Program Marketing Service Replaced
Number VRM Announced Available Withdrawn Discontinued By
5763-SS1 3.02.0 1996/06/04 1996/06/21 2000/02/25 2000/05/31 -
5763-SS1 3.01.0 1995/06/21 1995/06/30 1997/05/16 1998/10/31 -
(For IBM US, No Longer Available as of February 25, 2000)
(For IBM US, Program Services Discontinued as of May 31, 2000)
Operating System/400 (OS/400) Version 3 Release 2 (V3R2) extends the support for advanced applications and interoperability while continuing to provide simplicity, consolidation, and integration. Product growth continues and your investments are preserved as business solutions, built around leading technology, are put into place.
Adding Lotus Notes(R) support on the FSIOP gives you access to Notes Release 4's communication, collaboration, and coordination capabilities, featuring messaging, usability, advanced mobility, enterprise-scalable client/server application development, and enhanced management.
In addition to Notes, V3R2 also includes Internet connection support for the AS/400 system to provide business with access to a vast network of information as if it were a single entity. Other network support enhancements are provided for TCP/IP, AnyMail, and APPN. Print Services Facility/400 integrates print functions to enable state-of-the-art documents. Other enhancements include: security enhancements, OptiConnect for OS/400, ObjectConnect for OS/400, DB2 Multisystem for OS/400, Host Print Transform enhancements, and support for the year 2000.
This document is a high level description of the function provided by the OS/400 operating system.
Today's centralized environment is rapidly evolving into more complex distributed and client/server environments. Applications critical to the success of a customer's business are being distributed across heterogeneous platforms and databases, and across complex communications networks. The database management system has become increasingly important in providing access to and protection for mission-critical data.
Client/server distributed technology offers exciting and cost effective alternatives to traditional centralized computing. Running mission critical applications on hardware, operating systems, database management systems, and applications supplied by a wide mix of vendors is new territory for many customers. The stability and maturity of traditional computing has been overrun with complexity, instability, and uncertainty.
DB2/400 and the AS/400 can remove some of the uncertainty from moving to distributed technology by providing a database server of unprecedented maturity and stability. When combined with state of the art operating system and database management functions, the AS/400 becomes the database server of choice for many customers. With broad support for industry standards, DB2/400 enables the AS/400 to serve the needs of UNIX, OS/2, DOS, Apple, and Microsoft** Windows** clients, thereby removing the uncertainty from one aspect of distributed computing: the Server!
Most systems today support a variety of transaction processing requirements ranging from interactive to batch. But not all systems provide this support in the same manner.
Support for all transaction processing environments such as native OS/400 interactive, System/38, System/36, Batch and Client/Server are all integrated into OS/400. There is no separate software to purchase and the interface to these transaction processing environments is the same interface used for all other parts of the operating system, so consistency is maintained.
The transaction processing functions of OS/400 provide for flexible implementation of your workloads. Through the use of priorities a certain group can be ensured first processing in the system, or by simply adjusting resource allocation a given batch job can be allowed to run to completion without interruption from an interactive job.
OS/400 offers comprehensive transaction processing capabilities coupled with the ability to run applications migrated from other systems and it provides this with no additional software or integration required.
Using CICS/400, a separately-licensed program (5763-DFH), customers can port System/390 CICS applications to AS/400 without excessive cost of code conversion.
Jobs that do not require user interaction can be processed as batch jobs. A batch job is typically a low priority job which may require a special system environment in which to run in order to reduce contention for system resources.
Most batch jobs are submitted to the system through job queues. The job queue may or may not be active at the time of submission. If inactive, the jobs await its activation. Jobs can be placed on job queues from:
Submitted jobs can be specified to run:
Batch job processing can be controlled from any work station, and each job queue can be controlled separately, including:
For example, during heavy interactive use, batch jobs can be submitted to an inactive job queue to be run later when adequate system resources are available.
Multiple batch jobs can be run simultaneously on a single system, with the number depending upon the availability of the resources each requires and the impact on other jobs running on the system at the same time, for example, interactive jobs. In general, as more CPU, memory, and DASD resources are available, more batch jobs can be run simultaneously.
Ease of Installation, Use, and Maintenance
Operating system installation and modification are table-driven to allow easy and quick tailoring of basic system operations. This results in less effort required for initial installation and system maintenance which provides better system uptime. The installation of OS/400 software involves copying the system objects from the distribution media onto the system auxiliary storage and then changing variables in external tables (System Values) to tailor operations in the following areas:
Automatic Configuration for Local Devices
The user can request that locally-attached
devices be automatically configured. Local displays and printers can be added,
changed or removed without affecting users signed on to displays connected to
other controller ports.
Automatic Configuration for Remote Control Units and Devices
Remote controllers require two descriptions: an APPC Controller Description and a Remote Workstation Controller Description. The user can request that both descriptions be automatically created for all 5394 Type 2.1 (with RPQ 8Q0775) and 5494 Remote Control Units attached to the AS/400 system via token-ring. If the 5394 or 5494 remote controller is not token-ring attached, the user must create the APPC Controller Description but can request that the Remote Workstation Controller Description be created automatically.
Programmable workstations attached to a remote controller are automatically configured when the controller description is created. The user can request automatic configuration for non-programmable workstations attached to a remote controller (it's the default).
Devices can be added, changed or removed without
affecting users signed on to displays connected to other 5394 or 5494
Operational Assistant (OA) presents a group of tasks, commonly done by an application end user or system operator, in easily understood non-technical terms. Users unfamiliar with the AS/400 system, its terminology, and sequence of steps to do a task are relieved of these complexities.
User productivity is improved by operational assistant making it easy to do tasks such as managing printer output, managing batch jobs, sending and answering messages. Systems management is facilitated by using OA to enroll and delete users on the system, to back up libraries, and automatically clean up job logs, history log files, and system journals. The system administrator is also assisted in setting up and scheduling simple backups, managing users signed on to the system, understanding the status of the system and managing the system's disk space.
The operational assistant function can be accessed in four ways:
Information Assistant options provide one-stop
shopping for a user's AS/400 information needs. A menu provides selectable
options to inform the user about where to look for information, how to submit
comments on information, and highlights about what is new in the current
release of the AS/400 system. In addition, access to searching the help index,
starting online education and starting the question and answer function is
provided. Information Assistant options are accessed from the AS/400 Main Menu,
the Operational Assistant Information and Problem Handling menu, or by typing
GO INFO on the command entry line.
Existing system commands, which have the parameter, ASSISTANCE LEVEL (basic, intermediate, or advanced)
An attention program that brings up the OA main menu
Application programs that use the OA programming interfaces
System-supplied menus to most system functions
provide a task-oriented approach so that a user unfamiliar with control
language can set up and use Operating System/400. The menus use an
object-oriented approach by providing list of objects for the user to work
with. A fast path gives quick access to system functions for the more
The AS/400 help facility provides comprehensive explanations of display functions to help users be more productive. The index search facility can be used to request help for a task that involves multiple displays. Index search includes many synonyms so that users may ask for information in their own words or in the terms used by the system.
The help information provided is determined by
the current location of the cursor on the display. It may be specific to a
field or line on the screen, or to extended help on the use of the display as a
User Tool Library
The QUSRTOOL library contains tools that can
provide business solutions or improve user productivity. These tools can be
used as examples or enhancements to currently supported functions. They are
provided with no plan of future enhancement or support.
System operational functions can be performed on
an attended, partially attended, or a predominantly unattended basis. System
operator functions can be interactively entered or executed under program
control. Printer paper and media handling are manual functions. Various
displays are provided to allow for control of jobs, spooling operations and
Several system functions provide assistance in problem determination including dedicated and system service functions, messages, help information, and problem analysis commands.
A useful function in problem determination is
copying a screen image from one work station for display on another work
station. This is especially useful when used in conjunction with remote service
Improved Software Problem Isolation and Data Collection
User-friendly, easy-to-use OS/400 tools provide
customers with the ability to collect problem data at a central site. This
OS/400 support for software problem isolation and data collection enables
customers to recreate software problems, save the results, and then view the
data from a central site. Initiation of the tools can be done locally or
System Detected Software Problems
Symptom strings are now automatically created by
the OS/400 licensed program at the time an error occurs, thus making management
of problems in the system easier and recovery quicker. The automatic generation
of symptom string data improves in the rate at which customers can find
appropriate PTFs for problems. Problem resolution time is decreased when
failure data is collected at the time of occurrence thus reducing the need for
Programming Temporary Fixes (PTFs)
PTFs (including licensed internal code changes)
may be loaded and applied using a command. Deferred PTFs can be applied only at
IPL time, but an option allows this to be done unattended. PTFs can be shipped
to a central site, either on media or electronically, and may then be packaged
and distributed to remote or DSLO license sites, either on media or
electronically. With the exception of the loading of media, the handling of
PTFs can be automated for remote sites.
Software Management Services
Software Management Services, a framework for software
packaging, provides a consistent process for managing software on an AS/400
system. This consistent process covers IBM and non-IBM AS/400 software and
PC-based software using AS/400 folders/documents support. When a vendor or
customer uses the SystemView System Manager/400 licensed program to package an
application, that application can now be installed and maintained using the
same procedures that are used for installing and maintaining IBM AS/400
licensed programs. These procedures include software media packaging and
distribution, application installation, application registration within the
AS/400 system, and application servicing. Convergence to a common process for
packaging enables the OS/400 facilities to provide consistent management of
these packaged applications. This reduces redundancy and inconsistencies for
applications and current procedures.
Reading AS/400 Books Online
Softcopy publications are shipped on machine-readable CD-ROM or tape medium as a no-charge feature of OS/400. The books may be downloaded from the medium and are then available for search and/or display from either programmable or non-programmable workstations.
Downloading from CD-ROM requires a programmable workstation with a CD drive attached. It is not necessary to download the books from CD-ROM if all access is to be from a programmable workstation with a CD drive attached.
On a programmable workstation, either the Library Reader licensed program (included on the same medium with the books) or the BookManager READ licensed program is used to search/read the books.
On a non-programmable workstation, the InfoSeeker function of OS/400 is used to search/read the books.
The design of the softcopy library allows you to:
With the BookManager BUILD products (available for OS/2, VM, and MVS platforms), users can create their own softcopy books.
Extensive Run-time Application Function
Operating System/400 is a functionally-rich platform for applications. Because it is enabled to run a wide range of applications, customers can easily grow their application base as their business needs grow. The extensive run-time function integrated into the OS/400 licensed program enables application programs created with the following languages, utilities, and support to run without the corresponding licensed programs:
For other separately-licensed programs, please refer to the Programming Requirements section for the specific program.
Productive Application Development Environment
Operating System/400 includes many functions to assist in programming the system. These functions, along with the Application Development ToolSet/400 (5763-PW1) licensed program, provide a productive application development environment. This environment supports a hierarchical approach to application development which can increase programmer productivity. The programming functions included in OS/400 are:
These facilities increase programmer productivity by providing assistance in creation and maintenance of programs written in RPG/400, COBOL/400, BASIC, PL/I, CL, and Pascal. Debugging of batch or interactive jobs can be done at any time; no special compilation is needed. Included are:
Productivity of users executing commands is
increased by command prompting. Each system and user command can be prompted
for help with parameters. Parameters can be filtered based on values previously
entered or predetermined parameters. Online help explains parameters and
Programmer productivity is increased by relieving
the burden of cross-referencing. The system has the capability to
cross-reference files to related programs and fields to related files.
Using this menu, creation and maintenance of
objects require minimal use of system commands.
Interactive Data Definition Utility (IDDU)
IDDU assists in the creation of database files by creating IDDU data dictionaries, defining files, record formats, and fields. Programmer productivity is thus enhanced by using IDDU. It is an alternative to using Data Description Specifications (DDS). Easy-to-use functions within IDDU assist in the creation of files with existing field definitions.
Cross System Product/Application Execution (CSP/AE)
The CSP/AE function in Operating System/400 executes applications generated on a System/370, using Cross System Product Version 3 Release 2 Modification Level 1, Version 3 Release 2 Modification Level 2 or Version 3 Release 3. This function protects investment by enabling applications to be portable across systems and supports migration to new hardware platforms. Some applications can be regenerated for a new target environment with no changes to the original source specifications. OS/400 CSP/AE functions are compatible with other CSP/AE environments.
The CSP/AE functions of OS/400 include:
CSP object management provides the system administrator with tools necessary to install and manage CSP/AE applications in the OS/400 operating environment. It executes in batch and interactive environments.
CSP application execution facility controls user interactions with an execution of CSP/AE applications generated by CSP/AD on a System/370 for execution on the AS/400 system.
Highlights of the CSP/AE component of the OS/400 operating system:
Cross System Product applications are stored as executable program objects (similar to load modules), which are compatible with applications of other OS/400 programming languages. There is no CSP Application Load File (ALF) in OS/400. Standard OS/400 system commands also work with all Cross System Product application program objects.
OS/400 Data Description Specifications (DDS) source members can (optionally) be created for an application's database files during application install processing. The system administrator may then create the physical and/or logical database files from this source, for use by the application. Required DDS information can be generated, with the application, by CSP/AD on the System/370.
A user message file created on a System/370 using the CSP Message File Utility can be transported to the AS/400 and loaded as an OS/400 message file. Standard OS/400 system commands can then be used for message file maintenance.
Standard OS/400 system commands are supplemented by a set of CSP/AE object management functions. These functions have either menu or command interfaces that operate on CSP programs and all related table and map group objects.
CSP application trace capabilities to aid in problem isolation involving CSP applications. Trace functions include program calls, Input/Output, object references, process names, application statements, SQL data areas, and Move/Compare/Math source operands. Options can be dynamically modified during interactive application execution.
Integrated Language Environment (ILE)
The Integrated Language Environment (ILE) is an architectural enhancement to the AS/400 system to meet the challenge of providing new function and greater application design flexibility. ILE exploits modern high-level language (HLL) technology while maintaining compatibility with existing applications.
The AS/400 system's ability to integrate multiple applications from multiple independent sources is improved. Each application is allowed to define its own boundaries. Multiple applications within the same job each have their own commitment control in effect for data base management. This is accomplished through improved isolation in data and commit scoping.
ILE provides a common framework for ILE-conforming languages in the areas of program activation, storage management, condition management, and program debugging. ILE also defines calling conventions for access to ILE bindable APIs and provides consistency and improved performance for interlanguage communication.
ILE-conforming languages are:
New elements introduced by ILE:
ILE Program Binder
The Integrated Language Environment introduces a new step in the application development process: binding. The purpose of binding and the Program Binder is to create program objects in such a way that efficient external calls may be performed.
ILE compilers create modules (object type *MODULE), and the Binder is used to bind several modules together to form a program object. Note that these ILE program objects are logically as well as physically different from unbound program objects.
Modules from any of the ILE compilers (C, CL, COBOL, and RPG) can be bound together permitting applications to be created entirely in ILE which provides a greater level of environment consistency and isolation from other applications.
ILE Message Handling
With ILE, the concepts of a message and an exception are unified; both are sent at the same time. Although this exception model is applicable to both ILE and non-ILE programs, the concepts of monitoring for and handling an exception are significantly different between the two.
ILE Source Debugger
The ILE Source Debugger is used to debug all bound programs and service programs. It allows debugging to be done in terms of the source associated with a program. It cannot be used with non-ILE programs which must be debugged using the system debugger (for Old Program Model programs) or the EPM debugger (for Extended Program Model programs).
A debugger API is provided, allowing compilers and other pre-processors which contribute to module creation to create debug view information associated with a module object. The API allows source debuggers to be built for the AS/400 system.
The non-programmable workstation ILE Source Debugger is shipped with OS/400 and is therefore available to all AS/400 customers.
ILE Dynamic Screen Manager
The ILE Dynamic Screen Manager (DSM) offers versatility and adaptability in generating screens during application execution with a set of bindable Application Program Interfaces (APIs). DSM enables ILE developers to create screens and windows dynamically, no longer requiring predefined static screens. This provides improved programmer productivity over using UDDS to perform low-level screen I/O operations and greater flexibility in controlling the screen appearance dynamically for the application. The DSM support falls into the following categories:
OptiConnect for OS/400
OptiConnect for OS/400, a separately-orderable feature of OS/400, provides high-speed transparent access to data through fiber optic bus connections and performance enhancements to AS/400 Distributed Data Management (DDM). The major advantages for OptiConnect for OS/400 are realized by customers who are rapidly approaching system capacity limits, and/or who want to implement distributed database application servers within a data center or short-distance campus environment.
With OptiConnect for OS/400 customers can offload the database application CPU cycles of up to 7 AS/400 systems. Customers wishing to implement distributed application servers can also benefit from using OptiConnect for OS/400.
The mechanism used by OptiConnect for OS/400 to access database files on connected systems is modeled after DDM. Just as DDM uses a DDM file and APPC communications to redirect file access operations, OptiConnect for OS/400 uses DDM files and a specialized transport service to redirect file access operations to a target system. Because OptiConnect for OS/400 operates only among systems sharing the same bus (connected with fiber optic cables), it can achieve transport efficiencies not possible with more general purpose, wide-area communications protocols. Key AS/400 database functions supported include:
DB2 Multisystem for OS/400 environments can be connected with fiber optic on a shared bus with OptiConnect for OS/400 to increase the efficiency of parallel database operations.
Two-Phase Commitment Control, allowing distributed units of work, in OptiConnect for OS/400 networks. Previously, OptiConnect for OS/400 supported only remote units of work.
ObjectConnect for OS/400
ObjectConnect for OS/400 provides high-speed transfer of objects, allowing the AS/400 to perform save/restore operations without requiring intermediate savefiles over either standard communications lines (via TCP/IP or APPN) or across the high-speed OptiConnect for OS/400 shared optical bus. The combination of efficient use of communications lines and elimination of an intermediate savefile make ObjectConnect for OS/400 an essential option for AS/400 migration and distributed networks. When used over the shared optical bus, it adds value to the OptiConnect for OS/400 customer's investment by providing additional usage of the bus.
ObjectConnect for OS/400 is shipped with all V3R2 orders for OS/400 and is optionally installable.
Ultimedia System Facilities
Ultimedia System Facilities extends the customer application interface into the world of multimedia. Multimedia capabilities added to existing or new applications can present real work information more effectively and make complex concepts easier to understand. Subtle differences in color, complex movements, and sounds can be more accurately described in multimedia. Ultimedia Facilities can provide the interaction of data with visuals or sound to enhance decision making and accuracy.
Client PC support is provided through Client Access/400. Both OS/2- and Windows-based PC platforms can capture, store, and present multimedia objects. These objects can be text, image/graphic, audio, digital video, and analog video.
The AS/400 system registers and manages multimedia objects that can be stored on the user's client PC, on the AS/400 system in shared folders or on the 3995 optical library that is either host or Local Area Network (LAN) attached. Analog objects, such as laserdiscs, can be used also but are managed by the user, with the AS/400 system providing scheduling for these devices.
Ultimedia System Facilities also provides functions through APIs available to both AS/400 and client PC applications. The OS/400 Ultimedia System Facilities APIs use standard interfaces that are callable from high level languages (COBOL, RPG, and C). A subset of the APIs is available through the standard CL command interface. The Client Ultimedia Facilities APIs are callable from programs written in the C language using Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs). The API requests are routed to either the AS/400 system or a client PC depending on which platform is best suited to perform that function.
OS/400 Ultimedia System Facilities APIs support:
Client Access/400 must be installed on the client PC to utilize these facilities.
OS/400 Single UNIX Specification Functions Enable Application Portability
Through support of X/Open single UNIX specification (formerly Spec 1170) interfaces, AS/400 provides most of the commonly-used system interfaces used by commercial client/server applications today. The support includes functional enhancements that reduce the cost of porting applications to the AS/400 system.
These functions allow AS/400 C application developers to build applications using system interfaces and C runtime functions that are portable to other operating systems.
Functions included in OS/400 are:
Additional functions are available in the Common Programming API (CPA) Toolkit, a separately-orderable feature of OS/400:
To use the above functions, the CPA Toolkit and the separately-orderable PRPQs 5799-XDB, CPA Extensions for OS/400, and 5799-XCZ, CPA Process Management Extensions for OS/400, must be installed. Note that these two PRPQs should not be installed if DCE Base Services/400 (LPO, 5733-167) is also installed on the system.
The functions in CPA are based on industry standards from POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) and the single UNIX specification. These standards enable source code portability of applications over platforms such as OS/400, OS/2, AIX, MVS and other, non-IBM, operating systems.
Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Base Services/400
DCE Base Services/400, a separately-orderable licensed program offering (LPO, 5733-167), provides a comprehensive, integrated set of services to support client/server applications based on remote procedure call. DCE services include a network-wide security and naming facility for large scale distributed systems. DCE services enable a high degree of transparency across dissimilar platforms in terms of location in the network (services can be anywhere in the network), worldwide authentication (user identification and validation) and remote function invocation across system platforms.
DCE Base Services/400 provides the key functions of OSF's Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Version 1.0.2. It provides function for building DCE RPC distributed applications including OSF DCE Time Services, Security Client functions, and Cell Directory Client functions. Client/server application enabling is simplified with automatic data conversion between unlike systems and location independence for client applications. TCP/IP communications protocol is supported.
With these capabilities applications can transparently support the distributed client/server environments across a variety of systems including: OS/400, OS/2, AIX, MVS, and other, non-IBM, operating systems.
3995 Optical Library Dataserver Support
The 3995 Optical Library Dataserver is a direct- or LAN-attached device that can store up to 188GB of data on optical disks. Both Write Once Read Many (WORM) and Rewritable media are supported. It provides the high capacity, online storage required for image, data archive and retrieval, workflow, and microfiche replacement applications.
Optical Library Data Server/400 (PRPQ 5799-XBW) provides Hierarchical File System (HFS) APIs to allow for easy integration of optical storage into existing or new AS/400 applications using the 3995.
High System Availability
The AS/400 system is one of the most reliable computers in the industry. However, to ease system management and minimize recovery, customers must follow a sound backup plan and choose some of the following functions as appropriate:
To avoid or reduce system downtime in the event of utility power loss, a backup power source is recommended - either a battery backup feature on those models where available, or a vendor-supplied uninterruptible power supply. The battery backup feature on the system unit supplies power for a few minutes; for continuous operation in the event of longer power outages, a vendor-supplied uninterruptible power supply should be used. A feature of the operating system allows notification to a user program of a loss of utility power.
To enable forward or backward recovery of database file changes, the changes should be journaled. "After" images are always journaled enabling forward recovery; an option is available to also journal "before" images enabling backward recovery. When a file is journaled, the system ensures that any changes to the data are written to the journal.
For faster recovery in the event of abnormal system termination, access paths changes should be journaled. An access path being maintained at the time the system terminates is placed in an invalid state. Using the journaled changes, the system can quickly make the access path operational instead of requiring a rebuild of the entire access path.
A single transaction may involve several database changes. Use of commitment control allows the application program to treat all changes for a transaction as a single group - to be either committed in the event of normal completion or backed out in the event of abnormal completion. An application programmer can easily provide for recovery at a transaction boundary using HLL statement to request commitment or rollback. Commitment control requires journaling.
User Auxiliary Storage Pools (ASPs) allow most object types to be confined to a user-defined set of DASD units. The objects can be recoverable quickly and completely after a DASD failure by reloading only the user ASP DASD units rather than the entire system. Object types not supported in user ASPs include
Checksum protection protects against loss of data in the event of a single disk failure within an ASP. The checksum facility automatically rebuilds the data on the failed disk unit for both system- and user-defined auxiliary storage pools.
Disk mirroring, in most cases, allows the system to continue to operate after a disk unit or disk attachment failure occurs. Mirroring is specified on an ASP basis and requires duplicate disk devices of the same type. The entire system or one or more ASPs may be mirrored. If the entire system is mirrored, double the disk capacity is needed. When mirroring is started, the system automatically selects disk mirror pairs that provide the best path protection for the hardware configuration of the system. To increase the path protection, additional controllers and IOPs should be considered.
Mirrored protection is an alternative for
checksum protection on an ASP basis; IBM recommends only one of these methods
be used on a given ASP. Mirrored protection does not remove the need for a
proper backup strategy to protect against catastrophes or the possibility that
both units of the mirror may fail. When one unit of the pair fails, the system
is exposed to a failure until the repair action occurs and mirroring is
Mixing of 9337 RAID and non-RAID DASD within a mirrored ASP is now supported. DASD data loss protection for mixes of DASD that use RAID-5 array techniques, called "device parity", with other non-device parity DASD units is accomplished by allowing RAID DASD units to be configured into mirrored ASPs. When this is done, each of the non-RAID DASD units will have a mirrored partner while DASD with RAID will be self-protected. With this solution, the system will be able to continue running for any single DASD device failure. Therefore, it is now easier than ever to select the best DASD option for your protection, capacity and performance needs. This OS/400 support is for the RAID protected DASD as implemented on the IBM 9337 Disk Array Subsystem.
Concurrent DASD maintenance is supported only on a properly-configured AS/400 9406 mirrored system or mixed mirrored and device parity protected system. With a proper configuration, it is possible for the system to operate successfully while experiencing a DASD failure and subsequent repair action. Diagnosis and repair may require active mirrors to be temporarily suspended. Some users may prefer to defer maintenance until all normal operations are completed. In some conditions (for example an IOP failure), the repair action requires that the system be powered off.
Save-While-Active (SWA) allows one or more libraries to be saved while operations, including changes, continue against the libraries. During a short period of quiesced operation, a checkpoint is taken of all libraries being saved before the first save operation begins, so that all libraries are in sync.
System-Managed Access Path Protection (SMAPP) provides automatic system journaling of access paths to try to achieve a user-specified time for access path recovery in the event of abnormal system termination. Target recovery time may be specified either system-wide or by ASP.
With SMAPP enabled, the system estimates the time required to rebuild each access path and then automatically determines which access paths to protect to meet the user-specified recovery time. New access paths are automatically considered for protection.
SMAPP provides the most efficient means of journaling because it journals only what is necessary to protect access paths and it takes advantage of this information to reduce both CPU usage and the I/O associated with journaling. Customers who have employed little or no journaling support in the past will benefit from a dramatic reduction in the time it takes to recover their access paths.
Automating this chore and the associated
responsibilities of creating and managing journals, allows the customer to
concentrate on setting access path recovery policy and lets the operating
system handle the burden of putting this policy into practice.
Media and Storage Extensions, a separately-orderable feature of OS/400, is a prerequisite for Backup Recovery and Media Services/400 (5763-BR1). APIs are provided for managing tape usage and managing recall of data from off-line media to DASD.
Electronic Customer Support
Electronic Customer Support is an integrated approach to helping users service and support single or complex systems and networks. It is menu-driven, supported by online help text, and includes locally available functions and access to remote marketing support systems and IBM service support.
Simplicity and ease-of-use characteristics mean that configuring and supporting systems requires limited data processing knowledge or experience. Additionally, electronic customer support enables third party software and support organizations to support systems and networks from a central site, providing business solutions and partnerships that improve service and support to IBM AS/400 customers. The following are the systems management capabilities of electronic customer support:
Comprehensive Security for System Resources
The many levels of security available with OS/400 ease the job of system security management. The level of security is set simply using a System Value, as follows:
Access to system resources is controlled by giving each user a tailored menu from which to select functions. It is also possible to secure individual system resources and user resources using a combination of public authority (for any user) and private authority (for specific individuals). Facilities are provided to:
The discrete object and data authorities are:
APPN Security Enhancement
APPN routing is enhanced to provide an APPN firewall for the AS/400 system. The APPN firewall allows a customer to restrict which systems in the network can gain access to other systems in the network. This support is implemented with new configuration list objects QAPPNDIR and QAPPNSSN. QAAPNDIR controls where a system entering the network can connect by rejecting locations not on a "protected list". QAPPNSSN controls the ability of the local system to start an APPN session with another system.
Security Tools for OS/400
To support customers in achieving their security objectives, OS/400 is enhanced with tools that increase the understanding and control of the system security environment and provide an additional level of communication security.
Security Tools for OS/400 provides security administration tools that will help the system administrator review and control the security attributes of the AS/400 system.
The following security tools are shipped with OS/400 V3R2:
Report generation tools that produce reports listing objects on the AS/400 system that are available to all users on the system as public objects.
A report generation tool that indicates, which user profiles exist on the AS/400 system and have default passwords.
A report generation tool that produces reports using the system audit journal entries as input. For example, invalid password attempts, attempts to access objects without sufficient authority.
A report generation tool that produces a report on the state of security as it relates to the communication configuration.
A report generation tool that produces a report indicating current and recommended values for the system configuration values and network attributes.
A tool that activates auditing on the AS/400 system.
A tool that automatically enables and disables user profiles during specific time periods. For example, disable the security officer profile at 6:00 p.m. and enable the security officer profile at 7:00 a.m.
A tool that automatically disables or deletes a user profile on a specific date.
A tool that automatically disables or deletes a user profile if the profile has been inactive for a specified number of days.
Security Tools for OS/400 operates on all models of the AS/400 system and requires 4MB of auxiliary storage. When the report generation tools are run, additional auxiliary storage is required as physical files are created that contain object level security information.
The publication, "Tips and Tools for Securing Your AS/400" (SC41-3300), ships automatically with all orders for OS/400 V3R2. This booklet describes how to use AS/400 functions and the Security Toolkit for OS/400 to protect your system. It includes the following:
The booklet also lists other security resources, including additional publications and IBM service offerings.
The Security Toolkit for OS/400, including the booklet "Tips and Tools for Securing Your AS/400", is currently available as a PRPQ for: V2R3 and V3R0.5 (P84277), V3R1 (P84280), and V3R6 (P84281).
Automatic Encryption of Communications
Any OS/400 application, which uses LU6.2 communications, can now be protected by encryption with no change to the application. Capabilities of LU6.2 Session Level Encryption (SLE) in V3R2 include:
With SLE, all user data supported with designated LU6.2 sessions are automatically encrypted with a key that is valid only for that session. SLE LU6.2 sessions protect user data from being viewed or altered at unauthorized workstations. SLE is transparent to applications and to users once it has been initially configured.
SLE in combination with the AS/400 Cryptographic Processor hardware (AS/400 system feature number 2620 or 2628) provides transparent encryption of network communications for AS/400 systems and for AS/400 systems with properly equipped S/390 processors, and PCs equipped with the IBM Transaction Security System and the IBM Communications Server for OS/2 WARP, Version 4.
In addition to OS/400 V3R2, a Cryptographic Processor (AS/400 system feature number 2620 or 2628) and Common Cryptographic Architecture Services/400 (PRPQ P84240, 5799-XBY) are required.
In October 1995, AS/400 formally received a C2 security rating from the United States Department of Defense. The C2 rating is for V2R3 of OS/400, SEU, Query/400, SQL, and Common Cryptographic Architecture Services/400 (PRPQ). Hardware requirements and additional information is found in reference manual SC41-0103, "IBM AS/400 Guide to Enabling C2 Security". To achieve a C2 rating, a system must meet strict criteria in the following areas:
The C2 rating was awarded after a rigorous, multi-year period of evaluation. AS/400 is the first system to achieve a C2 rating for a system (hardware and operating system) with an integrated, full-function database.
Security level 50 is designed to enable the AS/400 system to operate at the C2 level of trust as defined by the U.S. Government publication "Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria" (DOD 5200.28-STD).
V2R3 has already been awarded a C2 rating. V3R0.5, V3R1, and V3R6 have been designed to meet a C2 level of security. IBM plans to have its C2 rating moved to V3R2 using the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) RAMP process. IBM is continuing to work with the NSA towards a V3R6 evaluation. No prediction can be made about when these evaluations might be completed or whether the target rating of C2 will be awarded.
The manual "AS/400 Guide to Enabling C2 Security" (SC41-0103) describes the details at V2R3 of the C2 evaluated configuration.
Interfaces to System Functions
Control Language (CL)
The control language provides a consistent
interface to all system functions. Thus, a programmer can tailor solutions
using system functions without the end user or operator seeing what is being
executed. The control language provides rich function and a consistent set of
terminology and syntax. User-written commands can also be created. Most
commands can be executed interactively, in a compiled CL program, or in a
high-level language program. The ease of using CL and its rich function make it
a productivity aid for programmers. CL programs allow the use of variables,
error handling and access to the database. Programming functions include reading
and writing to a display or database file, IF/THEN/ELSE logic, calling or being
called from another program, and so on.
Data Description Specifications (DDS)
DDS can be used to describe attributes of display, printer, database, and Intersystem Communications Function (ICF) files. These files can then be used in high level language programs.
For all file types, a record description (list of fields) and field descriptions (size and type) are required. Following are additional attributes that may be specified for each file type:
NOTE: When using a controller supporting the enhanced data stream, the appearance of several of the basic attributes is also enhanced.
NOTE: PSF/400 is a separately-billable feature of OS/400.
For ICF files, DDS provides keywords for controlling communications processing between two systems, such as:
Some ICF DDS functions are supported by only a subset of the ICF communications types. For additional information, refer to "ICF Programming" (SC41-3442).
User Interface Manager (UIM)
Most OS/400 display panels are coded in a tag-based language which enables description of the content of a panel without specifying the format of the panel; the UIM controls the format. This can enhance ease-of-use by enforcing consistency in panel appearance as well as matching the "look and feel" of most IBM-supplied AS/400 panels. The UIM tag language supports displays and printers, and the resulting panel groups can be used by all AS/400 high-level languages, including Control Language (CL), using CALL-level interfaces.
The UIM supports four common panel types: menus, information displays, list displays, and entry displays, and for these provides consistent placement and format for many panel elements, such as:
It also provides automatic and consistent use of:
In addition, the following are also supported:
Consistent Program Structure
Programs can be written in either a high-level
language or control language. Programs written in one language can call and
pass parameters to a program written in the same or a different language. All
system and user programs are re-entrant, and each user executes the same
"read only" object code of a program with the system maintaining
separate, unique work areas for each job and each program within the job. In
addition, only those portions of the object code actually in-use are required
to be in main storage. These two factors can increase the number of programs
concurrently operating in the available main storage.
The SAA query common programming interface (CPI)
can be used to import and execute queries generated in other SAA environments.
Query management may also be used to imbed query and report writer function
into AS/400 applications or send them to other SAA environments for execution.
Query management is a productivity aid for the application programmer.
Procedures Language 400/REXX
REXX is an easy language to learn. It facilitates writing clear, structured, interpreted procedures. REXX can provide the data manipulation and procedural logic framework for OS/400 commands and conventional calls to other high-level language and CL programs.
The REXX interpreter implements the SAA level 1
definition of Procedures Language and the SAA level 2 definition except for
native language support for stream I/O. Thus, it provides a more portable
procedural alternative to OS/400 CL programming. It reduces programming investment
for users who require applications that execute in several SAA environments.
REXX also helps protect the programming investment for users who have already
developed REXX procedures for other SAA environments. They simply replace
embedded environment commands with OS/400 commands to port procedures to an
AS/400 system. Procedures Language 400/REXX also supports DBCS for Asian
Programming Interface to DIA Services and Office Functions
OS/400 office host support provides a programming interface designed around the AS/400 control language to enable customer application development. The commands are provided for application programming interfaces (APIs) to the following AS/400 services.
Most of the APIs are provided with OS/400; however, some are shipped with IBM OfficeVision/400 (5763-WP1) and IBM Client Access/400 (5763-XA1).
Many of the commands shipped with the OS/400
licensed program can be used without the IBM OfficeVision/400 licensed program
or any other licensed program installed. Some commands, however, provide more
function when the IBM OfficeVision/400 licensed program is installed. Most of
these commands offer both interactive and batch options which allow customers
to write and tailor applications for these services.
Graphics functions are supported using the Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM), which may be accessed from a high-level language program or using the AS/400 Business Graphics Utility (BGU, 5763-DS1). The following OS/400 interfaces to graphics functions are supported:
The sort utility supports sorting and merging of database files. Selection and sorting using the sort utility has performance advantages over the use of database access paths for certain applications. The sort utility can
Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)
There are literally hundreds of OS/400 APIs
providing access either to functions and data not available through any other
interface, or levels of performance not available through other interfaces.
These CALL-level interfaces are intended for use by independent software
vendors and IBM Business Partners whose applications require these functions
and data. A complete list is in SC41-3801 (System API Reference).
Double Byte Character Set Support
Printed Output Support
This integrated operating system function supports printing of text, images, graphics, bar codes, electronic forms, multiple fonts, logos, signatures, and more, thus providing the basis for business solutions like business reports, preprinted forms and letters. Double Byte Character Set (DBCS) documents that enable printing of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, or Thai characters are also supported. Printing of graphics depends on the capability of the target printer.
OS/400 supports IBM and non-IBM printers, which have a wide variety of price, function, speed, and use. Flexible connectivity options allow them to be attached:
OS/400 can generate SCS, IPDS, and AFPDS natively, based upon a user specification. The SNA Character String, or SCS datastream, is a text only data stream often used for printing job logs, program listings and OfficeVision/400 documents. The IPDS and AFPDS datastreams provide support for graphics, barcodes and advanced page formatting. In addition, AFPDS allows natively-generated data to be printed using all points addressability (APA), host-resident downloadable fonts, and support for overlays (e.g., electronic forms) and page segments which can be merged with user data for printing.
OS/400 also provides facilities to allow system and client applications to create a spool file containing a user-defined datastreams for printers whose characteristics are unknown to the system. These USERASCII print files can be directed to local or remote printers.
Utilizing AFP and SCS print drivers for Windows
and OS/2, client applications can generate print output destined for system and
production printers. OS/400 can also act as a print server to System/370 or
System/390. This includes support of AFPDS and 1403 data for printing on an
Host Print Transform (part of Network Extensions, a separately-orderable feature of OS/400)
Most printers are designed to work with a specific datastream, so OS/400 includes a function to automatically transform the program-generated datastream to that required by the printer to which it is sent. It is not necessary for the application to generate the correct datastream; the system will automatically transform it as necessary at print time.
Host Print Transform (HPT), a key component of the AS/400 print server strategy, provides the ability to transform host-generated EBCDIC datastreams to ASCII-based datastreams accepted by many popular laser and impact printers commonly found in client environments. The transformation is based on user-definable workstation customization objects which provide a high degree of flexibility and control over the output generated. Workstation customization objects are provided for over 125 popular IBM and non-IBM ASCII printers.
The following datastreams can be transformed into ASCII:
An API brings the capabilities of Host Print Transform to the AS/400 application developer. For example, an application program can utilize the HPT API to convert an AFPDS spoolfile to a TIFF image, and then present this image on a IBM 3489 InfoWindow II display.
NOTE: PTFs are required for AFPDS to ASCII transformations in V3R1.
V3R2 Enhancements for OS/400 Host Print Transform
OS/400 HPT has been enhanced to generate the ASCII datastream for DBCS (double-byte character set) printers from a DBCS SCS datastream. Supported ASCII datastreams are IBM's PAGES, IBM non-PAGES, and Epson's ESC/P. The ASCII datastream can be directed to LAN printers utilizing TCP/IP Line Print Requester (LPR) support. ASCII DBCS datastreams spooled via the TCP/IP Line Print Daemon (LPD) can also be directed to LAN- and workstation-attached printers without conversion.
Workstation customization objects are provided
for a number of popular DBCS printers from various vendors, such as IBM and
Epson, and support various languages including Japanese, Simplified Chinese,
Traditional Chinese, and Korean. These objects can be modified to support
unique language or datastream requirements.
Print Spooling Support
Printing, a relatively slow process, can be done most efficiently when it is done independently from the application that created the output. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operations Online) provides this support with the following functions:
Local and remote output queues permit more than one active writer, allowing spooled output on one output queue to be printed on multiple printers. In addition, a limit can be placed on the size of spooled files printed during a specified time period. With these features, large print jobs can be deferred to print during non-peak hours.
Network Printing Support
Distributed print support provides connection to LAN-attached ASCII printers and support for Advanced Function printers. It also facilitates the distribution of printed output throughout AS/400 networks.
The AS/400 system provides a seamless path for customers to direct printed output through an AS/400 network and to other print servers. An output queue can be specified as "remote", and output spooled to a remote queue is automatically sent to the specified destination system for printing. SNA or TCP/IP protocols (LPR/LPD) can be used to transport the spool file and its attributes to the remote system.
These remote print functions are integrated with the display passthru function to allow the customer to specify an output queue on the local system for use during the session. Spooled output generated at the target (remote) system is automatically sent to the output queue on the source (local) system for printing.
Output routed to IBM mainframe computers, which function as print servers, can be sent directly to a specified printer. The job class and a Forms Control Buffer (FCB) can also be specified from the AS/400, greatly improving the AS/400 systems capability as a System/390 print client.
The LAN connection support is provided via the IBM 4033 LAN Connection for Printers and Plotters. Support is also provided for printers utilizing the Internal Network Adapter option available on the IBM 4039 and other IBM printers.
The Host Print Transform can be utilized by this
connection and the LPR/LPD support to provide transforms to popular ASCII
printers from IBM and other manufactures. The customization facilities allow
user-defined transforms for printers outside the scope of the printers
PrintManager/400, a function of OS/400, is designed to provide consistent access to printing across SAA environments. It includes:
PrintManager/400 defines a set of print options
that can be specified within the application. These print options, combined
with the ability to create common, portable applications and printing
definitions (with print descriptors), make possible easy and consistent access
to printing across the customer organization. Batch applications or
installation-specific end-user interfaces for printing can be created using
PrintManager/400, the SAA CPI element and the API.
Print Services Facility/400 (PSF/400)
For many businesses today, the printed output from an application program is the primary way that business communicates regularly to its customers. Whether it's a well-organized, easily readable customer statement, or an insurance policy with customized information for each client, the printed document plays an important role in building and maintaining customer satisfaction.
IBM's Advanced Function Printing (AFP) is an architecture that integrates high-function page printers and print software to:
Print Services Facility/400, a separately-orderable feature of OS/400, is the AFP system software for AS/400 printers that use the Intelligent Printer Data Stream (IPDS) protocol. PSF/400 allows AS/400 users and applications to take full advantage of IPDS printer capabilities, including:
Access to some AFP capabilities, such as electronic forms, downloadable host fonts, and all-points-addressable record formatting, is incorporated into the familiar AS/400 print interfaces -- Printer Files and Data Description Specifications (DDS) for Printer Files. Additional AFP capabilities, such as the ability to use AFP Page and Form Definitions to format print records external to an application program, or to create a variety of customized "multiple-up" print formats, are enabled by the PrintManager/400 APIs, which remain an integrated part of the OS/400 operating system. Advanced Function Printing Utilities/400, separately-licensed program 5763-AF1, provides the ability to print AS/400 database files in various formats with a wide range of fonts and bar codes on printers driven by PSF/400, and to create AFP overlays.
PSF/400 also provides data stream transforms and AFP print resource management to ensure that applications and their AFP resources print consistently on all of the printers managed by PSF/400. PSF/400 manages all printers whose device descriptions specify a device type of *IPDS and AFP(*YES). PSF/400 can transform and print the following data streams on the AS/400 system:
PSF/400 supports the entire family of IBM IPDS printers as well as IPDS printers from other vendors via Twinaxial, SNA or TCP/IP attachments. PSF/400 is required to provide full function support for the following advanced printers:
NOTE: * Requires PSF/400 to attach to the AS/400 system.
In summary, PSF/400 performs three primary functions. First, PSF/400 combines application output with print resources such as electronic forms, fonts, and page segments (images). Then PSF/400 performs any necessary data stream transforms to create the Intelligent Printer Data Stream output for the target AFP printer. Finally, because IPDS is a bi-directional data stream, PSF/400 and the printer communicate about the status of a job until that job is successfully printed and all pages are in the printer's output bin. If there is a problem during the job (i.e. paper jam or out of forms) PSF/400 manages all error recovery so that printing can resume at the next appropriate page, and no pages are lost.
PSF/400 makes it possible to store page segments and overlays in the memory of a printer across job boundaries. It is not necessary to download resources to the printer at the beginning of every job if the resource is already resident in printer memory.
PSF/400 can send SCS and IPDS spooled files to AFP(*YES) printers without performing multiple transforms. This capability can be selected at the printer device level.
The PSF Direct function of PSF/2 and PSF/6000 is provided by PSF/400 to enhance remote printer support and channel attached printer support. This allows:
The error recovery and page repositioning for PPDS and PCL printers is not equivalent to that available for IPDS printers due to the architecture of ASCII data streams.
PSF/2 can also be used to convert Postscript, ASCII, Windows and OS/2 AFP driver output from LAN workstations to AFPDS and automatically upload this output to PSF/400 for printing. A PSF/400 printer can be made to look like a local printer to the LAN user.
Users can print jobs multiple-up by specifying two, three, or four pages per side in the Printer File. Also, with multiple-up, users can specify Reduce(*NONE) so OS/400 does not automatically reduce the output to fit on 8.5 x 11" paper. For printers that support 11 x 17" paper, this allows two 8.5 x 11" pages to be printed two-up, side by side.
Printer Files support multiple paper input bins (up to 255) and output bins (up to 64,000).
External Printer File
DDS supports variable positioning of page segments and overlays. This facilitates customized output and "floating" overlays and page segments for sophisticated, customer-oriented documents.
Scalable Font Support
Scalable font support allows users to specify a printer resident font in any point size ranging from 0.1 to 999.9. The printers that support printer resident scalable fonts are: 3130, 3160, 3900 (except for 3900 Model 001), and 3935.
LAN Printer Attachment
PSF/400 can drive IPDS printers attached to Ethernet and Token Ring LANs using TCP/IP protocol or SNA protocol.
The following IBM IPDS printers are supported directly (without an IBM 7913 IPDS Printer LAN Attachment):
3130, 3160, 3935 and 3900 (except for 3900 model 001)
The following IBM IPDS twinax and coax printers are supported via the IBM 7913 IPDS Printer LAN Attachment:
IBM 3112, 3116, 3812, 3816, 3912, 3916, 3930, 4028, 4230, 6400, 6408, 6412
V3R2 Print Services Facility/400 Enhancements
AFP is significantly enhanced with V3R2, extending your ability to implement the widest range of printing applications in the industry. The following new functions are included:
Advanced Print Formatting brings full AFP page and form definition support for OS/400 applications. Pagedefs and Formdefs are print format definitions that control how application output is mapped to a printed page. They provide industry-leading data mapping (such as multiple-up, conditional processing, and overlays) and page formatting capabilities, supporting the full range of print application requirements. This support operates on the OS/400 spool file, allowing the implementation of advanced print presentation external to the application. Normal OS/400 ease-of-use is maintained by implementation via the printer file and by providing "mix and match" function between this support and existing printer file support. As AFP page and form definitions are standard on MVS, VM, VSE, and AIX platforms, this support facilitates the porting of AFP applications from those systems.
N-Up Page Positioning significantly enhances the ability to map multiple logical pages of printed output onto physical pages. Support includes the control of page sequencing, orientation, location, and size and the control of which electronic overlay is placed on which logical page. For example, multi-up booklets with fold and duplex layouts can now be easily produced. In addition, the proper page layout for applications on continuous form or duplex printers, such as the IBM 3900, can be managed.
Printer Sharing support has been enhanced to permit greater flexibility in sharing IPDS printers with other PSFs, sharing PSF Direct sessions with other PSFs, and sharing printers that support multiple data streams and attachments (such as the IBM 3130). PSF/400 can automatically release the printer to and/or reacquire the printer from another system or print driver using several optional methods of printer sharing. For example, an IBM 3130 can be attached on an IPDS TCP/IP or SNA attached to PSF/400, and at the same time be attached on a Postscript/PCL TCP/IP attached to a PC or AIX system. Each system would think that it owned the printer and in combination with PSF/400, would manage the sharing of the printer.
External printer files enhancements provide a Data Description Specifications (DDS) Invoke Media Map function. Invoke Medium Map provides the flexibility to change the active input paper drawer, page rotation, electronic overlay, and N-up selection in the middle of an output document.
Library List enhancement allows printer resources to be specified on a printer basis (different resource libraries for different printers). This allows one set of resources (fonts, images, overlays, Formdefs, or Pagedefs) to be used for one set of printers and a different set of resources to be used for another set of printers. For example, a customer might want to use different overlays (created for different paper sizes or dot-per-inch densities) and different default printer setups (duplex, page offset, or paper drawer) with different printers.
PSF/400 supports the entire family of IBM IPDS printers and IPDS printers from other vendors on Twinaxial, SNA, or TCP/IP attachments. PSF/400 is required to provide full-function support for the following advanced printers:
* Require PSF/400 to attach to the AS/400 system.
Note: New Printer Support includes support for the IBM 6400 and 3160 printers and 3130 DBCS resident raster and outline fonts.
For detailed information about AFP support on the OS/400, refer to the following documents:
Multiple Operating Environments
For most customers with an IBM System/36 or System/38 installed, the migration to IBM Operating System/400 can be accomplished using OS/400, in conjunction with separate System/36 and System/38 Migration Aids. In addition to running applications written specifically for the AS/400 system, OS/400 can execute many applications migrated from the System/34, System/36, and System/38 with few or no modifications. Data can be shared by applications written for OS/400, System/36, or System/38.
Multiple operating environments in Operating System/400 protect customer investment in data, applications, and training.
Most System/36 applications can execute on the AS/400 system using the System/36 environment. When running in the System/36 environment all of the following can be executed:
The OS/400 supports a set of commands designed to migrate data between the System/36 and the AS/400 system or the AS/400 system and the System/36. These commands save and restore library source, procedure members, and data files between the two systems. A separate licensed program, IBM AS/400 System/36 Migration Aid (5727-MG1), is available on the System/38 to assist in migration from a System/38 to the System/38 environment on an AS/400 system.
The end user should see only minor changes to user-written applications and screens. Some operational differences may be apparent to end users of applications, which use system functions. There is special support for the differences between the AS/400 system and System/36 handling of zoned and packed decimal data.
The AS/400 System/36 environment programmer can continue to maintain System/36 source for distribution to System/36s in a network. However, compilation of System/36 programs must be done on a System/36. OS/400 functions, not in System/36, are available for System/36 applications and for program development. For example, the interactive debug capability can be used regardless of whether the user is debugging an RPG II or RPG III program. Other functions, like journaling, can be added to applications without making any program changes.
Most System/36 Environment users can begin to use OS/400 functions by mixing System/36 and OS/400 functions. For instance, program-defined files can be converted to externally-defined files and the System/36 RPGII or COBOL programs can still process the files. System/36 RPGII programs or OCL can be replaced gradually with the AS/400 RPGIII and CL programs. When intermixing System/36 and AS/400 functions in the same System/36 environment job, architectural differences between the two environments can cause special programming considerations. These apply especially to situations where both programs do I/O. There are some special error handling considerations when mixing CL and OCL that need to be addressed in the System/36 Environment.
System/36 coexistence Helptext documentation interchange is provided for IBM Business Partners and customers who prefer to develop System/36 applications on AS/400 and send Helptext documents between systems.
The catalog function in System/36 Environment displays the same information for externally-described and program-described files. Additional information is shown to match the System/36 CATALOG function.
Some System/36 functions have been enhanced to make use of functions available on the AS/400 system. Some examples are:
The System/38 Environment provides for:
The System/38 Environment allows the execution of most programs written for a System/38. The same job can execute any combination of AS/400 or System/38 programs. The programmer menu supports new source types which enable the identification of System/38 syntax. The programmer can maintain either AS/400 or System/38 programs during the same job. Compilations of programs to be distributed to System/38s must be done on a System/38.
A separate licensed program, IBM AS/400 System/38 Migration Aid (5714-MG1), is available on the System/38 to assist in migration from a System/38 to the System/38 environment on an AS/400 system.
Connectivity to Remote Devices, Systems and Networks
OS/400 offers many integrated capabilities and functions that enable communications with a variety of IBM and non-IBM systems either in batch or interactive modes. This integrated connectivity function provides customer solutions by enhancing integration of business systems. Traditional SNA hierarchical, emerging SNA peer networks and SAA standards are supported, thereby offering the user the greatest flexibility possible in network design now and in the future.
Supported Protocols and Networks:
Following is the list of protocols and networks supported by the Operating System/400. This support provides a basis for integration of customer business systems, and thus, business solutions.
Details about the protocols and networks available with OS/400 follow:
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
AS/400 communications support includes integrated
services digital network (ISDN) basic rate interface (BRI) adapter, which can
support two independent 64 kbps full duplex data channels and one 16 kbps
signalling channel. The ISDN BRI adapter implements the ISDN data link control
(IDLC) protocol. X.25 communications over the ISDN B-channel is also supported.
T1/E1/J1 and Fractional T1 Networks
T1/E1/J1 and Fractional T1 Network connections
are supported using the V.35 line adapter and six-line communication controller
at speeds up to 640k bps for one line per controller; 512k bps each for two
lines per controller and 384k bps each for three lines per controller. SDLC
protocol is supported allowing APPN and SNA networks to be connected. V.35
input is required on DSU, MUX or CBX type DEC equipment interfacing to T1
IBM Token-Ring, FDDI/SDDI, and Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 LANs
The AS/400 system directly connects to the IBM Token-Ring LAN (either 4 or 16 Mbps), to FDDI/SDDI LANs (Fiber Distributed Data Interface / Shielded - twisted - pair Distributed Data Interface), and to Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD LANs.
AS/400 LAN attachment features are configured and appear to the system as types of communication lines. OS/400 supports multiple concurrent SNA communication sessions with a variety of IBM products over both LAN types. TCP/IP sessions are also possible over both IBM Token-Ring and Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 LANs
The maximum number of local link stations supported per LAN attachment on each system is indicated below:
SYSTEM MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LINK STATIONS/LAN
Async, BSC, and SDLC Communications
BSC, Async, and SDLC support provides the user
with the ability to communicate with other systems and devices that use the
comparable protocol. Asynchronous communications to other systems and to
Async/ASCII devices such as terminals, printers and plotters requires
user-written application programs. Async support may be run on an X.25
packet-switched data network. An integrated PAD (packet assembler/disassembler)
is provided that supports CCITT recommendations X.3, X.28, and X.29. Async
communications supports full-duplex operation.
The AS/400 system provides an interface for
attachment to an X.21 leased or circuit-switched network using either X.25 or
The AS/400 system provides an attachment and support for full-duplex, X.25 packet-switched data networks, using either:
The OS/400, when used in conjunction with the AS/400 X.25 Communications Feature, is certified by the Department of Defense Data Network (DDN). The X.25 packet network is used by the TCP/IP protocols.
IBM System-36- and System/38-supported Networks
All networks currently supported by the IBM System/36 and IBM System/38 are also supported by the IBM AS/400 system.
Network Management Facilities:
Several communications and systems management functions are available to manage the AS/400 system. Some are integrated into the Operating System/400 and some are separately-priced features. These functions help manage and control local systems and distributed systems that may operate within a network controlled by a host System/370 or by another AS/400 system.
Functions available for the AS/400 system are:
More detail about network management facilities for AS/400 follow:
Systems Management in TCP/IP Networks
The protocol for systems management used in TCP/IP networks is Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It is the industry standard for managing networks in the worldwide TCP/IP Internet environment. Support for SNMP protects the customer's investments in industry standard management applications and allows the AS/400 system to interoperate with other manufacturers' systems management products.
Elements provided with OS/400 include SNMP agent, SNMP framework, and TCP/IP protocol support. The TCP/IP communications protocol includes network management capabilities to support SNMP control.
The SNMP management function is split between two kinds of entities, named the "manager" and the "agent." The SNMP agent function runs on the AS/400 system and allows it to be managed by network management stations that have implemented the SNMP manager function.
The OS/400 SNMP agent provides configuration, performance, and problem management data concerning TCP/IP to an SNMP manager.
Management Information Bases supported include:
The SNMP framework provides support for SNMP applications on the AS/400 system, including:
Alerts Support to NetView*, System/36, System/38, AS/400
Alerts are messages that comply with System Network Architecture (SNA); they are sent from systems within a communications network to a central management site, called the problem management focal point. Alerts carry information about a problem and suggest corrective actions to the problem management focal point operator. Alerts can be used to monitor unattended systems and devices and control system resources.
Alerts may be sent to other AS/400 systems, System/36s, System/38s or System/370s. An AS/400 system can act as the generating and sending point for an alert, as a node that forwards alerts to the focal point, or as the problem management focal point that receives alerts.
When an AS/400 system is the problem management
focal point for a network, the operator can display, delete, receive, forward,
log, or hold alerts for forwarding. When operating within a network with a
System/370 host system, alerts may be forwarded to the NetView(TM) licensed
program on the System/370, which has focal point capabilities.
IBM Token-Ring Network Management Support
This integrated support aids the AS/400 operator in managing an attached token ring local area network. The support provides monitoring and active management for the token ring. Functions include:
Networks of multiple token ring LANs (bridged
networks) may require more extensive network management support than these
Distributed Host Command Facility (DHCF)
The OS/400 distributed host command facility allows the users of display stations of a System/370, using the host command facility (HCF) companion program under ACF/VTAM to:
Link Problem Determination Aid (LPDA)
The OS/400 LPDA and LPDA-2 functions provide data about network components to aid in network problem determination. These architectural network commands are issued to determine which of the various network components might be causing an error. The commands include requests for modem and line status and receive tests for IBM signal converter products (modems).
The LPDA-2 commands are an extension to the
standard LPDA commands. They can be initiated concurrently with other activity
on the line. The commands include transmit and receive test and line analysis.
The results of the LPDA-2 tests may be presented to the user's display or
printer. The data presentation is similar to those panels available on the
System/370 NetView(TM) licensed product.
Distributed Systems Node Executive (DSNX)
The OS/400 distributed systems node executive (DSNX) support allows the AS/400, System/36 and IBM PCs and PS/2s to be part of a SNA network in which distribution of data--including files, programs, IBM software, procedures--is centrally controlled by the System/370 focal point. The controlling System/370 product is NetView* Distribution Manager (NetView/DM). Interaction between NetView/DM and DSNX provides the control functions required for change management within a network of distributed systems. AS/400 DSNX support operates with either NetView/DM on MVS or DSX V3R2 on VSE.
The interaction of NetView/DM and DSNX provides functions such as:
The AS/400 DSNX can act as an end node (the target system for an action) or as an intermediate node (gateway) between NetView/DM and other AS/400 systems, System/36s or IBM PCs and PS/2s. When acting as an intermediate node, AS/400 can distribute to a list of other systems on the network.
Once AS/400 DSNX support is activated, no operator interaction is required on the AS/400. The NetView/DM host system controls all transfers of information between the distributed systems and the NetView/DM host.
AS/400 DSNX support allows for either synchronous or asynchronous connection to the NetView/DM host. When acting as a synchronous node (referred to as DIRECT NODE support), the AS/400 keeps the line active (session established) until all requests are complete on the AS/400.
Centralized problem management is also available using SystemView System Manager/400, a separately-licensed program, (5763-SM1).
Following are the supported communications facilities in OS/400. These facilities protect customer investment in equipment and applications by enabling communications between diverse resources.
Details about the communications facilities available with OS/400 follow:
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is widely implemented as a system interconnect protocol for most UNIX-based systems and is commonly used among many IBM and non-IBM platforms.
AS/400 TCP/IP attaches through IBM Token-Ring, Ethernet Version 2 or IEEE 802.3 local area networks and X.25 Packet Switched Networks. The attachment to Ethernet Version 2 and IEEE 802.3 is made through AS/400 integrated adapters or through the IBM 8209 LAN Bridge.
The IBM AS/400 TCP/IP support a set of standard protocols defined by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The use of these protocols allows an AS/400 system user to interface with other systems that have implemented the TCP/IP protocol. The user can send/receive mail and transfer files using TCP/IP. The protocols implemented on the AS/400 System include:
Details about these protocols follow:
Internet Protocol (IP)
IP provides the interface from the higher level
host-to-host protocol to the local area networks or wide area networks
protocols. IP is used by host-to-host protocols in a TCP/IP program environment
as a basic communications mechanism. IP uses local area network or wide area
network protocols to carry packets to the next gateway or destination system.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
TCP is used by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Internet and any other network following the U.S. Department of Defense standards for inter-network protocols. This protocol provides a reliable host-to-host transport service in packet switched networks and in interconnected systems. TCP assumes that IP is the network layer protocol.
NOTE: Pascal/400 is the high-level
language required to use the AS/400 UDP program-to-program interfaces.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP defines a datagram method of communications in the environment of an interconnected set of computer networks. UDP assumes that Internet Protocol (IP) is the underlying protocol. UDP provides a procedure for applications programs to send messages to other programs with a minimum of protocol mechanism. The protocol is transaction oriented and offers no guarantee of delivery or duplication protection. The UDP layer is a transparent layer, in that it provides the same function as the IP layer. The difference is that a checksum is available to the user of the UDP layer. The user application must generate the checksum.
The UDP interface on the AS/400 System consists of a set of library calls. UDP must be able to determine the source and destination internet address, along with the protocol field from the Internet header.
NOTE: Pascal/400 is the high-level
language required to use the AS/400 UDP program-to-program interfaces.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
FTP provides user and server support to allow
transfer of files to or from a remote host. FTP user support is invoked using
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
AS/400 System provides support to permit the sending or receiving of electronic mail using SMTP. Access to and from SMTP is provided through SNADS which is part of the base operating-system. This access allows for either OfficeVision/400, Displaywriter, PS/PC, or OS/400 commands, or SNDDST or RCVDST commands to be the distributor of notes, messages, and documents which can be received by SMTP users. When documents are sent, the document may only be a Final Form Text (FFT) document and may have certain formatting characters removed to allow for viewing by ASCII terminals. OfficeVision/400 allows a user to send or receive mail from local and remote AS/400 users, PROFS Bridge users, and TCP/IP SMTP users. Local and remote SMTP users must be enrolled in the System Directory just as SNA Distribution Services (SNADS) OfficeVision/400 users are enrolled today on the AS/400 system.
Products that can use OS/400 to support sending and receiving notes, messages, and documents with SMTP users include:
TELNET protocol specification
TELNET provides a terminal emulation protocol that permits users to access applications on other systems in a TCP/IP network. A typical TCP/IP network consists of many different types of systems, many of which are non-IBM systems. Systems using TELNET have a client and server relationship. The system to which the physical terminal is attached operates as the client, and the system upon which the application resides is the server.
The basic TELNET support provides for the operation of a terminal in line mode, but also allows the negotiation of options for operating a terminal in full screen mode for 525x, 327x, VT100 and VT220 terminal types.
Physical and operational differences between the
VT100, VT220 and 5250 terminals may impact ease of use for some applications.
For example, applications where the user fills in a menu are easy to run, while
applications designed to read every key stroke are more difficult to use. This
is because the VT100 and VT220 terminals are character mode terminals, while
the 5250 is a block mode terminal.
Line Printer Requester/Line Printer Daemon Protocol (LPR/LPD)
Remote printing capabilities are provided with support for the LPR/LPD protocol. Using this support, printing resources within the span of the TCP/IP networking environment can be used to print spooled files on an AS/400 or non-AS/400 attached printer and ASCII files received from non-AS/400 systems can print on local AS/400 ASCII printers.
Additional TCP/IP Support:
The AS/400 system supports a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)-compatible sockets API. This support allows an application program written in the ILE C/400 programming language to invoke AS/400 communications services using the BSD sockets API. The API will be supported over both TCP/IP and SNA LU-6.2.
With the sockets interface support, customers can
port TCP/IP-related applications to the AS/400 system. The combination of the
ILE C/400 sockets interface and TCP/IP protects the customer's investment in a
OS/400 communications supports IBM's Multiprotocol Transport Networking (MPTN) architecture, and supports the AnyNet product offerings. The AnyNet/400 function of OS/400 can help customers who run multi-protocol networks to add more applications and simplify their networks. It allows applications to be written or acquired without concern for the underlying network transport protocol normally associated with the application programming interface (API). No application rewrite is required for a new network environment.
AnyNet/400 provides two API/protocol combinations:
Sockets over SNA
APPC over TCP/IP
Together, these AnyNet/400 functions can help organizations to:
Broaden end users' access to applications and reduce the cost and effort usually required to achieve this connectivity
Reduce the number of physical and logical networks required thereby simplifying the network and reducing maintenance costs
Improve application programmers' productivity by allowing programmers to write applications and focus on the business solutions without concerning themselves with the underlying network protocol
Protect their investment in existing and future applications through application independence from the transport layer
X.21 short hold mode (SHM) and multiple port sharing (MPS)
SHM and MPS are supported to take advantage of
the fast call set-up and clearing characteristics of X.21 SHM/MPS.
Remote Work Station Support
Work stations from the 5250 family of displays
and printers (as well as programmable work stations that emulate the 5250) are
supported by 5250 remote controllers. Programs written for interactive
applications need not be aware of the work station location (local or remote).
3x74 Remote Attach
The 3x74 remote attach protects customer investment
by allowing IBM 3270 remote control units or IBM Personal Computers executing
PC 3270 Emulation Program, Version 3 (59X9969 or feature number 9969 of
licensed program 5875-MMA) to attach to the AS/400 system using an SNA/SDLC and
X.25 communications port (3174/3274), or IBM token-ring network (3174-3R or
-53R). The 3x74 remote attach gives any 3x74-attached IBM 3270 display access
to most 5250 applications with essentially 5291 or 5292-1 functions. Major 5250
function exclusions are the word processing function of IBM OfficeVision/400,
5250 graphics, and 132-column display. The 3270 printers are provided 3287/5256
level of function as well as 3286/5575 (DBCS) level of function.
5x94 Remote Attach
The IBM 5294 Remote Control Unit can be used to attach up to eight 5250-type displays and printers to an AS/400 System using a communications link. The function provided is equivalent to that available on the System/36 and System/38 with the exception that access by Client Access/400 Family to attached personal computers is not supported.
The IBM 5394 Remote Control Unit attaches up to 16 5250-type displays and printers to an AS/400 System using a communications link. The function provided to the remotely-attached work stations is identical to that provided to local work stations.
The IBM 5494 Remote Control Unit supports the attachment of remote workstations to the AS/400 system. It manages the operations of these workstations and the communications to the AS/400 system. There are two models of the 5494:
Model 001 manages the operation of up to 28 twinaxial-attached workstations and allows the workstations to communicate with the AS/400 system through a type 2.1 connection.
Model 002 can communicate with an AS/400 system over a Token-Ring network while supporting up to 28 twinaxial devices. Model 002 can support token-ring attached devices while communicating with an AS/400 system over an SDLC, X.21, or X.25 connection. In this configuration the 5494 supports up to 40 devices of which up to 28 can be twinaxial-attached, and the rest token-ring attached.
Personal computers attached to a 5394 or 5494
Remote Control Unit are supported using Client Access/400 Family, a
separately-licensed program (5763-XA1).
Intersystem Communications Function
The Intersystem communications function provides the application interface for the AS/400 system communications support. The following communication types are supported through this interface:
The application program uses high-level language operations and communications functions to communicate with a remote system. Either externally described data or system-supplied formats (compatible with System/36 SSP-ICF operations) can be used.
Support functionally equivalent to that known on the System/36 as ICF INTRA support is also provided. This intrasystem communications function allows communications between applications running on the same AS/400 system as if they were using a communications line. This allows:
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN)
APPN provides a way to easily establish and maintain a network of AS/400 Systems, System/36s, and other IBM systems. The AS/400 user can install and maintain a complex network of interconnected systems without requiring highly skilled programmers. Configuration and maintenance of the network is done by the controlling nodes that make up the network. Systems that use CPI-C, APPC, DDM, display station pass-through, SNA distribution services (SNADS), SNA backbone, file transfer support, electronic customer support, and PC Support/400 can take advantage of APPN networks.
APPN support allows LAN-based AS/400 systems to establish a direct LAN session without being defined to one another. The configuration of 2.1 type PCs on a LAN is significantly reduced using APPN and auto configuration support. An APPN network may be established spanning LAN and remote communication facilities while providing a seamless appearance to nodes in the network.
APPN multi-network connectivity provides APPN session paths between adjacent APPN networks of dissimilar network identifications. Therefore, established APPN networks having unique network identifications can be connected, a large APPN network may be partitioned for operational control, and service providers may connect to client APPN networks. The SNA Network Registry is available to register customer network names. To prevent name conflicts between attached networks, the networking customer can obtain a unique, registered network identifier (NETID) from their IBM branch office representative.
Back-up APPN network node support provides
dynamic switching of an AS/400 APPN end node to a back-up network node server
upon link failure for sending network management alerts to the network
management focal point.
Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC)
APPC allows a program on one system to communicate with a program on a remote system so that users can run applications and have access to functions not available on the local system. AS/400 APPC is based on SNA LU-6.2 and PU Type 2.1 and is designed to provide a common session protocol for both document interchange and distributed data processing.
Customers using APPC/ICF, CPI-C, DSPT, DDM, SNA/DS, or any other application using APPC LU-6.2 have the option to enable session level compression which significantly reduces traffic on the slower speed communications lines such as SDLC and X.25.
APPC uses one of two compression algorithms, Run Length Encoding (RLE) or Lempel-Zev (LZ). RLE uses String Control Bytes (SCBs) to encode duplicate repetitive bytes of data. LZ assigns codes to represent unique character strings which are stored in tables.
For security reasons, user passwords are not
transmitted in clear text. Protected passwords are built based on the real
password and sent to a peer system when the peer system supports the password
SNA Upline Facility to System/370 IMS and CICS Hosts
The SNA upline facility provides the AS/400 user with communications to:
This provides for program-to-program
communication between AS/400 and System/370 programs and supports customers
migrating from SNA upline facility on System/36.
Binary Synchronous Communications Equivalence Link (BSCEL)
BSCEL provides systems management on the AS/400 system by enabling one program to start another program on another system, also having BSCEL support. The other system can be IBM AS/400 System, IBM System/36, or IBM System/34.
BSCEL support also allows a program to
communicate to other systems and devices using the binary synchronous
communications (BSC) protocol. It is a program-to-program function.
ICF Retail Communications Support
The user interface for retail communications support is the intersystem communications function (ICF) file interface used by high-level languages. The ICF retail communications support provides business solutions through the capability to attach retail controllers (3651, 3684, 4680, and 4684) to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:
Communication with the remote change management server on a 4684 Retail Controller is enabled by the ICF retail communications support, which allows a maximum of 32 logical units active concurrently through a 4684 Retail Controller description.
ICF retail communications support includes a
retail pass-through utility and retail point-of-sale data translation routines.
When the AS/400 system is functioning as an in-store processor, the retail
pass-through utility is an application that bridges the SNA LU-0 secondary
session with the host system (e.g. System/370 running NDM, CICS, or ADCS using
VTAM/NCP) and the LU-0 primary session with the retail point-of-sale
controller. The retail pass-through utility uses the AS/400 SNA upline facility
(SNUF) for the SNA LU-0 secondary session to communicate with the host (e.g.,
ICF Finance Communications Support
The user interface for finance communications support is the intersystem communications function (ICF) file interface used by high-level languages. The ICF finance communications support provides business solutions with its capability to attach finance controllers (3601, 3694, 4701, and 4702) to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:
The ICF finance communications support enables the AS/400 user to explicitly configure a financial branch system services (FBSS) controller, thereby providing the following connectivity:
The ICF finance communications support provides the capability for the attachment and configurability of the IBM Personal Banking Machines (4730, 4731, 4732, and 4736 and the IBM Self-Service Transaction Station (4737) on the AS/400 system. The Personal Banking Machines can be attached to the AS/400 system with the following connectivity:
Indirectly through a 4702 Controller
The Self-Service Transaction Station (4737) is configured on the AS/400 system as a financial branch system services (FBSS) controller, thereby providing the following connectivity:
Indirectly through a 4702 Controller
Non-ICF Finance Communications Support
The finance support provides an application programming interface and the capability to attach to AS/400 Systems:
Ease-of-use features are provided that allow
communication with the IBM finance communication system online terminal
support, IBM finance communication system advanced branch controller system
(ABCS) or equivalent support, in the 470X controller. This finance support is
based on System/38 Finance. The 470X Control Unit can be programmed to perform
3270 emulation. IBM 4704 devices can be used to emulate 3270 displays, or IBM
3278, 3279, and 3287 devices can be attached to the controller using device
cluster adapter (DCA) ports.
SNA Distribution Services (SNADS)
The OS/400 SNADS support is an integrated queued
asynchronous connection to a SNADS network and remote document libraries. It
provides routing, sending, and receiving operations for users to exchange
distributions containing documents, messages, data, or objects with other users
in the SNADS network. SNADS uses a system distribution directory to direct
distributions to users in a local system or to other systems in a SNADS
SNA Primary Logical Unit 2 Support
SNA Primary LU-2 (3270 type terminal) support improves the AS/400 participation in an SNA backbone network. It enables any LU-2 terminal user in the network to access either any AS/400 system or any S/390 (R) system in the network with the same user and network interface. AS/400 application programs written for 5250 displays may also be accessed by a LU-2 terminal through the network with this new SNA Primary LU-2 support.
This will protect the investment in the SNA backbone network, installed AS/400 systems, and installed S/390 systems. It also provides a central point of control for network management and distribution. The IBM Network Routing Facility licensed program is not needed with this support.
SNA Primary LU-2 support enhancements provide for attachment of more than one Network Control Program (NCP) Communication Controller. Each controller may be in the same or different subarea. Previously, some customers were restricted by a limitation of 253 sessions. Now theoretically up to 60,000 SNA LU-2/1 application primary sessions may be configured on an SDLC link between an AS/400 system and an NCP Communications Controller, and up to 6000 SNA LU-2/1 application primary sessions may be configured for each IBM TR/LAN attaching an AS/400 system and NCP Communications Controller.
In addition, the AS/400 shared line support is enhanced with this new SNA Primary LU-2 capability. LU-2/1 application primary sessions, APPN/APPC sessions, SNUFs sessions, 3270 Device Emulation sessions, and DSNX sessions may all share the same SDLC link between an AS/400 system and an NCP Communications Controller.
The AS/400 system's ability to connect 3270 work stations to an APPN network is greatly improved. AS/400 systems with APPC, CPI for communications and using APPN networking may now add OS/400 application primary sessions to the AS/400 system in the SNA subarea network environments. This increases use of the AS/400 system as a distributed system and/or a central site processor.
At least one VTAM host using VTAM V3R4 and its companion release of NCP V5R4 is required for OS/400 SNA Primary LU-2 support. Included with this is support for DBCS displays and printers.
Also, with SNA Primary LU-2 support, user and network interface routing is handled directly by NCP and the controllers in the network.
OS/400 SNA Primary Logical Unit (PLU) support in Version 2 Release 3 significantly improves the initial and ongoing configuration effort for large networks. It exploits the use of dynamic LU definition and independent LU extended bind capability in attached NCP controllers which significantly reduces NCP configuration of AS/400 systems. Furthermore, OS/400 allows auto-create and auto-delete of configuration control blocks needed by the AS/400 application program for its LU-2 terminal and LU-1 printer sessions. Auto-create/delete are selectable device configuration options of OS/400 configuration support allowing for flexible application and network design. LU-2 terminals of 24x80 screen size are supported.
Also, there are several LU-1 (3270 type printer)
operational enhancements. LU-1 SCS printer sessions are supported by OS/400 for
application initiation, a terminal's associated printer, an auto-LOGON printer,
and a designated network printer thru terminal input to an application.
Printing may be done directly by the application program or spooled using the
AS/400 spool writer facility. In addition, LU-1 SCS session primary
applications may have printer output directed to an AS/400 system printer.
SNA/Management Services Transport
The SNA/Management Services Transport support,
enables the OS/400 licensed program to send and receive management services
data with other systems in an SNA network that provide support for the
SNA/Management Services architecture. This includes other systems using OS/400,
NetView and OS/2 licensed programs. An Application Programming Interface (API)
is also provided to enable AS/400 customers and business partners to use this
support in their network and systems management applications.
Distributed Relational Database Support
The Remote Unit of Work function described in
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) is a function of the
operating system that supports distributed relational access to data on remote
systems. These remote systems must be connected by a communications network and
must also support DRDA. The Remote Unit of Work also supports SAA Character
Data Representation Architecture (CRDA) and is used with Distributed Data
Management (DDM) architecture to provide distributed relational access to
remote databases. DRDA compliant access is provided by other DB2 family
Object Distribution Facility (ODF)
The object distribution facility gives users or applications the capability to distribute objects across a network. Information such as data files, source code, and print files can easily be exchanged between peer-connected systems (AS/400 system, System/36 and System/38) using SNA distribution services (SNADS). This capability protects customer investment in systems, data, and applications, while providing improved productivity through data access.
When coupled with DSNX, ODF can redistribute
files and programs received from a System/370 host to another system. For
example, a DSNX distribution from a System/370, using NetView distribution
manager, can be sent to an AS/400 system, which in turn can forward the
distribution to System/36s or other AS/400 systems.
Display Station Pass-through
Display station pass-through allows a user attached to a local AS/400 system to be connected to a remote System/36, System/38 or another AS/400 system, to sign-on to that system, and to execute applications or perform network management functions as if connected directly to the remote system. An options is provided to eliminate the requirement to sign on at the target system. System/36 and System/38 users can also sign-on to an AS/400 system and perform the same functions.
AS/400 users passing through to a remote AS/400
can have their printed output automatically printed on their local system.
Exchange of printed data for System/36 and System/38 users passing through to a
remote AS/400 may be accomplished using the object distribution facility and a
Distributed Data Management (DDM)
DDM is a function of the operating system that
supports distributed file and distributed relational access to data on remote
systems. These remote systems must be connected by a communications network and
must also be using DDM. For example, distributed file access is provided by
System/36, IBM System/38, CICS/VS, or another IBM AS/400 System. SAA
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) and SAA Character Data
Representation Architecture (CDRA) are used with DDM to provide distributed
relational access to remote databases.
SNA Passthrough provides SNA controllers and T2.1 nodes attached to AS/400 system an unedited unaltered session to S/390 system. VTAM signon screen is displayed on supported devices attached to AS/400 system. The following sessions can be established using this support.
IBM Network Routing Facility (NRF) Support/400
IBM NRF Support/400 is programming that enables connectivity between AS/400 system and the Network Routing Facility LPP operating on the IBM 3745 Communications Controller. LU-2 (3270-type) terminals and LU-1 SCS printers attached to an NRF node may be session partners to an AS/400 application host.
Session partner routing using NRF gives the
appearance to the AS/400 application host that the terminals attached to NRF
are directly connected. The NRF session between the terminal and the AS/400
application host is routed thru the SNA subarea without going to the System/390
Autodial support is provided on the AS/400 system
so that users can communicate with other systems by automatically dialing
remote systems under control of an application program or procedure. Serial
autodial using the V.25 bis command set is available for synchronous,
bisynchronous, and asynchronous communications using one communication line.
The IBM and attention command sets are also available for asynchronous
communications. The IBM 5853 modem, the IBM 7855 modem, and other equivalent
V.25bis modems can take advantage of this autodial support.
3270 Device Emulation
3270 device emulation allows any AS/400 printer
or 5250 display to emulate an IBM 3278 (Model 2 or 5) or 3279 model S2B display
station, or IBM 328x printer. Host DBCS applications also can be accessed using
an SNA connection. Up to 254 concurrent sessions can be active to the
System/370 per SNA connection. The 3270 extended field attributes are
translated into the appropriate AS/400 5250 display attributes. Up to 255 input
fields per 3270 application screen can be active when displayed on local 5250s.
Any remaining 3270 input fields can be accessed by a scrolling function.
3270 SNA API Support for IBM 3278 Model 3, 4, and 5
This support enables System/370 application
programs that were written for IBM 3270 Model 2 thru 5 display stations to be
accessed at the 3270 data stream interface level by AS/400 application
programs. In addition, 3270 data stream extended attributes are supported by
the AS/400 3270 SNA API for 3278 Models 2 thru 5.
OS/400 supports attachment of devices to the AS/400 that enable the ISDN data link control (IDLC) communications protocol and X.25. This ISDN support includes
5394/5494 SNA Backbone Support
OS/400 SNA support provides connectivity for 5250
sessions between an AS/400 system and a 5394 Remote Control Unit (with RPQ
8Q0775), a 5494 Remote Control Unit, and with a System/370 subarea using a
subarea controller (37XX). Customer investment in SNA backbone networks is
protected because no changes are required to AS/400 applications programs to
use the 5x94 SNA support. The LU-4 and LU-7 sessions are encapsulated with
LU-6.2. APPC sessions are supported as parallel LU-6.2 sessions on the same
link as the LU-6.2 encapsulated sessions.
File Transfer Support
The AS/400 user can access file transfer to
exchange System/36 data and library members and AS/400 database file members
with other AS/400 systems and System/36s. This can be accomplished by using
async, BSCEL, or APPC/APPN support. The user interface to this support is
callable subroutines from RPG and COBOL programs.
Interactive Terminal Facility (ITF)
ITF allows an AS/400 user, using asynchronous
support, to send and receive data through applications such as electronic
message services. ITF also exchanges files and library members with other ITF
users. ITF can also send DW/36 documents, but it cannot receive documents from
other ITF users.
SAA Common Programming Interface for Communications (CPI-C)
SAA CPI-C support provides for program to program communications in the SAA environments of OS/400, OS/2, VM/ESA, VSE/VSA, and MVS/ESA (IMS, CICS, TSO). Because it is an architected, call level interface, applications written to it are portable and protect customer investment in communications programming. The CPI-C is accessible from every SAA language (RPG/400, FORTRAN/400, C/400, and Procedure Language/400 REXX).
Communications support architected for CPI-C is provided by communications logical unit type 6.2 (LU-6.2). On an AS/400 system, the CPI-C provides an application with transparent access to LU-6.2 session services (commonly known as APPC), to low entry networking (LEN) nodes (type 2.1 nodes), to all APPN networking function, and to data link controls (SDLC, Token Ring, and X.25).
The source or target for SAA CPI-C applications may be MVS/ESA, VM/ESA, VSE/ESA, CICS/ESA or IMS/ESA nodes. The CPI-C program-to-program session is supported across the SNA subarea and onto APPN networks using any LEN node and APPN application system.
The AS/400 CPI-C implementation provides the following CPI-C conformance classes, as defined by X/Open's "Developer's Specification for CPI-C":
IPX/SPX Communications (part of Network Extensions, a separately-orderable feature of OS/400)
IPX (Internetwork Package Exchange**)/SPX (Sequenced Package Exchange) communications over LAN and WAN protocols provides a framework for an AS/400 system to be an application server and IPX router in a Novell (IPX) network. Native IPX/SPX communications enables AS/400 applications to directly communicate with PC applications written to an IPX API and adds IPX as an option for any application written to an API that runs over AnyNet.
IPX (Internetwork Package Exchange)/SPX (Sequenced Package Exchange) communications over LAN and WAN protocols provides a framework for an AS/400 system to be an application server and IPX router in a Novell (IPX) network. Native IPX/SPX communications enables AS/400 applications to directly communicate with PC applications written to an IPX API and adds IPX as an option for any application written to an API that runs over AnyNet.
With IPX/SPX support:
IPX/SPX communications solutions include:
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) are supported, as well as IPXWAN Version 2.0.
Office Host Services
The AS/400 system provides host services for document interchange architecture (DIA) and IBM OfficeVision/400. As a host for DIA, OS/400 supports document distribution and document library services.
DIA host services are available to the IBM 5250 family of work stations through the OfficeVision/400 licensed program (5763-WP1), to IBM 6580 Displaywriter, and to IBM Personal Computers through the IBM Client Access/400 Family licensed program (5763-XA1).
Document Distribution Services
DIA distribution services provide support for sending and receiving documents among office systems hosts in an SNA LU6.2 network. DIA provides a business solution because it helps manage the flow of information in an enterprise. Document interchange uses the OS/400 SNADS support. Office users can distribute documents and messages to one or many recipients on either the local system or remote systems. Remote distribution services are provided for the IBM AS/400 System, IBM System/36, IBM System/38, DISOSS/370, and IBM 5520. Documents can be sent to:
IBM AS/400 documents can be interchanged with the following systems:
Document Library Services
Document library services allow local and remote systems office users to store and control access for documents in the local AS/400 document library and search for them by using the descriptions stored with the documents. When OfficeVision/400 and the search function are installed, local office users may use the text search services allowing full text retrieval of documents that have been indexed. This control, management, and access to information improves user productivity.
OS/400 supports DIA document library services for remote users of OfficeVision/400, System/36 Personal Services/36, and Displaywriter (using Electronic Document Distribution). The local AS/400 office user may also use document library services in remote libraries on another AS/400 system, System/38, or DISOSS on a System/370.
Folder management services and transforms are provided on the local AS/400 system. Functions include create, delete, list, authorization list, archive log, security, save, restore, copy, shared folders and data transforms.
Shared folders are designed to handle text documents from both the word processing function of OfficeVision/400 and IBM Personal Computer DisplayWrite programs. In addition, the shared folders can be used to store data and applications from IBM personal computers. Transformations between personal computer ASCII and AS/400 EBCDIC are completed only when necessary to allow data sharing between IBM personal computers and the AS/400 system.
Through the use of data stream transformations
provided with the OS/400 host office support, the word processing function of
OfficeVision/400 (in conjunction with OS/400 document distribution) supports
Final Form Text-Document Content Architecture (FFT-DCA) and Revisable Form
Text-Document Content Architecture (RFT-DCA) data streams for interchange
between the AS/400 system and users of other IBM word processing programs or
systems supporting FFT-DCA and RFT-DCA, including DISOSS, another AS/400
System, PROFS, System/36, System/38, Displaywriter, and the IBM Personal
Computer DisplayWrite programs.
Text Search Services (AS/400 library only)
AS/400 users can take advantage of the text search function when OfficeVision/400 and the search function are installed, by indexing their documents when filing them. Applications could be written to handle tailored searches when contextual text retrieval is a major requirement. Likewise, OfficeVision/400 users have access to the search function. The document analyzing process for indexing is done by OS/400 natural language processing services, and uses the separately licensed program, Language Dictionaries/400 (5763-DCT).
The text search function is a compute-intensive
application; customers must consider whether the interactive search performance
meets their needs or whether they can request the search and receive the
results later for review.
Print and View Services
OS/400 supports print and view services for
documents. Print services include draft and letter quality support with special
handling options for certain printers. View services include support for
viewing final form documents and the text portions of a compound document.
Creation of Spelling Aid Dictionaries
Spelling aid dictionaries may be created on OS/400 for use with proofreading aids in the OfficeVision/400 licensed program (5763-WP1) and the Text Management/38 utility (included in the AS/400 System/38 Utilities licensed program, 5763-DB1).
Support for Year 2000
In October 1995, IBM announced a corporate direction that the most recent version/release of IBM software products as of year-end 1996, will handle dates and date fields for the Year 2000 and beyond. OS/400 V3R2, along with the other IBM V3R2 products, fulfills this corporate announcement for non-PowerPC-based AS/400 systems. In addition, IBM announces that the Year 2000 enablers announced for V3R2 will also be made available to V3R1 and V3R6 as PTFs.
Although January 1, 2000, is still several years away, you need to address the millennium date change by planning and making changes to your applications.
The Year 2000 problem exists because many system and application programs make use of year dates represented by only two digits (for example, 96 rather than 1996). This practice causes programs that perform arithmetic operations, comparisons, or the sorting of date fields to yield incorrect results when working with years outside the range of 1900-1999. This is a problem that spans the entire Information Technology industry, and not just an AS/400 system or IBM problem.
With V3R2, OS/400 is an operationally safe environment for further application development in that OS/400 works internally with unambiguous date information. In addition, OS/400 is providing additional application enablers to facilitate customer applications in becoming operationally safe themselves. These Year 2000 enablers include:
These new enablers are in addition to previously available Year 2000 enablers such as OS/400 ILE date and time functions, high-level language support such as RPG 4-digit years, and many others.
National Language Versions and Multilingual Support
The AS/400 system is a worldwide product that
addresses many country-unique requirements. For the following
countries/languages, specific support is provided, either with translated
machine-readable information (MRI), such as screens and messages, or with
keyboards and displays on the local or remote workstation twinaxial controller.
National Language Versions and Multilingual Support
The following national language versions are available from the program libraries indicated.
|| Program Library Supported |
||USA |Euro| | |MEX | |Argn|Braz|
|o Arabic || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Belgian Dutch || S|*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Belgian French || S|*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Brazilian || -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | P/S|
| Portuguese || | | | | | | | |
|o Canadian French || S| P/S|*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Chinese || S| S| S| -- | -- |*P/S| -- | -- |
| Simplified DBCS || | | | | | | | |
|o Chinese || S| S| S| -- | -- |*P/S| -- | -- |
| Traditional DBCS || | | | | | | | |
|o Croatian || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Czech || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Danish || S|*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Dutch || S|*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o English U/L SBCS ||*P/S| P/S| P/S| P/S| P/S| P/S| P/S| P/S|
|o English U/C SBCS || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | P/S| -- | -- |
|o English U/L DBCS || P | P/S| -- | P/S| -- |*P/S| -- | -- |
|o English U/C DBCS || P | P/S| P- | P/S| -- |*P/S| -- | -- |
|o Farsi || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Finnish || S|*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o French || S|*P/S| S| S| -- | S| -- | -- |
|o French MNCS || -- |*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o German || S|*P/S| S| S| -- | S| -- | -- |
|o German MNCS || -- |*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Greek || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Hebrew || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Hungarian || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Icelandic || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Italian || S|*P/S| S| S| -- | S| -- | -- |
|o Italian MNCS || -- |*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Japanese DBCS || S| S| S|*P/S| -- | S| -- | -- |
|o Korean DBCS || S| S| S| -- | -- | P/S| -- | -- |
|o Norwegian || S|*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Polish || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Portuguese || S|*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Portuguese MNCS || -- |*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Russian || -- |*P/S| -- | S| -- | S| -- | -- |
|o Slovakian || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Slovenian || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Spanish || S|*P/S| S| S| P/S| S| P/S| -- |
|o Swedish || S|*P/S| S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
|o Thai || -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |*P/S| -- | -- |
|o Turkish || -- |*P/S| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
o ISMS USA IBM Software Manufacturing Solutions
o ISMS Euro IBM Software Manufacturing Solutions - Europe
o ISMS MEX IBM Software Manufacturing Solutions - Mexico
o ISMS Argn IBM Software Manufacturing Solutions - Argentina
o ISMS Brz IBM Software Manufacturing Solutions - Brazil
o CSPD Canadian Software Production and Distribution
o JSPD Japanese Software Production and Distribution
o ASPD Australian Software Production and Distribution
o '*' Indicates this is Primary Library for this NLV
o PRI Indicates Primary language feature number
o SEC Indicates Secondary language feature number
o P/S Indicates Primary and Secondary language supported
o DBCS Double-Byte Character Set
o SBCS Single-Byte Character Set
Multilingual support allows multiple users on the same system to be operating in different languages. This means that system messages, displays and help information as well as user applications can be presented to the end user in his national language.
Not all licensed programs are translated into all
languages nor are all national language versions available from all program
release support centers. Contact your IBM representative for more information.
Information about Secondary National Languages
The national language in which the licensed programs is ordered is considered the primary national language. Any other languages are secondary languages. Users can switch among the languages as necessary.
The executable code is shipped with the primary language. When a secondary language is ordered, a separate tape containing only the translated machine-readable information (MRI) is sent to the customer. The primary language MRI and the national language MRI are installed in separate libraries on the AS/400 system. Each secondary NLV is shipped on a separate tape. Multiple NLVs can be installed on a single AS/400 system.
Each secondary language is ordered only once per system, not for each licensed program. The secondary language is selected by a feature code of the Operating System/400 (5763-SS1). The secondary language tape contains national language MRI for the products that have been translated for customers by the country translation centers. For products not translated, US English MRI is included. All of the MRI is contained on a single tape volume.
The MRI for the following licensed programs is included in the secondary language tape subject to availability:
The Language Dictionaries/400 licensed program (5763-DCT) includes the available national language dictionaries used by IBM OfficeVision/400, and therefore it is not included in secondary national language tapes. Client Access/400 Family installation diskettes are not included with the secondary national language versions. All other support and service activities are only in US English. Regardless of the NLV, all system commands are in US English. Thus, a single set of system commands works in all national language environments.
To properly display all of the national language characters, the workstation (display and keyboard) must be capable of supporting the desired national language. When a personal computer is used as a workstation supported by the Client Access/400 Family licensed program, its keyboard can be redefined for a national language, specifying the language keyboard type, so that a special language keyboard is not required.
Each secondary language NLV is shipped from the program library without publications. It is the user's responsibility to determine whether the information in the data base is English or the secondary language. The system does not automatically know which device was used to enter the data. For example, if Spanish information is displayed by an application on an English work station, not all of the Spanish characters are shown correctly. For this reason, it is recommended that Spanish information be kept in one data base and accessed by a Spanish work station, and English information be stored in a separate data base and accessed by an English work station. This example applies also to the other national languages.
Although translated MRI for multiple products is
included on the distribution tape for a secondary language, the customer may
use the MRI only for the products for which he is licensed.
Universal Coded Character Set Support
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is an
emerging global character encoding, developed jointly by the industry (UNICODE
1.1) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO/IEC
10646-1 defines a code page (UCS-2) encompassing the characters used by all
currently significant languages, a rich set of scientific and publishing
symbols, and a variety of script languages. This common code page, spanning the
character sets of many languages, can ease the application development and
management issues historically found in multiple code page system environments
and networks. OS/400 enables UCS-2 Level 1 data by providing API support for
converting UCS-2 Level 1 data to and from other CCSIDs.
For additional information concerning national language support refer to "AS/400 National Language Support" (SC41-3101).
Single Integrated Operating System for all models
Integrated DB2 Relational Database
Ease of Installation, Use, and Maintenance
Extensive Run-time Application Function
Productive Application Development Environment
Integrated Language Environment (ILE)
High System Availability
Electronic Customer Support
Comprehensive Security for System Resources
Interfaces to System Functions
Printed Output Support
Multiple Operating Environments
Connectivity to Remote Devices, Systems and Networks
Office Host Services
National Language Versions and Multilingual Support
Lotus Notes on the FSIOP
The IBM Operating System/400 licensed program provides system support for all models of the IBM AS/400 System. The single Operating System spanning all models of hardware represents a significant protection of customer investment in skills and applications. OS/400 benefits are:
Supports the highest number of commercial host and client/server business applications available in the industry.
Provides ease of implementation, management and operation in one totally integrated operating system.
Optimizes commercial and client/server environments with excellent performance across the system models.
Enables low total cost of ownership through its many integrated functions and ease-of-use.
Customers can consolidate their systems. Consolidation provides the potential to reduce the costs associated with installing, operating, and maintaining numerous different computer systems while preserving the customer's investment in applications, operations, and end-user knowledge.
Single Integrated Operating System for All Models
All functions of the OS/400 follow a consistent design philosophy; this consistency is one of the cornerstones of AS/400 ease-of-use. The ease-of-use translates into higher productivity for its users and easier systems management. The Operating System/400 licensed program includes everything described in this document. Some important characteristics are:
All system and user resources are stored on the
system as "objects," having a consistent architecture. Every object
includes a description containing such information as the name of the creator
and current owner, date created, object size (in bytes), date of last save,
date of last reference, volume identifier of the media on which the save
occurred, and text describing the object.
A library is a directory to objects (for example,
programs and files), allowing a convenient grouping of the objects for either
application or control purposes. Options exist to display, delete, or change
objects in a library or to move or copy an object from one library to another.
This function makes systems management of authorization to objects easier. The
normal method of processing is to use a list of libraries to control how the
system accesses objects. A library can also be secured to prevent unauthorized
users from accessing any objects.
Object placement on different disk units is
controlled by the system. The auxiliary storage disk units contribute to an
overall pool of storage called single-level storage. It is not necessary to be
concerned with the size of individual objects or where they are placed; the
libraries are used to locate any object. The architecture provides additional
disk allocations automatically as an object (for example, a physical or logical
file) grows in size. You need to monitor only the overall use of auxiliary
storage. This contributes significantly to the ease of operating the AS/400
system. Auxiliary storage capacity can be added as needed without changing
current application programs.
Messages are displayed for various system and
user operations. Message handling functions allow feedback for successful
operations or to identify error conditions. Messages can be defined and sent
between users, between users and applications, or between applications. Message
replies can be sent; a "break" option allows immediate interruption
of the end user's activities.
The system supports multiple levels of job
accounting and captures job-related information through the assignment of
account codes to users. The accounting information on defined units of work is
recorded in a journal receiver and may be accessed and processed by
The operating system supports use of
Display Data Management
Interactive applications are supported by a
screen definition language that provides greater flexibility in designing the
"look and feel" of interactive interfaces. In addition, many
attributes of the screen can be controlled outside application programs to
simplify the development effort and improve programmer productivity (for tasks
like validation of keyed input and punctuation of numeric output).
Cursor-sensitive help information may be designed into user applications,
including use of hypertext and index search function that allows easy access to
descriptions of system functions.
The operating system supports local and global
data area objects that allow storage of up to 2,000 bytes of information.
Global data areas can be accessed and updated by various programs within a
single job or across jobs. A local data area can also be used to pass
information operating within a job or to programs the job has submitted to
batch. Data areas are also directly supported by some HLLs.
The operating system supports a call interface to
send and receive information from a data queue object. This is designed to
handle job-to-job communication with a high volume of requests.
The work management function eases the job of systems management by giving the operator control of the activities of a job and of its performance characteristics. Work management supports concurrent execution of batch jobs, interactive jobs, and non-conversational transactions on the system. Each job is protected from other jobs on the system; however, job-to-job communication is allowed.
Different levels of interfaces to work management
allow users to operate with the system defaults or tailor specific functions.
Automatic tailoring of the execution environment to the CPU model, size of main
storage, and configured devices can be done using an option. This
automatically-established execution environment should provide good performance
for many installations, although better performance may be achieved in some
installations by explicitly changing some of the execution environment
Save is the capability of making a backup copy of objects or members on tape, diskette, or online save file. Restore is the capability to copy saved objects back to the original or a different system. The OS/400 save/restore functions are designed to ease the job of systems management.
Saves can be done by library, object, changed object, or for all auxiliary storage, without regard to library or object contents. The system is available when saving documents and folders during normal operations; however, documents being updated during the save process are not saved.
"Save while active" enables objects to be saved while they are being used by applications. The system ensures the entire object saved to the save media is consistent with the status of the object when the save operation was initiated. However, it is the user's responsibility to establish an application synchronization point either by temporarily quiescing the application for the time required to initiate the save operation or using journal/commit for all processes which impact any objects related to the save operation.
Copying to a save file allows an unattended,
off-shift save with a subsequent copy to media when the system operator is
Remote or Timed IPL
Key to convenient system management is the
capability to power on the system manually or automatically, at a specific time
of day, and from a remote location. Power down of the system can be done by a
command executed interactively or under program control.
Multiple Concurrent Tasks at the Same Work Station
Up to 16 different functions can be active as a
result of a single sign-on to a work station. To switch from one function to
another requires pressing an "interrupt" key and then selecting a new
function from a menu. This can significantly increase the productivity of users
who perform a variety of tasks of short duration (for example, interrupting an
order entry application to switch to an unrelated inquiry application to answer
a telephone request). It is also possible to sign on to the same workstation a
second time and have two different sessions active, with up to 16 active
functions in the second session.
A user can manually collect system performance data for a single time period or automatically collect data on a weekly schedule using a set of commands/menus. This systems management function provides data to assist the user in workload scheduling, system tuning, performance reporting, performance-problem analysis, and capacity planning. The user can also work with this data using the Performance Tools/400 licensed program.
In addition, PM/400, a no-charge licensed program automatically shipped with OS/400, can be used to help plan for and manage the growth and performance of the system. It gathers performance measurement information and produces trend reports to help the customer decide when a hardware upgrade is warranted. Additional analysis of PM/400 data is provided by IBM for a fee.
For example, the data provided by PM/400 can
provide the information necessary to tune the system, schedule jobs, manage the
overnight workload, and by using the trending data the customer can determine
when a resource constraint will occur. The customer can then manage the system
so as to provide consistent service levels to their end users.
The copy facility copies data from one file to
another. The files may be input from the database, tape, or diskette and be
output to the database, tape, diskette or printer. Various options control
format and record selection.
OS/400 Query Support
Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of queries for selection to execute or delete and to display a list of files available to query.
Some query capability is provided directly by
OS/400. It includes processing database files, default output formatting, and
windowing left and right for results that exceed the width of the screen.
Extensive query capability is available with Query/400 (5763-QU1) licensed
program and DB2/400 Query Manager and SQL Development Kit (5763-ST1) licensed
OS/400 Data File Utility (DFU) Support
Applications may use OS/400 functions to display a list of DFU programs to select for execution, and to display a list of files available to DFU. Some data entry capability is provided directly in OS/400. Functions include processing non-join database files, default selection of fields and record formats, and default audit log listing.
OS/400 V3R1 and V3R6 releases provide comparable function. V3R6 builds on the function of V3R1, providing a foundation for future growth with PowerPC Technology. Leading-edge customers will want to take advantage of V3R6 for development of object-oriented programming, multimedia, openness, and distributed systems solutions.
For many V3R1 customers, the AS/400 Advanced Series continues to provide the excellent price/performance they expect with the AS/400 system. AS/400 Advanced Application Architecture provides the support necessary for observable programs developed on prior releases to be automatically translated the first time they are used on V3R6. Thus, your investment is protected and your applications can continue to evolve.
AS/400 system resources are provided for client/server solutions via:
FSIOP as an Ethernet or Token-Ring LAN adapter
Novell NetWare 4.10 support
Native system support for IPX/SPX, APPC, TCP/IP, APIs
Novell NetWare Support
AS/400 solutions for Local Area Networks (LANs) include the integration of the AS/400 system and the popular Novell NetWare PC file, print and application serving solutions for LANs. NetWare support is provided in these no-charge OS/400 features:
Network Extensions provides open networking via
native IPX/SPX communications support and Host Print Transform support.
Integration Services for FSIOP
Integration Services for FSIOP allows the FSIOP to function as an Ethernet or Token-Ring LAN adapter and provides a platform for selected IBM workgroup applications or network operating systems such as NetWare.
Network Extensions is not required for LAN
Server/400, which has integrated communications and file serving support.
OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare
OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare provides support for installing customer-supplied NetWare 4.10 on the FSIOP.
Network Extensions (separately-orderable feature of OS/400)
This OS/400 feature includes: IPX/SPX Communications and Host Print Transform, which are described under Communications Facilities and Print Support, respectively.
Integration Services for FSIOP (separately-orderable feature of OS/400)
With this OS/400 feature, the FSIOP can be used as an Ethernet and/or Token-Ring LAN adapter as well as a platform for integrating IBM specified server and groupware applications that run on the FSIOP.
After installation, a customer is able to configure and vary on an FSIOP that can be used as a LAN adapter to run APPC, TCP/IP or IPX protocols. For example, customers with the separately-licensed program, Client Access/400 Family, could connect to the AS/400 system through the FSIOP in the same way that they connect using a Token-Ring or Ethernet adapter.
To obtain the full function of the FSIOP as a file server or groupware application server, the customer must install the relevant server or groupware application.
An Integration Services for FSIOP feature is required for each FSIOP on an AS/400 system. For example, if you have two FSIOPs on one AS/400 system, you need two Integration Services for FSIOP features.
Network Extensions is a prerequisite for Integration Services for FSIOP support.
OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare (separately-orderable feature of OS/400)
With this OS/400 feature, you can run NetWare 4.10 on the FSIOP. It allows the AS/400 disk to be used for NetWare file serving, extending the AS/400 system's disk reliability, RAID-5 and mirroring capabilities to NetWare users. You can consolidate your AS/400 and NetWare servers into a single hardware platform. Also, NetWare data on the AS/400 disk can be saved and restored to AS/400 removable media devices.
Note that, unlike LAN Server/400, OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare does not include the NetWare server software or license. You can retain the advantage of existing relationships with your NetWare distributor for purchase or upgrade to NetWare 4.10. You also can transfer existing NetWare licenses to the AS/400 system if required. Licenses must be upgraded to NetWare 4.10.
NetWare 4.10 (purchased from a NetWare distributor) is installed from a PC using Windows 3.1. PC diskettes are provided to install IBM-provided function. A PC CD-ROM drive is required for installation of NetWare 4.10.
An OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare feature is required for each FSIOP on an AS/400 system where NetWare 4.10 will be installed. For example, if two FSIOPs are running NetWare 4.10 on one AS/400 system, two OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare features are needed.
NetWare 4.10 licenses must be acquired from authorized NetWare distributors. Each FSIOP is licensed as a separate server.
Network Extensions and Integration Services for FSIOP are prerequisites for OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare support.
Lotus Notes is the leading client/server platform for developing and deploying groupware applications that help organizations to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate strategic business processes within and beyond their organizational boundaries to achieve improved business results.
Lotus Notes Release 4 includes e-mail and messaging, based on a scalable and manageable infrastructure. The Notes Mail user interface is based on the cc: Mail user interface and takes advantage of the Notes Release 4 server enhancements including usability, mobility, and replication capabilities.
Lotus Notes Release 4 provides a rich application development environment including facilities to support and enable workflow applications, electronic mail, document data storage and replication, and an integrated address book. Also included is administration support to allow users to share, track, store, access, and view data of any type in Notes databases.
Lotus Notes on the FSIOP is provided in two OS/400 package offerings:
IBM OS/400 Integration Base Pak for Lotus Notes provides the software necessary to install a single Notes Release 4 server running on an AS/400 FSIOP. A Notes Release 4 client is also included, which runs on a standard desktop computer. Running the Notes Release 4 server on an FSIOP allows you to take advantage of hardware consolidation, server management, user administration, reliable DASD, and communications support.
The Base Pak includes:
IBM OS/400 Integration Enhanced Pak for Lotus Notes provides enhanced installation of a single Notes Release 4 server on the AS/400 FSIOP. In addition to the advantages of the Base Pak, the Enhanced Pak adds DB2 integration function and ADSM server and client for backup/recovery of individual server files.
The Enhanced Pak includes:
IBM OS/400 Integration of Lotus Notes provides:
Installation support of the Lotus Notes Release 4 OS/2 server from a LAN-attached PC to a dedicated FSIOP environment.
Administrative capability to manage the Notes server on the FSIOP by executing Notes server commands from an OS/400 command line.
Shadowing of the AS/400 System Distribution Directory (SDD) entries to the Notes Name and Address Book residing on the FSIOP provides enhanced user profile management.
Remote PC dial-in access to Notes applications through supported AS/400 communications adapters and connection with an FSIOP-based Notes server. This is provided with TCP/IP SLIP and appropriate communications hardware support installed. Using AS/400 remote PC capabilities replaces the need to have dedicated communication ports on the FSIOP for Notes' users, thereby consolidating remote and mobile configurations on the AS/400.
Client Access/400 Family Connectivity via X.25 PAD
This is an attractive solution for customers using X.25 Packet Assembler / Disassembler (PAD) switching with large numbers of individual remote geographically dispersed PCs, who need to connect to the AS/400 system for terminal emulation or file transfer/mail type of functions. Many customers choose X.25 as their WAN connectivity solution of choice due to tariffing costs and the stability of the X.25 network technology and standards. With X.25 the system administrator can manage concurrent remote PCs via a single X.25 line versus many ASCII controllers/lines/modems. This reduces customer cabling complexity and external modem management while providing the additional error recovery built into an X.25 network.
X.25 PAD, together with Client Access/400 Family, offers the data reliability of SNA, the connectivity, flexibility, and availability of X.25 networking, along with all of the functional capabilities of Client Access/400 Family, Windows 3.1 client.
Network Coexistence with Client Access/400 Family
The NetWare client requesters provided by the Novell Corporation and Client Access/400 Family clients can be used concurrently.
Internet Connection Support for AS/400
Network computing is a computing paradigm for which the network is the computer. For the AS/400, network computing is supported with Internet Connection. Internet Connection support provides an AS/400 system with access to a vast network of computers (AS/400 systems and other types of computers) as if they were a single entity. Network computing will mean that everyone and everything can access and distribute information, applications, and services provided by the network. AS/400 users can utilize the latest technology, reduce or eliminate many geographic barriers, exploit the Internet for their companies, and enable new ways of doing business, including "electronic marketing."
Internet Connection support for the AS/400 system provides:
WebConnection support for OS/400
WebConnection support for OS/400 provides a common protocol for support of multiple vendor products on the World Wide Web (WWW):
WWW Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) Server provides a business with the ability to market their products on the Internet or to communicate information internally with their existing AS/400 system.
5250/Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Workstation Gateway (WSG) server automatically transforms current AS/400 5250 applications to HTML for display on Web browsers.
(Refer to the Network Enhancements section for additional information.)
SLIP asynchronous communication connections that allow inexpensive, limited bandwidth access to the WWW and Internet
Anonymous FTP support that provides access to selected portions of data on the AS/400 system that the public can access without a password or user identification
Direct database serving to Web browsers allows DB2 for OS/400 data to be queried and served (with graphics, if desired) to a Web browser. Programming support requires current DB2 for OS/400 and HTML programming skills. This DB2 for OS/400 access from Web browsers is known generically across the IBM Internet Connection Family as DB2WWW (SBCS only).
Logging of WWW Server access, which provides feedback on the most accessed portions of the company's WWW offerings.
Refer to Software Announcement 295-251, dated June 21, 1995, for details on the WebConnection for OS/400 service offering.
AnyMail Server Enhancements
AnyMail server enhancements provide the support necessary for directly attaching Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) clients to the AS/400 system and completes the basic OS/400 AnyMail functional capabilities.
POP3 is a very popular Internet standard for access to mail servers by mail clients. POP3 mail clients are available from various vendors for client platforms such as OS/2, Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX. With the addition of POP3 support, the AnyMail framework can exchange mail between OfficeVision for OS/400 and POP3 clients.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is the defacto standard for mail interoperability. It is required for OS/400 mail exchange with Lotus Notes and will provide the POP3 and OfficeVision for OS/400 clients with the capability to send mail to other MIME users on the Internet. (DBCS - Japanese only for mail exchange with OV/400. POP3 server places no restrictions on character sets for mail exchanged between POP3 clients).
Client/Server Product Positioning
NetWare Support and NetWare provide NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) application and file serving capabilities
PC file server
NetWare support on the AS/400 system offers
competitive advantages when compared to the installation, administration, and
maintenance of other client/server solutions involving multiple PC servers.
Controlled AS/400 access
Administrators can partition
off a selected amount of DASD for NetWare users to access and share PC data.
OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare does not provide any direct capability to
use other AS/400 resources.
Client Access/400 Family and OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare are complementary
OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare provides PC file, print and application serving.
Client Access/400 Family provides full-function client/serving to users running PC applications, AS/400 applications, and emerging cooperative applications in a wide area network. Client Access/400 Family provides DB2/400 database access, print serving, multiple connections and protocols, 5250 emulation, and PC file serving.
LAN Resource Extension and Services/400 (LANRES/400) (No Longer Available as of May 24, 1996.)
LANRES/400 facilitates integration of AS/400 and PC-based NetWare servers by providing the following five functions:
Both LAN Server/400 and NetWare support provide PC file serving capabilities running on the FSIOP. NetWare support additionally provides application serving (NLMs) and LAN print serving.
The two products are packaged differently. LAN Server/400 includes the license for the server programs. With NetWare support, the customer purchases the server license from a Novell distributor.
LAN Server/400 offers a tighter integration with the AS/400 system and thus requires a lower level of LAN skills for implementation and support. For AS/400 customers who want to add file serving capability to their AS/400 network, but do not currently have a PC-based server, LAN Server/400 is recommended.
Integrated DB2 Relational Database
DB2/400 is fully integrated into the OS/400 operating system software. It is not a separate product. DB2/400 offers state of the art database functions and open-systems, standards based technology, while providing the maturity, stability, and ease of use that has become the trademark of the AS/400 system.
The AS/400 system can be used for both traditional, transaction processing and decision support and data warehousing applications. Advanced parallel processing and advanced query optimization techniques support queries of large decision support databases.
An integrated AS/400 database offers many advantages. As an integrated part of OS/400, DB2/400 is installed with the system providing automatic bring up and recovery functions when the system is IPLed. Integration also allows the database commands and display interfaces to have a look and feel that is consistent with the rest of the system. For example, database objects are automatically included as part of the system-wide cross reference facilities and the basic system administration commands for save, restore, security, and object management can be used to administer the database. This allows the database to exploit new system functions and hardware for improved availability, recovery, security, concurrency, and performance as they are introduced.
Conformance to industry database standards, advanced functions, and distributed data capabilities with supporting performance allows DB2/400 to operate equally well with centralized database applications, or as the database server in complex heterogeneous client/server networks. DB2/400's unique combination of function and reliability make the AS/400 the ideal database server for many customers' needs.
Basic Description of DB2/400
DB2/400 is a relational database by design but
may be viewed by users in terms of either a relational model or a file model,
depending on choice of interface. Those choosing the relational model see
tables and views while those using the file model see physical and logical
files. The data resides in tables or physical files but may be seen in
different sequences, with omissions or additions in logical views. Productivity
of doing program maintenance is increased because programs that use a logical
view of the data need not change when the physical data is updated.
Files can be defined using data description
specifications (DDS), interactive data definition utility (IDDU), or DB2/400
Query Manager and SQL Development Kit (a separate licensed program, 5763-ST1).
The file definitions can be used by a variety of functions on the system,
including utilities and HLL programs. Database also allows a record-level definition
of a file, enabling HLL programs to provide the field definitions when the file
is processed. Files, including multiple record types defined only to the record
level on the system, can be defined at a field level using IDDU. Utilities such
as Data File Utility (DFU) and Query can process the file, minimizing the
System/36 migration effort. These utilities are available as separate licensed
programs: DFU in Application Development ToolSet/400 (5763-PW1); Query in
Query/400 (5763-QU1). System/38 versions of these utilities are available in
AS/400 System/38 Utilities (5763-DB1).
Access paths may be defined for files to allow access in either keyed or arrival sequence order. Access paths are maintained when a change to the data occurs, allowing multiple users to be immediately aware of changes in the database and to access the current information in their required sequence.
DDS can define a field reference file, a form of data dictionary, that describes the attributes of all data fields for use by multiple applications. It contains all attributes and descriptive information about the data. The field reference file ensures consistency in field names and defined attributes, resulting in significant benefits to application design, maintenance, standardization, and programmer productivity.
The database supports record additions, updates,
deletions, initialization, and reorganization. A full range of processing
options is available for HLL programs such as sequential or random access (by
key or relative record number), and retrieval of next and previous record. Many
database functions can be described dynamically and performed externally to the
HLL program, thus maximizing programmer productivity.
Distributed Database Support
OS/400 supports distributed relational database, SQL, and a wide range of data types, including date and time. This support allows read and write access from an AS/400 system to another AS/400 system or to any other DB2 family member.
The CPI for database is Structured Query Language (SQL). Customer investment in data is protected by this distributed support, which allows data connectivity across platforms. Interactive access to distributed database is possible using the prompted facilities of interactive SQL (ISQL). Both are available in separate licensed program DB2/400 Query Manager and SQL Development Kit (5763-ST1).
Distributed file access between an AS/400 system, CICS, PCs, System/36, and System/38 is also available using Distributed Data Management, included in OS/400. This support allows access to remote files by applications using file and database interfaces.
The SQL Client Integration API allows providers of gateways and client/server solutions to integrate their products with DB2/400. Many AS/400 customers have the need for applications that not only access DB2/400 data, but also access data on other databases platforms such as Oracle or Sybase.
Existing DB2/400 SQL applications, including
applications using Client Access for OS/400 SQL interfaces, can be easily
modified with this API to perform database requests on other databases. The
data is returned to the application for processing as if it had come from
DB2/400. With this support, the programmer's interface is the same whether
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) or the SQL Client
Integration API is used.
National Language Capability
Data in multiple national languages may reside in the same table and be accessed across the distributed database platforms.
Additional Features of DB2/400
File- and database-oriented interfaces
The same copy of data may be shared by
applications using file and database interfaces. This data sharing, along with
the data mapping features of views and logical files, reduces the need for
redundant copies of data.
Structured Query Language (SQL) Standards Conformance
Supplies the industry standard database access
language for consistent data access across heterogeneous platforms, conforming
to the IBM SQL Version 1, ANSI X3.135.1992, ISO 9075-1992 and FIPS 127-2
standards. Support is provided for embedded static, dynamic, and extended
Declarative referential integrity
Provides SQL database integrity support intrinsic
to the database, eliminating the need to code integrity constraints into each
application program. This support ensures database consistency by preventing
conflicting data from being entered into the database.
Journal entries (i.e., records of database
changes) can be searched and viewed interactively, and may be retrieved by a
user program for further processing or analysis. This can lead to improved
security and/or database integrity and is also an important component or open
access to the database.
Individual records (i.e., records) are locked
from simultaneous, conflicting access as appropriate to the type of processing
being done. Using commitment control, the user can define a group of records
all of whose locks are held until the user application declares a
multiple-change transaction complete.
Data is automatically distributed over all
available disk units within a set defined by the user. This can improve the
performance of applications that make heavy use of a single database file or
Provides the ability to distribute the
application workloads between clients and servers. The ability to split an
application program by executing the processing logic on the server and the
presentation logic on the client can provide increased performance over
traditional requester access. These improvements can be dramatic for
applications requiring intermediate processing of data, which can be performed
at the server locally, instead of remotely at the client.
Provides for automatic program/procedure
execution, based on user-specified rules, before and/or after database
The Outer Join function is another SQL standard
compliant function that can improve both query performance and function.
Performance is enhanced with a syntax that allows SQL users to specify outer
joins or exception joins, thus reducing the number of queries required. A NULL
field is now returned when a file query does not find records that meet the
join criteria. This allows users to develop and use more efficient reports.
The Alter Table function enhances database administration while improving SQL standards conformance. This function allows the user to add a column, drop a column, or change a column's attributes for an existing database table.
End-user productivity can be greatly enhanced
with this standard conforming function for database changes and administration.
Both SQL and native interfaces are provided.
X/Open Call Level Interface to SQL
Support of the X/Open standard for an SQL Call Level Interface (CLI) allows users to easily access DB2 for OS/400 SQL functions directly from high-level languages (HLL) without performing an SQL precompile. This standard CLI support also allows SQL access from languages such as C++ that currently do not have another SQL interface or precompiler.
The X/Open standard CLI is supported on several
other database platforms, which makes SQL application portability to and from
the DB2 for OS/400 platform even easier.
Two-phase commit transaction management
Allows applications to access multiple
heterogeneous databases simultaneously in complex client/server and peer to
peer environments using APPC sync point protocols.
Provides automatic data replication facilities in
distributed DATABASE 2 family environments. Local shadow copies of a
master database are automatically updated at specified intervals.
System-wide Database Catalog
Allows applications to query information
concerning all objects on a system using a single system catalog, instead of
requiring separate catalog accesses for each SQL collection.
Multiple-level concurrency control
Provides read stability, cursor stability,
uncommitted read, and no commit isolation levels with row-level locking to
support large numbers of users in complex application scenarios.
National Language Support (NLS)
Allows customers to interact with DB2/400 and store data in their preferred language, character set, and sort sequence. The ability to store double-byte graphic characters and compare data in different character sets is also provided.
High Performance Database Server
The high performance AS/400 Advanced Server and improvements in communication performance combine to strengthen the position of the AS/400 system as a high performance database server. In addition, DB2/400 offers enhanced performance for both centralized and distributed client/server database access, making the AS/400 the database server of choice for many computing needs. The following DB2/400 functions are available to enhance application performance:
Advanced SQL optimizer
Converts SQL requests into optimally efficient
database access methods using proven mathematical rules as well as query
specific cost estimates. Optimal performance is maintained over time by the
automatic rebind feature, which redetermines access methods based upon changes
to the database objects and statistics.
Examines and reports the access method used by
individual SQL queries. The output can be examined to determine whether the
access method generated for the query could be improved by query and/or
Multiple isolation levels
Four record locking options are available to fine tune application performance:
Read Stability (*ALL) locks all rows read during transaction and maintains locks until the transaction ends.
Cursor Stability (*CS) maintains locks on the current and previously changed rows only, which can offer increased performance for multiple applications contending for the same rows.
Uncommitted Read (*CHG) offers higher performance by not acquiring or examining database locks for read-only operations.
No Commit (*NONE) provides the highest performance of the four isolation levels, by not examining locks and disabling transaction management: the ability to either COMMIT or ROLLBACK a transaction.
Block INSERT and FETCH
Provides applications with the ability to store
and retrieve arrays of data directly, instead of one row at a time.
Automatic record blocking
Improves client/server performance by returning
rows to the client in blocks rather than individually. Subsequent record access
of the current block can then be performed locally at the client without
accessing the server. This ability is now provided for all isolation levels.
Parallel data access
Queries returning or requiring DB2/400 to process
large amounts of data require significant I/O activity. Due to the AS/400's
single-level store architecture, this data is often spread across many physical
devices. The parallel data access feature now allows multiple internal DB2/400
tasks to be activated for each physical device, allowing DB2/400 to transfer
data from disk to memory faster than with the previous single task I/O
Long-running queries can have negative performance effects for other users of a database. The governor facility allows a time limit to be set for a query, so as to avoid a single query from consuming unusually large amounts of resources, negatively affecting the performance of other users. Before the query is started, its run time is estimated, and if the estimate exceeds the specified time limit, the query is not started.
Ease of Use and Management
The AS/400's reputation for usability and maintainability is unsurpassed in the industry. This is due in part to the tight integration of OS/400 and DB2/400. Users do not have to learn separate operating system and database functions, nor are they burdened with maintaining the complex interfaces between multiple layers of software. In addition to seamless integration, a rich set of utilities continue to be provided for easy management of DB2/400 databases. Some of these utilities include:
Online backup and restore
Allows database maintenance to be performed while
users are accessing and changing the database, providing around-the-clock
Object level recovery
Allows restoration of a single file when
necessary; it is not necessary to restore the entire database to
"fix" a single file.
Roll forward and backward recovery
Allows database changes made after the last
backup to be reapplied after a restore, or recent changes to be backed out if
the database needs to be returned to a specific state. This can be done for a
specific user, time, or job.
Maintains a record of database changes such as
the user, program, and job making the change.
Performance tuning and trace
Analyzes processor and disk workloads for improved performance. The integrated nature of the database allows the entire system to be tuned - not only the database.
Open Standards-Based Interoperability
Support for client/server environments has been greatly enhanced by incorporating popular database standards and transmission protocols. DB2/400 provides support for:
ANSI X3.135.1992, ISO 9075-1992, and FIPS 127-2 Structured Query Language (SQL)
IBM's Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) Distributed Unit of Work - Application Directed
Microsoft's Open Database Connection (ODBC)
Apple's Data Access Language (DAL)
X/Open's Call Level Interface (CLI)
Supported transmission protocols for the AS/400 include:
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC)
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN)
This support allows customers to exploit the maturity and stability of the AS/400 database server with a wide range of client applications running on OS/2, DOS, Windows, AIX, and Apple workstations.
Industry-Leading Application Support
Over 20,000 commercially available AS/400 application solutions take advantage of the power, flexibility, and ease of use of the DB2/400 database manager. These applications are written for a wide range of industries and users: from the small business with base accounting needs to the large corporation with complex computing environments. Over 3,000 client/server applications are available, including SAP R/3.
In addition, DB2/400's support of popular database standards combined with the AS/400 system support of popular transmission protocols makes the wide range of client applications running on UNIX, OS/2, DOS, and Windows workstations immediately available. Support of popular transmission protocols allows customers to exploit the client/server environment while protecting their investments in hardware and software from multiple vendors.
The DB2/400 product is integrated directly into the OS/400 operating system. It includes all the support necessary for new and existing database applications to run on the AS/400 system.
Application development facilities are provided in the optional DB2/400 Query Manager and SQL Development Kit, the next evolution of the SQL/400 product. This product includes Query Manager, an interactive panels and query builder for user-developed report generation, and Interactive SQL, a prompted interface for running and testing SQL queries. For the application developer, the SQL Development Kit provides SQL precompilers and tools to assist in developing custom SQL applications in languages such as C, RPG, COBOL, REXX, and PL/1. Once created, the applications and queries can be run on any AS/400 system.
Client support is provided in the IBM Client Access/400 Family product. This product provides support for OS/2, Windows, and DOS clients.
Support for the Personal Computer (PC)
OS/400 provides the platform for a distributed client serving environment. DB2/400 database access is supported from the following popular client database interfaces:
Integrated File System (IFS)
The Integrated File System (IFS) allows libraries/objects, folders/documents, or LAN Server/400 file system data to be accessed in a consistent manner. A separate subsystem can be allocated specifically for file serving, and a set of commands are provided to make it easy to move one's PC data from the folders directory (ie, shared folders) to the "root" file system directory. The major benefits for using the new file system directory are increased performance over shared folders and providing system users easier access to PC information.
IFS integrates the existing AS/400 library/objects, folders/documents, and shared folders into a single hierarchical name space and file system with simple command interfaces for file management and improved levels of performance. New OS/400 file systems include:
The Integrated File System supports a set of industry standard APIs to the byte stream file system and the hierarchical directory. The APIs provide a common directory for existing objects and extended attributes supporting PC file systems. Examples of byte stream file system objects on the system are: documents and byte stream files. Examples of hierarchical directory objects on the system are: libraries/contexts, folders and directories. IFS is compatible with and can co-exist with previous releases.
Integrated File System (IFS) and selected Industry Standards
IFS and selected standards provide portability and interoperability functions that support the integration of the entire customer enterprise in a heterogeneous networked environment. The challenge of implementation is accomplished through the traditional AS/400 strengths such as ease of use, security and system integrity. The customer's investments in existing systems, networks, applications, data and people are preserved.
The AS/400 system provides support for source code portability of many OS/2, DOS, NT and UNIX based applications over a wide variety of systems by providing a set of standard interfaces between applications and operating system functions. With V3R1, the AS/400 system supports over 70% of the POSIX 1003.1 APIs. Together with BSD Sockets, TCP/IP and UNIX Spec 1170 support, we have nearly doubled UNIX C portability to the AS/400. With V3R1, the AS/400 system complies with selected elements of:
To enhance application program distribution and data interchange on the AS/400 system, unlabeled 1/4" and 8mm tape media have been added. The tape media is compatible with POSIX, XPG, and UNIX support.
DB2 Multisystem for OS/400, can be ordered as a priced feature of OS/400 V3R2.
The AS/400 system and DB2 Multisystem for OS/400 provide a scalable solution for data warehousing that spans from the smallest datamart to the largest enterprise data warehouse. DB2 Multisystem for OS/400 will allow multiple AS/400 systems to be connected to allow the processing power and storage capacity of all of the systems to be used. From a database perspective, these interconnected AS/400 systems will appear as a single, large system. For more details on Data Warehousing, refer to Software Announcement 295-420, dated October 10, 1995.
DB2 Multisystem for OS/400 is intended for large data warehouse installations. Key to the successful implementation of a multisystem data warehouse is a good understanding of data partitioning, the performance characteristics of the query or data mining application, and the configuration of the systems and network.
In order to insure that DB2 Multisystem achieves your objectives, a product support team has been established to review your objectives and your planned installation.
Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner to initiate this required review before ordering DB2 Multisystem for OS/400.
Data Mining is a key technology in allowing a business to take full advantage of the information that is hidden in their data. Data Mining is the automated discovery of useful information held within large amounts of transaction data. People will no longer have to go searching for that one piece of information that allows an exact target market to be identified.
Data Mining is different from decision support in one fundamental way. When using a decision support product, the user formulates a query in hopes that the query will return useful information. If the query doesn't specifically ask for a piece of information, it is not returned to the user. Data Mining solves this problem by finding the important information with little user involvement.
IBM recently announced the IBM Intelligent Miner. This product combines all of IBM's data mining technology into a single product that runs using AS/400 Advanced Series systems to mine the hidden information from data.
See Hardware and Software Requirements.
For OS/400 V3R1, the minimum disk storage will range from 275MB to 500MB depending on the options selected and code compression. For OS/400 licensed programs and licensed internal code, the disk storage requirements will range from 375MB to 600MB.
For OS/400 V3R2, the minimum disk storage will range from 300MB to 575MB depending on the options selected and code compression. For OS/400 licensed programs and licensed internal code, the disk storage requirements will range from 425MB to 700MB.
These disk storage ranges should be used for reference only. To plan system requirements, refer to "AS/400 New Release Planning" manual (SA41-3100) and the "AS/400 Software Installation Guide" (SC41-3120) for detailed information regarding auxiliary storage requirements.
The OS/400 V3R2 licensed program supports all AS/400 systems except PowerPC technology models (4xx and 5xx models).
AS/400 Advanced Series: A 32MB memory (minimum) to a 64MB memory (recommended) FSIOP is required for each Lotus Notes Release 4 server on an AS/400 system.
The approximate amount of disk storage on the AS/400 system to support a primary language is 105MB for each OS/400 Integration of Lotus Notes server, plus 96MB for each FSIOP installed. Each secondary language requires 60MB for OS/400 Integration of Lotus Notes server and 45MB for Integration Services for FSIOP. The amount of disk storage on the AS/400 system to support installation of the ADSM for AS/400 - OS/2 Backup-Archive Client and the Lotus Notes - Backup Agent on the FSIOP is included in the 105MB estimate.
DataPropagator DB2 Integration requires 10MB per system. ADSM server requires 50MB per system.
For Notes databases and applications, a minimum of 200MB is needed; however, 500MB is recommended.
Disk requirements for Lotus Notes user requirements and databases should also be addressed during installation planning.
Communications Dial-In Support
PCs with TCP/IP SLIP and a 9600 bps or faster modem can dial-in to supported AS/400 communications adapters and connect with an FSIOP-based Notes server via Integrated Services for FSIOP and Integration for Lotus Notes. Integrated Services for FSIOP supports the Notes server with the OS/2 NetBIOS communication function and TCP/IP.
The FSIOP's LAN ports can be any mix of Ethernet and token ring. TCP/IP SLIP support requires an EIA-232/V.24 adapter on a six-line communications controller or multifunction IOP in D, E, F, and all Advanced Series models except in 9404 Models D10 and D20, and 9402 Models D04 and D06, which require a six-line communications controller.
Installation of Lotus Notes Release 4 requires an approved PC platform be either token ring or Ethernet LAN attached directly to the FSIOP (no bridges or routers) with these minimum requirements: access to a CD-ROM drive or 3.5-inch diskette reader (to support Notes installation), 3.5-inch diskette reader (to load Enhanced Integration for Lotus Notes base installation), LAN adapter card (to attach to a LAN supported by the FSIOP), display, and keyboard.
The OS/400 V3R1 licensed program supports all CISC (IMPI) models of the AS/400 system.
For V3R1, a minimum of 600MB of disk storage is required for user data, applications, licensed programs, and licensed internal code.
Refer to "New Release Planning" (SA41-3100) and "Software Installation" (SC41-3120) for detailed information regarding auxiliary storage requirements.
Before installation of OS/400, refer to the "Memo to Users Version 3" (SC41-3011) shipped with OS/400 and available through your IBM representative.
The OS/400 install process for V3R2 allows supported programs to be provided with V3R1 and V3R2 release specifications. The install process maintains release level consistency without forcing reinstallation of all products. The install process monitors the release and modification levels, only products with enhancements based on release and modification levels need be installed. AS/400 Software Manufacturing continues to ship all products (V3R1 or V3R2 as appropriate) to the customer as generated from the AS/400 configuration order.
V3R2 can be directly installed over V3R1, V3R0.5, and V2R3. "Backup and Recovery - Advanced Guide" (SC41-3305).
Before installing OS/400 V3R2, refer to the "Memo to Users Version 3 Release 2" (SC41-3011).
To run Lotus Notes Release 4 server, the Integration Services for FSIOP and the Integration for Lotus Notes (both OS/400 features) are required for each FSIOP.
To support Integration for Lotus Notes, ADSM for AS/400 Version 2 Release 1 and DataPropagator for OS/400 must be installed on each AS/400 system with Lotus Notes on the FSIOP.
To support backup and recovery of Notes databases on the FSIOP, an ADSM backup/archive client running on a Notes server is required. If you want to back up smaller increments than an entire database, such as a document, the ADSM feature, Lotus Notes Backup Agent, is required in addition to the ADSM backup/archive client on each server.
If the FSIOP is used as a LAN card, the Integration Services for FSIOP, a feature of OS/400, is required for each FSIOP.
The installation documentation for Lotus Notes Release 4 provides information on Notes clients device requirements.
The approved software platform for installation of the OS/2-supported Version of Lotus Notes with Integration for Lotus Notes on the FSIOP is:
For information on the approved PC platforms for installation of the Lotus Notes Release 4 and Enhanced Integration for Lotus Notes, refer to the manual "OS/400 Integration of Lotus Notes" (SC41-3431).
DB2 for OS/400 Integration Administration Client Support is the user interface for database and FSIOP install functions.
The supported software platforms are:
All AS/400 system programs must be at the V3R1 level. V3R1 runs only on CISC (IMPI) models of the AS/400 system.
V3R1 can be directly installed over V3R0.5, V2R3 or V2R2.
Some OS/400 functions are separately-orderable OS/400 features, and some OS/400 functions are optionally-installable.
OS/400 provides upward object compatibility. OS/400 objects created by the user and saved on a prior CISC (IMPI) release may be restored and used on a V3R2 system. OS/400 objects created by the user and saved on a V3R6 release specifying a target release by using the command TGTRLS(V3R1M0) may be restored and used on a V3R2 system.
OS/400 provides downward object compatibility for V3R1, V3R0.5, and V2R3. Objects created by the user and saved specifying target release by using the command TGTRLS(V3R1M0) can be restored and used on a V3R6 system. For more details about current-release to previous-release support, refer to the appropriate chapter of the "Backup and Recovery - Advanced Guide" (SC41-3305).
Attention: Before installing OS/400 V3R2, refer to the "Memo to Users Version 3 Release 2" (SC41-3011).
OS/400 provides upward object compatibility. OS/400 objects created by the user and saved on a Version 1 or Version 2 system may be restored and used on a Version 3 Release 1 system.
OS/400 provides one release level of downward object compatibility. For more details about current release-to-previous release support, see the appropriate chapter of "Backup and Recovery - Basic" (SC41-3304).
Before installing OS/400 Version 3 Release 1, refer to the "Memo to Users Version 3" (SC41-3011) especially in the following instances:
For customers currently at Version 2 Release 2 and planning to install Version 3 Release 1, there are additional considerations to be aware of before installing the release. These considerations can be found in the following publications:
"AS/400 New Products Planning Information" for V2R3 (GA41-0007)
"Memo To Users--V2R3" (GC41-0140)
These publications should be ordered and read so that you can fully understand all the changes made in V2R3.
Central sites, business partners, and agents with only one AS/400 system that distributes software to, or must support, other AS/400 systems running OS/400 Version 2 Release 1 or later:
For those who distribute OS/400 objects such as programs and files:
Before deciding to install Version 3 Release 1,
see the information about current release-to-previous release support in the
appropriate chapter of "Backup and Recovery - Basic" (SC41-3304)
For those who distribute IBM PTFs:
The managing system ordering PTFs for the network must be at the same level or a higher level then any other system in the network.
The SNDNETF command can be
used to distribute PTF savefiles between AS/400 systems, regardless of the
release levels of the source and target systems.
Additional considerations if using SystemView(*) System Manager/400:
The managing system must be at the latest level (Version 3 Release 1) if any other systems in the network are to be at that level.
On a managing system at Version 3 Release 1, PTF savefiles in a "released" state are available if requested from another system at Version 1 Release 3, or later.
On a managing system at Version 3 Release 1, the CPYPTFSAVF command only handles PTFs at Version 2 Release 3 or later.
On a managing system at Version 3 Release 1, the SNDPTF command will distribute PTFs to other systems at Version 2 Release 2 or later.
Because a managing system at Version 3 Release 1 cannot fully support systems at Version 2 Release 1 or later (for distributing OS/400 objects and the CPYPTFSAVF support), another AS/400 system at a lower release level may be required.
Customers with users who are running Client Access/400:
Code that runs on the PC must all be at the same release level, including shared folder programs. Unpredictable results can occur if Client Access/400 functions are at different release levels.
OS/400 Support for Novell NetWare
AS/400 Advanced Series Requirements
The installation documentation for NetWare 4.10 provides the information on NetWare attached device requirements.
The approved software platforms for installation of NetWare 4.10 with Integration Services for FSIOP are:
DOS (and Microsoft** Windows**) Operating Systems
OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare supports
appropriately-configured hardware platforms supported with Microsoft DOS 6.2 or
IBM PC DOS 6.3 operating systems, Windows 3.1, IBM-approved OEM equivalents,
and later compatible releases.
DOS (and Microsoft Windows) Operating Systems (DBCS)
OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare supports appropriately-configured hardware platforms supported with IBM DOS Version J4.0, J4.0/V, J5.0, J5.0/V, and J6.1/V operating systems, as well as MS-Windows J3.0 and J3.1.
OS/400 Support for Novell NetWare
Installation of NetWare on the FSIOP is limited to NetWare 4.10. NetWare Loadable Modules (NLM's) which have dependencies on hardware that is not supported by an FSIOP, are not supported. For example, NLMs that support FAX or CDROM devices are not supported.
Tested devices/cards for IBM OS/400 Integration for Novell NetWare
| Sound Boards/Multi-Media Packages |
| Creative Labs(**) Sound Blaster(**) 16 Value(**) Addition |
| Sound Blaster Discovery CD(**) |
| REVEAL(**) CDQ300 |
| Media Vision(**) MV-3100 Super Deluxe |
| IDE CD-ROMs |
| Panasonic(**) MC579BP |
| Mitsumi(**) FX400 |
| Teac(**) SuperQuad(**) 4X |
| SCSI CD-ROM |
| SONY(**) CDU76S |
| Parallel Printer Port CD-ROM |
| MicroSolutions(**) backpack(**) External CD-ROM |
| PCMCIA Connect CD-ROMs
| Panasonic Portable PCMCIA 2X CD-ROM |
| Ethernet ISA LAN Cards |
| IBM Ethernet Adapter |
| 3COM(**) Etherlink(**) III Combo (3C509BCOMBO) |
| Intel(**) EtherExpress(**) FlashC |
| SMC(**) Elite(**) Ultra 16C BNC/AUI/10baseT |
| PROTEON(**) ProNET/E(**) P1370-XX |
| Eagle Technology(**) EP2000 Plus Combo |
| Ethernet MicroChannel LAN Cards |
| IBM Etherstreamer(TM) |
| Intel EtherExpress MCA TP |
| Allied Telesis Series 1720 Plus MCA (AT-1720BT) |
| International (**) |
| Ethernet PCI LAN Card |
| 3COM Etherlink III PCI Combo |
| Ethernet PCMCIA LAN Card |
| PROTEON ProNET/E 10BT/10B2 PCMCIA |
| Token-Ring ISA LAN Cards |
| IBM 16/4 Token-Ring ISA LAN Adapter |
| SMC Token-Card Elite |
| PROTEON ProNET-4/16 Plus Token-Ring ISA |
For information on the approved PC platforms for installation of NetWare 4.10 with NetWare Integration on the FSIOP, contact your IBM representative.
Refer the "Memorandum to AS/400 Users" (shipped with the machine readable material) for information necessary to plan the installation process, including estimation of the time required.
OS/400 CPA Toolkit
The OS/400 CPA Toolkit feature provides functions implemented to various drafts of the corresponding POSIX, XPG, and single UNIX specification standards. In future releases of OS/400, IBM will replace the CPA Toolkit functions with new implementations compliant with the approved versions of these standards. Applications written using these interfaces will require source code modification for upgrade to the new release and approved standards. These incompatibilities tend to be minor updates or simple replacements. Developers using these functions should monitor the appropriate standards bodies for new drafts and approved standards.
Initial support for the OS/2 client will be provided with Lotus Notes Release 4.1.
This program uses the security and auditability features of IBM Operating System/400. Usage of these facilities is optional. The security measures supplied by Operating System/400 are designed to reduce the risk of users changing or destroying resources, but do not prevent it. The Operating System/400 security features include the use of passwords, a security option to limit a user's ability to perform functions provided by customer-designed menus, and a security option to limit read/write access for files, libraries, and folders during normal operations. To achieve increased security, the Operating System/400 controls should be combined with physical security and a division of duties.
User management is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communication facilities.
(R), (TM), * Trademark or registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
** Company, product, or service name may be a trademark or service mark of others.
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited.