, System/36 Personal Services/36, and Displaywriter (using Electronic Document Distribution). The local AS/400 office user may also use document library services in remote libraries on another AS/400 System, System/38, or DISOSS on a System/370.
Folder management services and transforms are provided on the local AS/400 System. Functions include create, delete, list, authorization list, archive log, security, save, restore, copy, shared folders and data transforms.
Shared folders are designed to handle text documents from both the word processing function of IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 and IBM Personal Computer DisplayWrite programs. In addition, the shared folders can be used to store data and applications from IBM personal computers. Transformations between personal computer ASCII and AS/400 EBCDIC are completed only when necessary to allow data sharing between IBM personal computers and the AS/400 system.
Through the use of data stream transformations
provided with the OS/400 host office support, the word processing function of
IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 (in conjunction with OS/400 document distribution)
supports FFT-DCA and Revisable Form Text-Document Content Architecture
(RFT-DCA) data streams for interchange between the AS/400 System and users of
other IBM word processing programs or systems supporting FFT-DCA and RFT-DCA,
including DISOSS, another AS/400 System, PROFS, System/36, System/38,
Displaywriter, and the IBM Personal Computer DisplayWrite programs.
Text Search Services (AS/400 library only)
OS/400 users can take advantage of the text search function when IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 and the search function are installed, by indexing their documents when filing them. Applications could be written to handle tailored searches when contextual text retrieval is a major requirement. Likewise, IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 users have access to the search function. The document analyzing process for indexing is done by OS/400 natural language processing services, and uses of the separately licensed AS/400 Language Dictionaries (5738-DCT).
The text search function is a compute-intensive
application; customers must consider whether the interactive search performance
meets their needs or whether they can request the search and receive the
results later for review.
Print and View Services
OS/400 supports print and view services for
documents. Print services include draft and letter quality support with special
handling options for certain printers. View services include support for
viewing final form documents and the text portions of a compound document.
Creation of Spelling Aid Dictionaries
Spelling aid dictionaries may be created on OS/400 for use with proofreading aids in the IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 licensed program (5738-WP1) and the Text Management/38 utility (included in the AS/400 System/38 Utilities Version 2 licensed program, 5738-DB1).
Processor-Based Charge Group Matrix
Application System/400 Processor-Based Charge Groups from Exhibit no. M4125 Z125-4125 (US only)
Version 2 Release 2 Version 2 Release 3
Machine Processor Machine Processor
Type Model Group Type Model Group
9402 E02 B5 9402 F02 B5
9402 E04 C5 9402 F04 C5
9402 E06 D6 9402 F06 D6
9404 E10 D6 9404 F10 D6
9404 E20 E6 9404 F20 E6
9404 E25 F6 9404 F25 F6
9406 E35 F6 9406 F35 F6
9406 E45 G6 9406 F45 G6
9406 E50 H6 9406 F50 H6
9406 E60 J6 9406 F60 J6
9406 E70 K6 9406 F70 K6
9406 E80 L6 9406 F80 L6
9406 E90 M6 9406 F90 M6
9406 E95 N6 9406 F95 N6
Version 2 Release 1 Version 2 Release 1.1
Machine Processor Machine Processor
Type Model Group Type Model Group
9402 D02 B5 9402 E02 B5
9402 D04 C5 9402 E04 C5
9402 D06 D6 9402 E06 D6
9404 D10 D6 9404 E10 D6
9404 D20 E6 9404 E20 E6
9404 D25 F6 9404 E25 F6
9406 D35 F6 9406 E35 F6
9406 D45 G6 9406 E45 G6
9406 D50 H6 9406 E50 H6
9406 D60 J6 9406 E60 J6
9406 D70 K6 9406 E70 K6
9406 D80 L6 9406 E80 L6
9406 E90 M6
Version 1 R1-R3
Type Model Group
9402 C04 C5
9402 C06 D5
9404 B10 D5
9404 C10 D5
9404 B20 E5
9404 C20 E5
9404 C25 F5
9406 B30 F5
9406 B35 F5
9406 B40 G5
9406 B45 G5
9406 B50 H5
9406 B60 J5
9406 B70 K5
National Language Support
The AS/400 system is a worldwide product that addresses many country-unique requirements. For the following countries/languages, specific support is provided, either with translated machine-readable information (MRI), such as screens and messages, or with keyboards and displays on the local or remote workstation twinaxial controller.
--LOCAL/REMOTE WSC--- --------MRI----------
COUNTRY/LANGUAGE CP----- CS- 1A-- G--- C NLV- CP- DESCRIPTION-
-------------------------------------------- - ---------------------
Arabic 420 235 239 239 B none
Belgium 500 697 269 120
- Dutch 1 x963 500 Belg Dutch
- French 1 x966 500 Belg French
Brazilian Portuguese 037 697 NA 274 1 x980 037 Braz Port
Canada (French) 500,260 697 277 058 1 x981 500 Can.French
Chinese, Simplified 836 936 D x989 837 Simp.Chinese
(DBCS) 837 937
Chinese, Traditional 037 697 D x987 835 Trad.Chinese
(DBCS) 835 935
Cyrillic (Note 1) 880 960 241 241 C none
Denmark 277,500 697 281 159 1 x926 277 Danish
Finland 278,500 697 285 153 1 x925 278 Finnish
France 297,500 697 251 120 1 x928 297 French
Germany/Austria 273,500 697 265 129 1 x929 273 German
Greece 423 218 218 218 G x957 423 Greek (V1)
Greece 875 925 319 319 G x957 875 Greek (V2)
Hebrew 424/2 941/2 210 113 B none
Iceland 871,500 697 197 197 1 x958 871 Icelandic
Italy 280,500 697 293 142 1 x932 280 Italian
Japanese English 281,500 697
Japanese Katakana/Kanji290 332 694R 694R D x962 300 Japanese
(DBCS) 300 370
Korean 833 933 D x986 834 Korean
(DBCS) 834 934
Latin America 284,500 697 170 171 1 x931 284 Spanish
Latin 2 Lang (Note 2) 870 959 114 114 2 none
Netherlands 037,500 697 101 143 1 x923 037 Dutch
Norway 277,500 697 281N 155 1 x933 277 Norwegian
Portugal 037,500 697 301 163 1 x922 037 Portuguese
1 x996 500 Portug.MNCS
Spain 284,500 697 172 173 1 x931 284 Spanish
Sweden 278,500 697 285 153 1 x937 278 Swedish
Switzerland 500 697
- French 714F 150F 1 x940 500 French MNCS
- German 714G 150G 1 x939 500 German MNCS
- Italian 714G 150G 1 x942 500 Italian MNCS
Thailand 838 938 190 O none
Turkey 1026 1152 402 179 5 x956 1026 Turkish
United Kingdom 285,500 697 313 168 1 x924 037 English U/L
United States 037,500 697 101 101G 1 x924 037 English U/L
Yugoslavia 870 959 234 234 C none
English NLVs x924 037 English U/L
x950 037 English U
x984 037 Eng U/L DBCS
x938 037 Eng U DBCS
The codes used in this table are as follows: "LOCAL/REMOTE WSC" refers to the local and remote twinaxial work station controller. "DISPLAY/KEYBOARDS" provides information about the EBCDIC displays and keyboards supported on the WSC; all are single byte character sets (SBCS) unless otherwise noted. "CP" is the codepage supported. "CS" is the character set supported. "1A" identifies the 122-key typewriter keyboard, type 1A. "G" identifies the IBM enhanced keyboard, type G. "LC" identifies the language classification (see below).
"MRI" refers to the translation of machine readable information. "NLV" is the feature code used to order the national language version (NLV): x is 2 if the NLV is ordered as a primary national language, and x is 5 if the NLV is ordered as a secondary national language. "CP" is the codepage of the NLV. "DESCRIPTION" identifies the national language of the NLV.
Note 1: Cyrillic languages are Bulgarian, Byelo-Russian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukranian.
Note 2: Latin 2 Languages are Albanian, Croatian, Czech, German (East Germany), Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, and Slovenian.
Language Classifications (LC): National languages are sometimes grouped according to their common characteristics as follows.
1 SBCS Latin-1
2 SBCS Latin-2
5 SBCS Latin-5
C SBCS Cyrillic
G SBCS Greek
O SBCS Other
B SBCS Bidirectional (sometimes referred to as "right-to-left")
MNCS: Multinational Character Set
SBCS: Single Byte Character Set
DBCS: Double Byte Character Set
NOTE: The table above reflects only EBCDIC
devices attached to the twinaxial work station controller. It does not reflect
ASCII devices attached to the async controller, and it does not reflect
terminal emulation using a personal computer.
National Language Versions and Multilingual Support
The following national language versions are available from the program libraries indicated.
NOTE: * indicates available as secondary language ONLY from that library.
Multilingual support allows multiple users on the same system to be operating in different languages. This means that system messages, displays and help information as well as user applications can be presented to the end user in his national language.
Not all licensed programs are translated into all
languages nor are all national language versions available from all program
release support centers. Contact your IBM representative for more information.
Information about Secondary National Languages
The national language in which the licensed programs is ordered is considered the primary national language. Any other languages are secondary languages. Users can switch among the languages as necessary.
The executable code is shipped with the primary language. When a secondary language is ordered, a separate tape containing only the translated machine-readable information (MRI) is sent to the customer. The primary language MRI and the national language MRI are installed in separate libraries on the AS/400 system. Each secondary NLV is shipped on a separate tape. Multiple NLVs can be installed on a single AS/400 system.
Each secondary language is ordered only once per system, not for each licensed program. The secondary language is selected by a feature code of the Operating System/400 (5738-SS1). The secondary language tape contains national language MRI for the products that have been translated for customers by the country translation centers. For products not translated, US English MRI is included. All of the MRI is contained on a single tape volume.
The MRI for the following licensed programs is included in the secondary language tape subject to availability:
The Language Dictionaries Licensed Program (5738-DCT) includes the available national language dictionaries used by IBM SAA OfficeVision/400, and therefore it is not included in secondary national language tapes. PC Support installation diskettes are not included with the secondary national language versions. The NLV question and answer (Q&A) database is available on the secondary language tape. All other support and service activities are only in US English. Regardless of the NLV, all system commands are in US English. Thus, a single set of system commands works in all national language environments.
To properly display all of the national language characters, the workstation (display and keyboard) must be capable of supporting the desired national language. When a personal computer is used as a workstation supported by the PC Support licensed program, its keyboard can be redefined for a national language, specifying the language keyboard type, so that a special language keyboard is not required.
Each secondary language NLV is shipped from the program library without publications. It is the user's responsibility to determine whether the information in the data base is English or the secondary language. The system does not automatically know which device was used to enter the data. For example, if Spanish information is displayed by an application on an English work station, not all of the Spanish characters are shown correctly. For this reason, it is recommended that Spanish information be kept in one data base and accessed by a Spanish work station, and English information be stored in a separate data base and accessed by an English work station. This example applies also to the other national languages.
Although translated MRI for multiple products is
included on the distribution tape for a secondary language, the customer may
use the MRI only for the products for which he is licensed.
For additional information concerning national language support refer to "AS/400 National Language Support: Planning Guide" (GC41-9877).
See Hardware and Software Requirements.
A minimum of 600MB of disk storage is required. The 600MB includes space for Licensed Internal Code, licensed programs, applications, and user data. The auxiliary storage requirements for the AS/400 Licensed Internal Code and licensed programs are included for convenience in calculating total requirements.
Auxiliary storage is required on all AS/400 system for Licensed Internal Code:
IBM 9402/9404 System Unit 76.0MB
IBM 9406 System Unit 94.0MB
In addition, disk space equivalent to the main storage size is required to accommodate a main storage dump. The Licensed Internal Code sizes include dump space for a 4MB system.
The OS/400 licensed program supports all models of the IBM AS/400 system. The OS/400 extended base support is installed automatically after the OS/400 base support has been installed successfully. OS/400 and the OS/400 extended base require the following auxiliary storage space after installation.
Base 190.0MB (130.0MB)*
Extended Base 6.0MB
When a system is initially installed, the options are automatically loaded and can be selectively deleted after installation.
When a system is upgraded to a new level, deleted options will not be installed. Deleted options can be explicitly installed after the upgrade is completed by using the GO LICPGM command.
The OS/400 options require the following auxiliary storage space:
Online Information 27.5MB (9.5MB)*
Online Education 5.0MB
S/36 and S/38 Migration 6.0MB (4.5MB)*
System/36 Environment 9.0MB (5.5MB)*
System/38 Environment 2.0MB
Example Tools Library 47.0MB (21.0MB)*
AFP Compatibility Fonts 6.5MB
Previous Release CL Compiler Support 4.5MB (V2R2)
9406 Problem Determination 1.5MB
S/36 Migration Assistant 1.0MB
System work space is also required, estimated at 12% of the total size of all installed 5738-XXX licensed programs.
* Items marked by an asterisk in the preceding and following lists are distributed in compressed format to ensure the disk space consumed is not more than was consumed for Version 2 Release 1.
Automatic Decompression of Licensed Programs
For Version 2 Release 3, many of the licensed programs for the AS/400 system are shipped in a compressed form. However, they are automatically decompressed during the installation process if there is sufficient DASD on your system.
For Version 2 Release 3, the algorithm which determines which objects are automatically decompressed after the installation process is changed. On a system with between 100MB and 500MB of available storage, frequently-used objects are automatically decompressed, and the remaining low-use objects are left in compressed form. The object usage information (i.e., number of days an object has been used, and the last-used date) is used to identify frequently-used objects.
NOTE: This does not include decompression of objects shipped in the base operating system, since their usage information is reset during the installation process (except if you are re-installing the same release). For all other licensed programs, the object usage information is retained during the installation process.
The algorithm for determining which objects are decompressed after the installation of Version 2 Release 3 is:
Greater than 500 MB available
No change. The jobs are submitted to decompress all system objects just installed.
100-500 MB available
Any object that had been used at least five times and the last use was within the last 14 days is decompressed.
Objects in library QSYS are not automatically decompressed since the usage information is reset during the installation of the new release. During a re-installation of the same release, objects in library QSYS are decompressed based on their usage information.
A call to a system program does not update its usage information, so programs are not automatically decompressed in constrained storage mode. However, high-use programs are shipped in decompressed form, and are considered not compressible.
Less than 100 MB available:
No change. The jobs are not submitted and the objects are decompressed as they are used.
When a system is installed for the first time, the algorithm does not change. If there is at least 750MB of available storage, all system objects are automatically decompressed. Otherwise, the objects remain in compressed mode until first access.
For more information see the "Programming: Control Language Programmer's Guide" (SC41-8077) manual.
The auxiliary storage requirements for other AS/400 licensed programs are included for convenience in calculating total requirements. Where two or more product descriptions are shown for one licensed program, the separate product functions may be selected during installation.
DESCRIPTION NUMBER BYTES
IBM AS/400 BASIC 5738-BA1 2.0 ( .8)*
IBM SAA AD/Cycle COBOL/400 5738-CB1 2.5 (1.4)*
Previous Release Compiler 5738-CB1 2.0 (1.0)*
IBM AS/400 System36-
Compatible COBOL 5738-CB1 2.0 (1.0)*
Previous Release Compiler 5738-CB1 1.5 ( .7)*
IBM AS/400 System38-
Compatible COBOL 5738-CB1 1.5 (1.0)*
IBM AS/400 Communications Utilities 5738-CM1 3.0 (1.5)*
IBM AS/400 System/38 Utilities 5738-DB1 7.5 (3.5)*
IBM Cryptographic Support/400 5738-CR1 .5
IBM AS/400 Application Development Tools 5738-PW1 14.5 (7.0)*
IBM AS/400 Business Graphics Utility 5738-DS1 2.0 (1.0)*
IBM PC Support/400 5738-PC1 4.0 (3.5)*
DOS Programs 5738-PC1 9.5
OS/2 Programs 5738-PC1 7.5
OS/2 DOS 286 Programs 5738-PC1 13.0
RUMBA/400 5738-PC1 4.0
PC Support Tools Folder 5738-PC1 6.0
RUMBA/400 OS2 5738-PC1 3.5
Communication Manager 5738-PC1 5.0
IBM SAA OfficeVision/400 5738-WP1 10.0 (4.5)*
Text Search 13.2 (10.0)*
Calendar 4.8 (2.5)*
Mail 1.0 ( .5)*
IBM AS/400 Pascal 5738-PS1 3.0 (1.5)*
IBM Performance Tools/400 5738-PT1 23.0 (11.5)*
IBM AS/400 PL/1 5738-PL1 2.0 (1.0)*
IBM Query/400 5738-QU1 2.6 (1.0)*
IBM SAA AD/Cycle RPG/400 5738-RG1 3.5 (2.0)*
Previous Release Compiler 5738-RG1 1.2 ( .7)*
IBM AS/400 System/36
Compatible RPG II 5738-RG1 2.0 (1.2)*
Previous Release Compiler 5738-RG1 1.0 ( .5)*
IBM AS/400 System/38-
Environment RPG III 5738-RG1 1.5 (1.0)*
IBM SAA Structured Query Language/400 5738-ST1 4.6 (2.2)*
IBM SAA C/400 5738-CX1 6.0 (3.5)*
Previous Release Compiler 5738-CX1 5.0 (3.0)*
IBM SAA FORTRAN/400 5738-FT1 2.0 (1.0)*
IBM RM/COBOL-85 for the AS/400 5738-MC1 2.5 (1.0)*
IBM SAA SystemView System Manager/400 5738-SM1 1.5 ( .8)*
IBM Point-of-sale Communications
Utility/400 5738-CF1 2.7 (1.7)*
IBM TCP/IP Connectivity Utilities/400 5738-TC1 16.5 (12.3)*
IBM CallPath/400 5738-CP2 7.5 (4.0)*
IBM Language Dictionaries/400 5738-DCT 24.0
All dictionaries are loaded during installation of the IBM AS/400
Language Dictionaries licensed program. Those that are not needed
may be deleted after installation.
Dutch (modern) .52
French Canadian .84
Norwegian (Bokmal) 1.9
Norwegian (Nynorsk) .49
U.K. English .48
U.S. English .48
U.S. English Legal .05
U.S. English Medical .22
IBM AS/400 Advanced Function Printing Fonts:
Sonoran Serif** (#5051) 5738-FNT 4.5
Sonoran Serif Headliner (#5052) 5738-FNT 5.0
Sonoran Sans Serif** (#5053) 5738-FNT 4.5
Sonoran Sans Serif Headliner (#5054) 5738-FNT 5.0
Sonoran Sans Serif Condensed (#5055) 5738-FNT 3.0
Sonoran Sans Serif Expanded (#5056) 5738-FNT 2.5
Monotype Garamond** (#5057) 5738-FNT 3.5
Century Schoolbook** (#5058) 5738-FNT 4.0
Pi and Specials (#5059) 5738-FNT 1.0
ITC Souvenir** (#5060) 5738-FNT 4.0
ITC Avant Garde Gothic** (#5061) 5738-FNT 3.5
Math and Science (#5062) 5738-FNT 3.0
Datal (#5063) 5738-FNT 1.0
APL2 (#5064) 5738-FNT 1.0
OCR-A and OCR-B (#5065) 5738-FNT 1.0
IBM Advanced Function Printing DBCS Fonts/400:
DBCS Printing Fonts:
Japanese 5738-FN1 43.2
Korean 5738-FN1 24.3
Traditional Chinese 5738-FN1 13.1
Simplified Chinese 5738-FN1 8.1
Thai 5738-FN1 3.4
Each National Language Version for multilingual support requires up to
55.0 million bytes of auxiliary storage.
Announce of attachment capability for ISDN switches or given release levels of these switches, will depend on network availability and IBM's characterization of the network interface. Selection of additional ISDN networks for attachment will be based upon IBM's technical and business judgement in addressing the requirements of its customers.
There are no programming prerequisites on an AS/400 system for any Operating System/400 functions.
Use of the following functions between an AS/400 system and an System/36 requires that the System/36 be at SSP Release 5.1 with preventive PTF package DK3700 or later for Release 5.1, or DK1001 for Release 6.0.
ODF requires ODF/36 PRPQ 5.2 on S/36 and PTF package DK3908 or later for Release 5.1, or DK1001 for Release 6.0 be installed.
AS/400 APPN includes a border node enhancement which requires the S/36s have installed PTF package DK3918 or later for Release 5.1, or DK1011 for Release 6.0 in order to use the new features.
Use of the following functions between an AS/400 system and an System/38 requires that the System/38 be at CPF Release 8.0 and have PERIODIC 17 (EC841962) installed before installation of PC package F. Contact you IBM service representative for installation of this EC.
Use of APPN also requires that the System/38 be at machine product PERIODIC 17 (EC 841962). Contact your IBM service representative for installation of this EC.
Corequisites also exist for the following communications environments:
Alert Support to NetView:
OS/400 DSNX support:
For Object Distribution between AS/400 System, System/36 and System/38 Systems
The AS/400 System, System/36 and System/38 systems can interchange objects within an established SNADS network when the following products are installed:
System/36 Release 5 Modification Level 1 with Object Distribution Facility (ODF)
System/38 Control Program Facility (CPF) Release 8.0 (Program 5714-SS1) and at machine product PERIODIC 17 (EC8441962) level before installation of PC package F. Contact your IBM service representative for installation of this EC. In addition, for network compatibility, the following PCs must be applied: L018800, L018833, L018835, L018846, and L018559.
Distributed Data Management (DDM)
AS/400 attached to IBM Personal Computer, using twinaxial locally or through an IBM 5394 remote controller, requires
AS/400 systems attached to IBM Personal Computer, using SDLC or IBM Token-Ring Network, requires:
System/370-Personal Computer File Transfer
IBM Personal Computers attached using twinaxial, either locally or through an IBM 5394 or a 5494 remote controller, or using IBM Token-Ring Network require:
For the AS/400 system to work in a distributed database environment with other SAA systems, similar Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) or Distributed Data Management (DDM) support must be announced and available on those other SAA systems. SQL/DS V3R3, DB2 V2R3 or SAA Distributed Database Connection Services/2 will be needed to use DRDA with other SAA systems.
Performance depends upon a variety of factors, including processor speed, main storage size, number and types of auxiliary storage devices, and the amount and types of work occurring concurrently. For additional information pertaining to performance, contact the IBM Customer Center or your IBM representative.
IBM recommends full mirroring. Partial mirroring significantly increases the complexity of systems management and adversely impacts system availability.
The 9406 D, E and F model systems do not provide mirrored protection for its multifunction processor. Refer to "AS/400 Programming: Backup and Recovery Guide" (SC41-8079), Part 6.
For clarification of the use of OS/400 support of Advanced Function Print Utilities, a separately licensed program, refer to the "Application System/400 New Product Planning Information" for V2 R1 (GA41-0007) manual.
OS/400 does not support the download of fonts to the 4224 and 4234 printers.
System integrity is an important characteristic of the OS/400 product. For systems running with the highest security levels (system value QSECURITY=40 or 50), IBM accepts APARS that describe exposures to system integrity as defined below.
The machine architecture of the AS/400 system enforces controls by requiring that users be authorized to objects, which are referenced when running a machine instruction. OS/400 has been developed using programming guidelines that maintain system integrity and control access to user data. Additional protection includes isolating customer and system objects. This protection is designed to prevent unauthorized access to objects and the unauthorized use of privileged system interfaces and restricted machine instructions.
Since it is not possible to certify that any system has perfect integrity, IBM will accept APARS that describe exposures to the system integrity of the OS/400 System. System integrity APARs describe problems encountered when a program on the AS/400 system introduces an exposure to system integrity, provided that the user or program are not authorized under a method controlled by the user. IBM continues its efforts to enhance the integrity of OS/400 and responds promptly when exposures are identified and reported in Version 1 Release 3 or subsequent releases of OS/400.
OS/400 System Integrity is defined as the inability of any program running under OS/400, not authorized by a method under the customers control to:
AS/400 Softcopy Library (on CD-ROM Disc)
As an alternative to optional hardcopy publication groups, IBM offers the AS/400 Softcopy Library on CD-ROM disc. The AS/400 Softcopy Library is an optional, no charge feature of OS/400 (feature number 7050 on 5738-SS1 and SPO 5755-AS2).
The AS/400 Softcopy Library CD-ROM provides access to the IBM BookManager Library Reader programs for OS/2 and DOS. This read facility provides access to the AS/400 Softcopy Library. A CD-ROM drive attached to the user's personal computer is required to access the AS/400 Softcopy Library on CD-ROM.
CD-ROM Collection Kits
IBM announced CD-ROM Collection Kits in Programming Announcement 292-450 dated August 22, 1992. The Collection Kit refers to the delivery of multiple online books grouped by environment or application area.
With Version 2 Release 3, customers can order extra copies of the AS/400 Software Library on CD-ROM for Version 2 Release 3 and later releases via the Library Offering, 5636-PUB, for an annual subscription charge. This charge includes all of the editions shipped during the twelve months following the order date. Customers should use this library offering if they wish to budget subscription costs on a regular recurring basis, such as an annual charge, or if they prefer to use the software program ordering system.
Customers licensed for 5738-SS1 continue to be entitled to a free copy of the CD-ROM which can be ordered by specifying Feature Code 7050. Also, extra copies can be ordered via SLSS (for subscriptions) and via PUBORDER (for one-time orders).
Hard Copy Publications
Operating System/400 Version 2 (5738-SS1): A memo and one copy of the following publications are supplied automatically with the basic machine-readable material:
The following publication is shipped automatically with the DBCS primary language version of this program (English Upper Case - DBCS, feature number 2938).
This program uses the security features of the AS/400 hardware and software.
User management is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communication facilities.
(R), (TM), * Trademark or registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
** Company, product, or service name may be a trademark or service mark of others.